ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 40 No.2 April - June 2012


P.444-471

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Passive Sampling for Air Quality Monitoring

การเก็บตัวอย่างแบบพาสซีพสำหรับการตรวจคุณภาพอากาศ

Worawit Wongniramaikul

Passive sampling is a useful tool for environmental analysis as well as in the field of air quality monitoring. As its invention more than three decade ago, it is now widespread using for air pollutants monitoring around the world with various area ranging from private workplace exposure to global issues of climate change. It was developed and applied for various types of analytes of interest e.g. heavy metal, inorganic compounds and organic compounds. Since it consists of two types i.e. diffusion- and permeation-types with varieties of geometry and configurations such as radial, tube, badge and cartridge, the user has to select an appropriate one for their applications. Based on the difference in the pollutant concentration, they diffuse from the environment to collecting media in the device. Because of this, many meteorological factors e.g. wind speed, relative humidity, temperature could influence to collection efficiency and reliability. Thus, the users have to take account for these parameters, when passive sampler is employed. In this reviews, the applications of passive sampler for air quality monitoring were summarized by dividing into three categories according to their chemical properties i.e. heavy metal, inorganic and organic compounds. Environmental parameters have also been discussed.


P.515-523

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Analytic Solution of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

ผลเฉลยแม่นตรงของสมการเชิงอนุพันธ์ย่อยที่ไม่เชิงเส้น

ศิริรัตน์ สุขใส

In this article, we show the Hirota direct method to find exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. These solutions are call ‘soliton solution’. The Hirota direct method is the most famous one method which can construct multi-soliton solutions. And the Hirota method has four processes. The importance process is transforming nonlinear partial differential equations to Hirota bilinear form that can write in polynomial of D-operator. We have example of KdV equation for more understanding in the transforming nonlinear equations to bilinear form and find soliton solutions of this equation that we can find to three-soliton solutions.


P.486-498

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Photonic Crystal and GeSiSn Alloy

ผลึกแสงและโลหะผสม GeSiSn

ไพโรจน์ มูลตระกูล

Photonic crystals are periodic optical nanostructures which their dielectric are periodically arranged or designed to affect the motion of photons. Therefore, they have photonic band structures and photonic band gap which can be analogized to the energy band structures and energy band gap of semiconductors. The photonic band gap can control some photon frequencies to only propagate in some direction. Silicon photonics are photonic crystals which are made of silicon (the second most abundant element on the earth and non toxic) or alloys of Si, Ge and Sn. Therefore, optoelectronic devices which are made of silicon photonics is a new interesting idea by taking advantage of using knowledge about silicon technology to improve an efficiency of a calculation and information transferring.


P.472-485

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Synthesis of Magnetic Polymer Composite Particles

การสังเคราะห์อนุภาพคอมโพสิทของพอลิเมอร์กับสารแม่เหล็ก

ปรียาภรณ์ ไชยสัตย์

Magnetic polymer composite particle has received considerable attention due to their extensive applications in the fields of biomedicine, bioengineering and environment. This article summarizes recent works on various techniques used to prepare magnetic polymer composite particles. Possible shape of such materials particle is also briefly classified. The discussion focuses on three famous techniques which are coating method, interface deposition and monomer polymerization. Special notice is paid to fabrication mechanism and process of magnetic polymer composite particle with controlled shape, size and functional properties. The potential applications of magnetic polymer composite particles are briefly discussed as well.


P.331-345

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Depositional Environment of Chert Using Geochemical Analysis: Geotectonic Implication

สภาพแวดล้อมการสะสมตะกอนของหินเชิร์ตโดยการวิเคราะห์ทางธรณีเคมีเพื่อการประยุกต์ด้านธรณีแปรสัณฐาน

มงคล อุดชาชน

Rare earth and major element geochemical analysis of cherts has been proved to be auseful tool for determining the depositional environment of marine sediments. The result can be applied for basin evolution or geotectonics especially in the highly structural complex regions such as geosuture or subduction zone. REE analysis of cherts is widely used because of their immobility during diagenesis in comparison to most of major elements. Differences in REE compositions in cherts are generally related to continental and spreading ridge influences, so the proximity of the chert sequences to these environments can be obtained. By sedimentary process, the main source rocks for REEs from land were eroded and transported to the sea by rivers. Light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) are exhibit relatively equally, without apparent fractionation in river and shallow marine environments. However, anomalies of some REEs can be observed in sediments deposited in a relatively deeper environment, some distant from the continent. Additionally, the major elements, including Al, Ti and K are also derived mainly from land. However, Fe is more related to hydrothermal activity, mainly from spreading ridges. Only some major elements such as Al, Fe and Ti are relatively unaffected by the diagenetic fractionation process. Then these major elements have been used together with REEs in order to interpret depositional environment and the origin of cherts. The current study of this geochemical analysis of cherts in Thailand, including Late Devonian cherts from Loei and Middle Triassic cherts from the north, reveal continental margin environment. The results indicate that chert sequences in Thailand were deposited not only in pelagic but also continental margin. This conclusion is compatible with the current scenario of basin evolution and geotectonics in the regions.


P.346-355

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Endocrine Disrupting Chemical on Reptile's Effect

สารเคมีที่รบกวนระบบต่อมไร้ท่อและผลต่อสัตว์เลื้อยคลาน

ศรันย์ เกียรติมาลีสถิตย์

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the groups of synthetic chemicals that may interfere, mimic or inhibit the function of natural hormone. The chemicals can change in balance of hormone and adverse effect on organs development, reproductive system and immune system in both human and wildlife. Those synthetic chemicals which persist and transfer in food chain at ecosystem as known as EDCs for example aldrin and DDT had been extensively used for many decades until present; they had been legitimately banned in several countries for agricultural use and public health proposes. Many well-known literature reports EDCs presents several adverse effect on reptiles including sex reversal, sex steroid, and morphology malformation. Many studies of Lake Apopka, United State of America showed obviously the EDCs effects on sex reversal and population decline of American alligator Alligator mississippiensis. Also, in complex food web in which reptiles are less or equivalent to human on trophic level, they may be getting risk on EDCs adverse effects throughout the food web as same as consumers on higher trophic level.


P.356-365

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Biology of Terrestrial Snail Secretion and Application

ชีววิทยาของเมือกหอยทากและการใช้ประโยชน์

บังอร กองอิ้ม

The snail mucus is excreted from the cells in the epithelium of the skin, foot and body that call pedal mucus and viscous mucus, respectively. For the purpose of adhesive locomotion, mating, hunting, and maintain moisture in hibernation, especially a thin layer of pedal mucus is secreted for crawling. Whilst, the viscous mucus are a thick layer and high concentration excreted from body skin. The viscosity of mucus is highly depends on its bipolar ion content, which can vary between species and with the physiological condition of the animal. The rate of mucus excretion is controlled by neurohormone. Snail mucus consists of a liquid, and granules. The number of granules is directly proportional to the weight of the mucus. The major biochemical component of snail mucus is a complex glycoconjugates molecules contain sulfate sugar or carbohydrate chains, globular soluble proteins, uronic acid and oligoelements. The important role of antibiotic peptide such as mucin of the snail mucus exhibited positive antibacterial activity both for the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important to immune defense by acting not only as natural antibiotics but also stimulate many elements of the immune system, including barrier repair and inflammatory cell recruitment. Currently, there are many the applications of snail mucus in various industries, such as increased skin care products and glue proteins.


P.366-379

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Kefir: Fermented Milk from Various Microorganisms

คีเฟอร์ (บัวหิมะ): ผลิตภัณฑ์นมหมักจากจุลินทรีย์หลากชนิด

ศิริรัตน์ ดีศีลธรรม

Kefir is fermented milk drink produced by a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Acetobacter and Streptococcus spp.) and yeasts (Kluyveromyces, Candida, Torulopsis and Saccharomyces sp.) that produces slimy white or yellow-white grains. The most microorganisms in this are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeast. During the fermentation, both of microorganisms can provide several of compounds. Thus, kefir is enriched with lactic acid, vitamin, amino acid, carbon dioxide, acetonin, alcohol and essential oil which have shown to be healthful benefits. In addition, kefir can improve digestive balance and enhance of immune system.


P.380-395

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Synthetic Seeds: Basic Principles and Applications

เมล็ดเทียม: หลักการพื้นฐานและการประยุกต์ใช้

ปิยะพร แสนสุข

Encapsulation technology is interesting research in biotechnology and widely studies due to synthetic seeds were use in conservation and delivery of tissue cultured plants in commercial and economic importance. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating somatic embryos, shoot buds, axillary buds, protocorms or any other meristematic tissue with artificial endosperm and artificial seed coat to produce a new plant for reduce cost or delivery. Recently, hybrid plants, transgenic plants, endanger plants, economic plants, rare plants, cereals, fruits and medicinal plants were used for synthetic seeds. Therefore, this review provides both basic principles and applications of synthetic seeds.


P.396-407

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DNA Barcodes: A New Tool for Biological Identifications?

ดีเอ็นเอบาร์โค้ด: เครื่องมือใหม่สำหรับการระบุชนิดทางชีวภาพ?

โองการ วณิชาชีวะ

DNA barcode is a new concept that applies gene or universal DNA sequences differences to support classification of organisms. At present, there has been collaboration between various institutions around the world to create a database of DNA barcode of life. DNA barcode can be applied to the biological diversity in a variety of different dimensions. However, the application of DNA barcodes still has several limitations, for example universal DNA sequences or standardized nucleotide sequences, acquisition of a life and limited of database. In conclusion, DNA barcode is just a tool that assists to support the existence of life which necessary come together with other methods to identify biological specimens are more reliable.


P.408-422

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The Light and Biotic Response in Animals in the Periods of Climate Change

แสงกับการตอบสนองทางชีวภาพของสัตว์ในช่วงเวลาของการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ

สิทธิศักดิ์ ปิ่นมงคลกุล

Day light has direct effects to physiological changes and animal behaviors of the current climate change. The study use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative experimental study that shows the preeminent role of light in determining fitness in seasonal environments. Seasonally appropriate times, light initiates a cascade of physiological events mediating the input and interpretation of day length to the output of specific hormones that ultimately determine whether animals prepare to develop, reproduce, hibernate, enter dormancy, or migrate. The mechanisms that form the basis of seasonal time keeping and their adjustment during climate change are reviewed at the physiological and genetic levels. This article shows that animal adaptations to climate change dependency on internal cues during adaptations for animal survival in periods of climatic stress.


P.423-435

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Natural Dyed Indigo Silk

ไหมย้อมครามธรรมชาติ

อนุรัตน์ สายทอง

Indigo blue can be extracted from many tropical plants. It is insoluble pigment in water. Before dyeing, the indigo blue must be base-oxidized to leuco form (indigo white) which is colorless and dissolves in water. The process was reduced by reducing agents under alkaline condition. For industry process, sodium dithionite dissolve in sodium hydroxide were used as using potassium nicklecyanide as catalyst under nitrogen condition, which was satisfying outcome. Zinc lime vat is one of indigo white preparing. Indigo blue, zinc powder, lime and methanol were reduced indigo bath with lower temperature than 60 C. However, repeating of dye process can be decomposed the yarn. The process of Indigo blue fermentation was used ash lye and need microorganism for equilibrium, this process used among Japanese, Korean, Laotian and Thai wisdom. Indigo white is the better for textile dyeing such as cotton. Indigo gave the bluish to dark blue color on the cotton, whereas the affinity of silk for dyes is weaker for third of cotton. Several time in dyeing process can be denature protein of silk. Fabrics of silk are less resistance under alkaline condition comparing to cotton. According to chemical structure of Indigo white, the numbers of hydrogen bond between Indigo white and cellulose of cotton are higher than Indigo white and protein of silk. That result for silk obtains less blue in the indigo natural dye. So the improvement of vat substance to mix with pigment in order to reduce the indigo pigment particles together in the formation of the lowest alkaline and adding up some essential compound to extend the hydrogen bond between Indigo white and silk.


P.436-443

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The Protection of the Ozone Layer in Atmosphere

การพิทักษ์ชั้นโอโซนในบรรยากาศ

ปริศญารัตณ์ สังกะเพศ


P.524-533

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Diversity of Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from Hot Springs

ความหลากหลายของแบคทีเรียทนร้อนที่แยกได้จากน้ำพุร้อน

สุริยา ติ่งทอง และ สังวาลย์ แก่นโส