ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 40 No.4 October - December 2012


P.1002-1012

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Shoaling and Factors Underlying Shoal Composition in Fish

การอยู่เป็นฝูงและปัจจัยที่มีผลต่อองค์ประกอบของฝูงปลา

Chantima Piyapong

This article reviews group-living of animals, by focusing on shoaling behaviour in fish. It provides a general overview of shoaling behaviour, costs and benefits of this behaviour, and also factors which may underlie shoal composition or influence the decision of an individual to join a shoal. These include species, sex, phenotypic assortment, parasite load, familiarity and kinship.


P.1013-1024

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Sarus Crane Reintroduction: Criteria and Indicators for Suitable Wetland Assessment

นกกระเรียนพันธุ์ไทยคืนถิ่น: ข้อกำหนดและตัวชี้วัดสำหรับการประเมินพื้นที่ชุ่มน้ำที่เหมาะสม

ภูวดล โกมณเฑียร

Currently world crane populations are decreasing. Many crane species are endangered (EN) or vulnerable (VU) as classified by IUCN, including Sarus Crane (Grus sp.). For Thailand, Grus antigone shapii was listed as extinct in the wild (EW). Cranes are wetland species. Loss of wetland areas due to threats and human activities were major causes of the disappearance of crane populations in Thailand. Reintroduction science is widely accepted for the conservation of rare and endangers species including Grus antiogone shapii. In 1997, the Zoological Park Organization of Thailand succeeded in reproducing Sarus cranes in captivity that were ready to be reintroduced to natural wetlands. However, there were many factors, and not only the number of populations, to be considered before reintroducing captive wildlife back into a wild habitat, which are mostly influenced by human. Therefore, the first phase of reintroduction for the Sarus crane project was to screen and select the most suitable wetland habitats. Criteria and indicators were developed and applied. Eight criteria, four indicators and forty-three verifiers that corresponded to reintroduction science and sustainability of natural resources management, such as landscape conservation, habitat integrity, threats and disturbance and awareness of community were considered. However, the key factor for the successful and sustainable reintroduction of the Sarus crane in Thailand was not only the integrity of the habitat but also the participation of all stakeholders.


P.1025-1035

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Bergamottin and Its Role as Inhibitors of CYP3A4

เบอร์กามอททินและบทบาทในการยับยั้งเอนไซม์ CYP3A4

สุดา จักรทอง

Bergamottin, is a furanocoumarin compound, isolated as a major component from grapefruit juice which has been found to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, leading to the possibility of a patient overdose. Coadministration of grapefruit juice with drugs including calcium channel blockers, immonosuppressants, antihistamines and cholesterol-lowing statins resulted in substantial increases in their oral bioavailabilities, which are in some cases accompanied by the alteration of drug and drug toxicity. An alkyl substituent at the 5-position on the furanocoumarin is essential for the interaction with CYP3A4. The inhibitory potency of the furanocoumarin was enhanced by the incorporation of geranyloxy derived moieties with hydrophilic groups at the 6', 7'-position.


P.1036-1048

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By-Products from Rice as Fillers in Natural Rubber

ผลพลอยได้จากข้าวสู่สารตัวเติมสำหรับยางธรรมชาติ

ดริญญา มูลชัย

This article presents knowledge and research on three by-products from rice as fillers in natural rubber, including rice husk, rice husk ash and defatted rice bran. Rice husk is the outer layer of rice grain which is removed during rice processing. Rice husk ash is a by-product from the burning of rice husk. Rice bran is a major by-product obtained from the polishing process that produces white rice. Rice bran oil is extracted from rice bran, leaving defatted rice bran as by-product. The discussion focuses on the effects of by-products from rice on the properties of natural rubber vulcanisates. The properties of natural rubber vulcanisates are affected by the rubber-filler interaction, particle size and specific surface area of the fillers. In addition, the properties of by-product from rice-filled vulcanisates are also compared with traditional fillerfilled vulcanisates.


P.1049-1058

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Titanium Dioxide: Antibacterial Material

ไทเทเนียมไดออกไซด์: วัสดุฆ่าเชื้อแบคทีเรีย

ชลดา ธีรการุณวงศ์

The application of nanomaterials in the antibacterial field has emerged as a successful technology in recent years. Among the metal oxide, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been found highly attractive due to its potential photocatalytic under ultraviolet. The antibacterial activity by using of TiO2 nanomaterials depends on the particle size, morphology, crystalline structure, phase composition, concentration and the used of doping metal ion. Generally, the antiobacteria mechanism of TiO2 involved with the hydroxyl free radical interact with amino group in the molecule of microorganism, resulting in cell membrane damage, cause cell death.


P.1059-1072

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Acrylamide in Thai Foods

สารอะคริลาไมด์ที่แฝงมากับอาหารไทย

จิตติมา เจริญพานิช

Acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and suspected human carcinogen has been first discovered in foods by the Swedish researchers. Numerous paths of formation have been discussed, predominantly through a Maillard reaction and can be regarded as the most important heat-induced contaminants occurring in starchy foods. In addition, some reports suggested that acrylamide could form in lipid-rich foods by the acrolein precursor. Many researchers have confirmed the presence of acrylamide in different processed foods. For Thai foods, acrylamide has been found in curries, commercial and conventional snacks, instant noodle as well as coffee that contain starch and fat as the major components and cooked under high temperature. Fortunately, Thai-consumer risk assessment still below a toxic dose and consumption habits is the most important factor affecting the risk.


P.1073-1088

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Production of Cellulosic Ethanol in Thailand

การผลิตเซลลูโลซิกเอทานอลในประเทศไทย

ชัชนันท์ นิวาสวงษ์ และ เฉลิม เรืองวิริยะชัย

The bioethanol production has attracted worldwide attention as a strategy for reducing global warming and improving global energy security. Firstly, bioethanol has been produced from sugars or starches obtained from fruits and grains. Currently, bioethanol can be produced from a number of renewable resources other than starches or sugars such as lignocellulosic materials, so called lignocellulosic ethanol. The source of lignocellulosic ethanol was produced from such as agricultural wastes, forest residues, industrial and municipal wastes, and dedicated energy crops. Lignocellulosic materials continue to be investigated as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production and mostly contain cellulose in combination with hemicellulose and lignin. The removal of hemicellulose and lignin can be used several pretreatment processes for pure cellulose. The cellulose component in these materials can be converted to ethanol by first step converting to sugars by acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis processes and then the resulting sugars were converted to ethanol by microorganism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, etc. In Thailand, it has potential to produce a plenty of agricultural waste materials. It was also appropriated to produce lignocellulosic ethanol, according with Thai government’s policy to increase the production of ethanol. Thus, the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in Thailand it was an interesting and encouraged to become a large industry for stability of energy and enhanced to produce renewable energy on the top of the world.


P.1089-1100

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Applications of Digital Image Processing in Microscope Images

การประยุกต์ใช้การประมวลผลภาพกับภาพจากกล้องจุลทรรศน์

เยาวเรศ ศิริสถิตย์กุล

This article reviews the applications of digital image processing program in compositional, structural, and morphological characterizations of microscope images. Microscopes can be classified into optical microscopes, electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes. The essential technique in the object analysis is the image segmentation which can be performed by the thresholding and the edge detection. The progress in research on different types of microscope images indicates that the characterization of composition, structure, and morphology can be effectively carried out.


P.1101-1113

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An Exploring of Academic Social Networks by ArnetMiner System

การสำรวจเครือข่ายสังคมทางการศึกษาผ่านระบบ ArnetMiner

ปวีณา ชัยวนารมย์

ArnetMiner system has been developed to search and mine for academic social networks. The main services of the ArnetMiner system are browsing and searching the researcher information in Computer Science and the related fields. This system includes a personal profile, pairwise relationship between a pair of researchers, and community relationship among the related researchers. This paper addresses several key issues of the ArnetMiner system: 1) history of the system, 2) architecture, 3) available services for end users and developers, and 4) many potential future directions of the system.


P.1114-1127

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Thai Text Resource: A Recommended Thai Text Set for Voice Quality Measurements and Its Comparative Study

ทรัพยากรข้อความภาษาไทย: ชุดข้อความภาษาไทยที่ควรใช้สำหรับการวัดคุณภาพเสียงและการศึกษาเปรียบเทียบ

Therdpong Daengsi, Apiruck Preechayasomboon, Saowanit Sukparungsee and Chai Wutiwiwatchai

This review paper briefly presents voice quality measurement overview, related English text sets used in measurement, an overview of the Thai language and Thai sounds, and the development of a Thai text set, called the Thai Text Set for Telephonometry (TTST). TTST has been compared with LOTUS which is a Thai corpus that has been used widely for language and speech processing research in Thailand. This paper presents that TTST is simple and similar to CID Sentences and some CUNY Sentences. Moreover, it is in compliance with ITU-T P.800 standard. Therefore, the TTST could be recommended to create speech samples for voice quality measurements in Thai environments, which use Thai for communication.


P.1128-1137

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Generalized Banach Contraction Principles and Fixed Point Approximation

หลักการการหดตัวของบานาควางนัยทั่วไปและการประมาณค่าจุดตรึง

ประสิทธิ์ ช่อลำเจียก

This article outlines a study of generalized Banach contraction principles and fixed point approximation for nonlinear mappings in complete metric spaces.


P.1138-1148

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Morphological and Anatomical Characters of Lowland-Black Rice Grains in the Northeast of Thailand

ลักษณะทางสัณฐานวิทยาและกายวิภาคศาสตร์ของข้าวเปลือกข้าวดำนาสวน ในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของประเทศไทย

ธีระ ธรรมวงศา จิรวัฒน์ สนิทชน อมรรัตน์ มีสวาสดิ์ และ ปิยะรัตน์ อิฐรัตน์

Twenty six specimens of lowland-black rice were collected from cultivation areas in the northeast of Thailand between 2008 and 2009. Morphology and anatomy of their grains were investigated. The results showed that the color of grain, the shape of grain, the shape, the color and the length of brown rice, the surface of lemma, and the thickness of brown rice coat are taxonomic value.


P.1149-1164

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Physiological Responses of Soybean when Grown in Saturated Soil Culture

การตอบสนองทางสรีรวิทยาของถั่วเหลืองเมื่อปลูกอยู่ในสภาพดินอิ่มตัวด้วยน้ำ

ศิริพรรณ บรรหาร อภิพรรณ พุกภักดี และ สาวิตรี มีจุ้ย

A study of the physiological responses in soybean cultivars “Chakkrabhanhu” No.1 when grown in saturated soil culture compared with the conventional irrigation soybeans was conducted at Lampang Agricultural Research and Training Institute, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang province. Study involved with recording and data gathering on growth characteristic in terms of dry matter and physiological characteristic such as the green of leaves, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, leaf water potential and nitrogen fixation. Experiments were conducted using factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results of this study revealed that soybean grown in saturated soil culture had the tendency of producing growth and yield as similar to those receiving conventional irrigation. In term of physiological characteristics, the chlorophyll content in soybean’s leaves could be used as indicator for acclimatization, at the point where the chlorophyll contents which were previously dropped at the earlier stage of growth when receiving saturated soil culture, returned to level similar to those of the conventional irrigated soybeans at V5-V6 growth stage. In addition, saturated soybeans demonstrated the higher rate of photosynthesis than those grown in the conventional irrigation. The results also revealed that transpiration rate, leaf water potential and N2 fixation of the saturated soybean were much greater than the control; the current data were correlated with the previous findings which indicated that the leaf water potential, water use efficiency, and nitrogen fixation had made the saturated soybeans approached the acclimatization point more readily after suffered from brief flooding. As the result, saturated soybeans recovered and adjusted themselves through the increase in photosynthesis and finally increased their growth and yield up to the level similar to the conventional irrigation.


P.1165-1176

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Effects of Brewer’s Yeast Supplementation on Growth, Survival and Immune Response in Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Juvenile

ผลของการเสริมส่าเบียร์ในอาหารต่อการเติบโต อัตราการรอดตาย และการตอบสนองทางภูมิคุ้มกันของกุ้งก้ามกราม (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) วัยรุ่น

สมเกียรติ ปิยะธีรธิติวรกุล และ สุรัตนา เจนธนานันท์

Main purpose of this study effects of supplemented Brewer’s yeast (0%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) on growth, survival and immune responses of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). All diets were isonitrogenous with protein of 38% and lipid of 8%. Prawns with initial body weight (4.29±0.20 g.) and total length (6.54±0.25 cm.) were randomly sampled to rear in 32×52×30 cm3 glass aquaria (with close recirculation water system) at the stocking rate of 6 prawns per aquarium. They were fed to apparent satiation three times for 16 weeks. The results showed that growth of prawn fed with 1% Brewer’s yeast supplemented diet were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. Immune response before and after challenging the prawn with Vibrio harveyi strain 639 for 4 day showed that total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity of the prawn fed with 1% Brewer’s yeast were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. Cumulative mortality of prawn fed with 1% Brewer’s yeast were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of other treatments. The study concluded that Brewer’s yeast supplemented for 1% in diet was optimum for promoting growth, survival and immune responses in Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).


P.1177-1183

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Preliminary Report: Using Vero Cell Line for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Isolation

รายงานการศึกษาเบื้องต้น: การใช้( Vero Cell ในการเพาะแยกเชื้อ Newcastle disease virus (NDV)

วิไลรัตน์ ฉ่ำสิงห์ อรวรรณ บุตรดี ภัทรา มูลจิตร และ สุธี รัตนภิรมย์

The preliminary study was isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using Vero Cell line from infected chickens. The aim of this study is for viral identification. The specimens of NDV were brought to Virus Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakornprathom, Thailand. The comparison of virus isolation was performed using Vero Cell line, primary cell culture as Chicken Embryo Fibroblast (CEF) and chicken embryonated egg which can cause embryonic death. Virus concentration was determined. Both of the inoculated CEF and inoculated embryonated egg yielded 128 HA unit while Vero Cell line as host for NDV isolation and CEF showed the cell differentiation and Cytophathic effect (CPE) of the obvious rounded up cells which indicated the virus isolation and identification for causative agent detection. The virus concentration from infected Vero Cell line was 10 3.5TCID50/ml and 8 HA unit. The virus yield was then used to inoculate the primary cell culture CEF and the viral concentration was increasing to 10 8.75TCID50 /ml. This is the evident of being host of choice of the primary cell culture as embryonated egg for NDV isolation. However Vero Cell line could be the alternate host of choice in substitution to using the primary cell culture which has the limit of life span and more complicated preparation for the advantage of viral identification purpose of routine application.


P.1184-1194

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Optimal Ratio of DHA to EPA Enriched in Rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis and Brine Shrimp Artemia spp. for Feeding Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus Larvae

อัตราส่วนที่เหมาะสมของดีเอชเอต่ออีพีเอที่เสริมในโรติเฟอร์ Brachionus rotundiformis และ Artemia spp. สำหรับการเลี้ยงตัวอ่อนปูม้า Portunus pelagicus

ปริยภัทร ภัทรธำรง สมเกียรติ ปิยะธีรธิติวรกุล วารินทร์ ธนาสมหวัง และ พนิดา อุนะกุล

An optimal ratio of high polyunsaturated fatty acids, DHA to EPA enriched in rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis and brine shrimp Artemia spp. for feeding blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus larvae was carried out. Nine different ratios of DHA:EPA; 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, 2:2, 2:3, 3:1, 3:2, and 3:3 were enriched to rotifer and brine shrimp for 12 hours and then harvested to feed different larval stages of P. pelagicus; from hatched eggs, zoea 1-2 and zoea 3- first crab. The results showed that DHA:EPA 2:2 and DHA:EPA 3:2 gave the best survival rate for zoea 1 to first crab 24.44 ±5.56% and 24.44 ±8.89% respectively. DHA:EPA 3:3 gave the shortest intermolt period in stages of zoea 2, 3, and 4.


P.1195-1204

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Discriminant Analysis and Binary Logistic Regression for Prediction of Milk Production of Dairy Cattle Farms

การวิเคราะห์จำแนกประเภทกับการวิเคราะห์ถดถอยแบบโลจิสติกทวิสำหรับทำนายปริมาณน้ำนมของฟาร์มโคนม

อรอุมา ทองหล่อ สุภาวดี มานะไตรนนท์ และ อนันท์ เชาว์เครือ

There were 2 objectives in this study. The first objective was to evaluate the factors influencing on the milk production in dairy cows by using discriminant analysis (equal priors/proportional priors) and binary logistic regression. The second objective was to compare the classification efficiency among three multivariate analysis techniques in order to classified dairy farms into 2 groups that were high and low milk production based on the average milk yield for all studied dairy farms (13 kg/cow/day). The three methods were included discriminant analysis with equal priors, discriminant analysis with proportional priors and binary logistic regression. The attribute variables, blood level of Holstein Friesian cows (3 groups), age of cows (4 groups), year of birth of cows (5 groups), percentage of concentrate feed (3 groups) and location of farm (2 groups) were used to identify the group of farms. All information of dairy cattle farms were surveyed by using 120 questionnaires from dairy cattle farms in Tambon Sam Pra Ya, Cha-Am, Phetchaburi (60 farms) and in Tambon Huay Sat Yai, Hua-Hin, Prachuabkirikhan (60 farms). The results based on discriminant analysis revealed that the age of cows showed the highest classification scores (1.573). The classification scores were used to classify any farm into the group of farms with high or low milk yield. While the classification scores of other variables were ranged from 1.092 for blood level of Holstein Friesian, 0.736 for year of birth of cows,0.521 for percentage of concentrate feed and 0.179 for location of farm, respectively. The study found that all 3 models showed the similar results. The correct classifications were 65 % for discriminant analysis with equal priors model while the results from discriminant analysis with proportional priors model was equal to the results from binary logistic regression model that was 64.2 %. The misclassification of dairy farms into 2 groups between groups of farm that showed low milk production and group of farms that showed high milk production for discriminant analysis with equal priors model were 43.5 % and 25.9 %, respectively, while the results from discriminant analysis with proportional priors model was equal to the results from binary logistic regression model that were 43.5 % and 27.6%, respectively. The results can be concluded that both types of discriminant analysis (with equal priors or with proportional priors) and logistic regression have similar efficiency for classification the farms into 2 groups according to the level of milk production.


P.1205-1213

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Effectiveness of Essential Oils from Clove and Cinnamon in Controlling Stored Product Mite, Suidasia pontifica Oudemans

ประสิทธิภาพของน้ำมันหอมระเหยจากกานพลูและอบเชยในการควบคุมไร Suidasia pontifica Oudemans ในผลผลิตในโรงเก็บ

จรงค์ศักดิ์ พุมนวน และ อำมร อินทร์สังข์

Acaricidal activitity of essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet) against stored product mite, Suidasia pontifica Oudmemans was investigated by using fumigation method and compared with standard eugenol. The bioassay was applied in knockdown chamber sized 2.5×104 cm3 and 3 ml. The fumigating time was 1 h and mortality of mite was observed at 24 h after treatment. The essential oils of clove and cinnamon were highly toxic to the S. pontifica, at 1.20 μg/cm3 they showed 95.4 and 93.0 % mite mortality, respectively. As for evaluation of LC50 values of 0.419 and 0.467 μg/cm3 were obtained, respectively. The standard eugenol was extremely toxic to the S. pontifica, at 1.20 μg/cm3 it showed 100% mite mortality with LC50 0.378 μg/cm3. The composition of clove and cinnamon oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). A major component of clove oil was eugenol (97.100 %) with small amount of trans-caryophyllene (1.685%), and compounds from cinnamon oil were the main eugenol (82.054%) followed by trans-caryophyllene (3.798%), 2-methoxy-4-propenylphenyl, acetate (3.533%) benzyl benzoate (3.515%), trans-cinnamyl acetate (1.846%) and cinnamaldehyde (1.515%). The effectiveness of that plant essential oil in controlling S. pontifica was relative to eugenol content.


P.1214-1224

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Use of Selected Natural Calcium Sources for Calcium Enrichment of Crisp Rice

การใช้วัตถุดิบอาหารธรรมชาติเป็นแหล่งแคลเซียมสำหรับการเสริมแคลเซียมในข้าวเกรียบ

Laksana Chaimongkol

Fish bone powder, small fresh water shrimp powder and anchovy powder were produced and used as calcium sources for calcium enriched crisp rice production. The addition levels suitable for human taste as well as the effects of natural calcium sources on the quality of crisp rice were experimentally determined in this study. The formula with 17.5% by weight of the three calcium sources had the closest acceptance score to that of local fish crisp rice. According to the consumer test done with 100 school children and 100 adults, small fresh water shrimp powder enriched crisp rice was the best accepted. The linear expansion decreased as the amounts of calcium sources increased but there was no change for crispiness. A 17.5% addition level and per one serving (30 g) of crisp rice, the fish bone enriched crisp rice provided 46% RDI; small fresh water shrimp enriched gave 22% RDI; and anchovy enriched contributed 29% RDI of calcium. The study has demonstrated that fish bone powder, small fresh water shrimp powder and anchovy powder are good sources for production of calcium enriched crisp rice. The largest effect on calcium intake is achieved, among these options, with fishbone powder, which is also cost effective. In contrast shrimp powder is the least likely option due to its high cost.


P.1225-1235

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Fatty Acid Composition of Assam Tea Seed Kernel Oils of Thailand

องค์ประกอบของกรดไขมันในน้ำมันเนื้อเมล็ดชาอัสสัมของไทย

ธีรพงษ์ เทพกรณ์ กาญจนา พลอยศรี และ อนัญญา เอกพันธ์

The present research aims to determine the fatty acid profiles in seed kernel of Assam tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) of Thailand. Assam tea fruits were collected from Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Nan provinces. The tea seed kernels were separated and extracted by soxhlet extraction. The oil content of tea seed kernel was 12.22±1.32% w/w. The fatty acid profiles of tea seed kernel oils examined by GC/MS indicated that oil consisted of 55% oleic acid (C18:1), 21% linoleic acid (C18:2), 18% palmitic acid (C16:0), 4% stearic acid (C18:0) and 2% other fatty acids. The fatty acid profiles were compared with that of commercially tea oils (Camellia oleifera) and previous studies indicating that fatty acid profiles were similar to that of tea oils from Camellia sinensis.


P.1236-1249

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The Organic and Chemical Fertilizer on Methane Emission in Paddy Field

การใช้ปุ๋ยคอกและเคมีต่อการปลดปล่อยก๊าซมีเทนในนาข้าว

พันธวัศ สัมพันธ์พานิช

The environmental problems in Thailand are at a critical point and will have a negative effect on both humans and all living creatures. Particularly serious are the problems caused by the introduction of greenhouse gas from paddy field. The effect of organic and chemical fertilizer on the emission of methane from paddy fields planted with Suphanburi 1 rice variety was compared. Paddy was planted in a double-crop field in an organic rice field area at Pathum Thani Rice Research Center, Pathum Thani province, Thailand. The paddy was divided into 4 sets: 1) control plots without added fertilizer 2) plots with the addition of organic fertilizer (cow manure) 3) plots with the addition of organic fertilizer pellets and 4) plots with the addition of chemical fertilizers. Soil, water and air samples were collected at five timeframes: before planting (0 day), Initial stage (30 days), vegetative stage (60 days), panicle formation stage (90 days) and maturation or before the harvest stage (120 days). The results showed that methane emissions were highest in the plots with chemical fertilizer followed by those with organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer pellets and control plots with an average of 1.79, 1.35, 1.28 and 1.20 mg/m2/day, respectively. These values were not significantly different statistically (P <0.05). Comparison of methane emission in each plot at all stages of rice growth found that the vegetative stage had the highest level followed by chemical fertilizer plots, then organic fertilizer pellets plot, organic fertilizer and control plots, with an average methane emissions of 3.03, 2.88, 1.68 and 1.03 mg/m2/day, respectively. These values were significantly different statistically. The rice production was highest when using organic fertilizer, followed by the chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer pellets and control plots, respectively.


P.1250-1259

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Effect of GRAS Reagents on Quality of Dried Sweetened Watermelon Rind

ผลของสารเคมีกลุ่ม GRAS ต่อคุณภาพของเปลือกแตงโมแช่อิ่มอบแห้ง

ทิพวรรณ จันทะรักษ์ ศิรินภา คำภู่ อรรณพ ทัศนอุดม และ เฉลิมพล ถนอมวงค์

The objective of this research is to study effects of various GRAS reagents on quality of dried sweetened watermelon rind. GRAS reagents were used in soaking watermelon rinds in processing dried sweetened watermelon rind. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was conducted for 8 treatments. The evaluation of physical properties, microbiology, chemical composition, and sensory properties revealed that mixed solution of 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% calcium chloride and 0.02% potassium metabisulphite could improve color quality and firmness of dried sweetened watermelon rind by increasing green value (a*) and firmness of the products.


P.1260-1271

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Effect of Palm Oil Emulsion Waxing on the Storage of Some Fruits

ผลของการเคลือบอิมัลชันน้ำมันปาล์มต่อการเก็บรักษาผลไม้

รุ่งทิพย์ จูฑะมงคล จันจิรา ศรีม่วง และ จิตติมา สุขสุวรรณ

Limes and mangoes were coated with three wax emulsions, namely palm stearin (PS) carnauba wax (CW) alone and palm stearin mixed with carnauba (CR). Those emulsions were prepared as labolatory and four levels of emulsion concentration were studied. After waxing, samples were both physically and chemically examined. The optimum stability formular of PW consitiator121 grams of palm wax, 42 of oleic acid, 28 of triethanolamine,56 of water and 48 of paraffin wax formular. The quantity of wax emulsion used varied depending on the formulation. Limes coated with CW gave the highest weight loss (3.25-5.45%). All emulsions used were found to retain of chlorophyll color and weight loss can be reduced. Dipping limes with 10% CW had 13.9% weight loss after 16 days storage at 29-32 °C, while the unwaxed one had 30.6% weight loss. Mangoes waxed with 6% PS had 4.57% weight loss whereas unwaxed samples had 15.76% weight loss after 11 days storage at 29-32 °C. Respiration rate and juice content were decreased by waxing.


P.1272-1284

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Color and COD Removals of Chemistry Laboratory Wastewater by Fenton’s Reaction

การกำจัดสีและซีโอดีในน้ำเสียห้องปฏิบัติการเคมีด้วยปฏิกิริยาเฟนตัน

นาถ ภูวงศ์ผา เฉลิม เรืองวิริยะชัย และ สุนันทา เลาวัณย์ศิริ

The aims of this research were to study the color and COD removals of chemistry laboratory wastewater by Fenton’s reaction using batch test. The effect of optimum conditions color and COD removals of chemistry laboratory wastewater by Fenton’s reaction were investigated such as pH, H2O2:Fe2+mole ratio and reaction time. The results showed the optimum conditions of the color and COD removals for chemistry laboratory wastewater by Fenton reaction were initial pH 2, H2O2:Fe2+ ratio in 15:1 (mole/volume) and shaking with 150 rpm at room temperature. The optimum condition, the highest color removal of chemistry laboratory wastewater was 92.15±0.00% at reaction time for 60 minutes. Meanwhile, the highest COD removal of chemistry laboratory wastewater was 63.90±0.26% at reaction time for 30 minutes.


P.1285-1300

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Kinetic Adsorption of Silver Ion by Chitosan Resin

จลนศาสตร์การดูดซับไอออนเงินโดยเรซินไคโตซาน

เกษราพร สุอรุณ และ โกวิทย์ ปิยะมังคลา

Chitosan resin as adsorbent for adsorption of silver ion solution was studied. Batch experiments were carried out the dosage of adsorbent, initial concentration and pH of silver ion. The experimental result showed that an increasing of initial concentration increased adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of chitosan resin amount 0.5 g, initial concentration 100 mg/L and pH 6.0 occurred 22.8 mg/g. The silver ion could be explained by Freundlich adsorption model. The pseudo-second order was fit for describing the kinetic of adsorption. The initial rate of adsorption and half-adsorption time was 8.6 mg/g-min and 2.7 min, respectively. The mechanism of the silver ion adsorption by chitosan resin occurred in 2 steps results from intraparticle diffusion and equilibrium of adsorption.