ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 41 No.1 January - March 2013


P.144-148

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Development of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Orchid

การพัฒนาเทคนิคการถ่ายยีนโดยใช้เชื้ออะโกรแบคทีเรียมเข้ากล้วยไม้

ภพเก้า พุทธรักษ์ วารุต อยู่คง และ รัฐพร จันทร์เด

The objective of this research was to establish gene transformation procedure for genus Dendrobium by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGLO (pBI121 or pSCV1.6). The dihydroflavonol 4- reductase gene (DFR) were constructed in plasmid pBI121 or pSCV1.6 which containing gus gene and kanamycin resistance gene as reporter gene. The positive results of GUS assay revealed the GUS activity blue while the expression level of transcription in the technical was inspected by RT-PCR


P.149-151

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Effects of Water Deficit on Seedling Growth of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

ผลของการขาดน้ำต่อการเติบโตของต้นกล้าถั่วด้า ถั่วเขียว และถั่วแดงหลวง

เนตรชนก เวียนเสี้ยว กอบเกียรติ แสงนิล และ จารุณี จูงกลาง

Effects of water deficit on growth of 6 day old seedlings of black gram, mung bean and kidney bean were investigated. The plants were divided into 3 treatment groups. 1) Control plants received water every day. 2) Water stress was induced by non-irrigated water for 9 days. 3) All plants in the re-watering group were under 6 days of water stress before re-watering for 3 days. Analyses included epicotyl height, fresh weight, and relative water content (RWC) in leaves on the 0, 3rd, 6th and 9th days. The results indicated that epicotyl height, fresh weight, and RWC decreased when the days of water deficit increased, compared to the control group. The results also showed that the physiological indexes of all three species could recover rapidly after rewatering. Black gram retained RWC better than mung bean and kidney bean when subjected to water stress for 9 days. Black gram is more tolerant to water stress than the other 2 species.


P.158-165

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Effectiveness of Single and Multiple Microbial Inoculation on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Chinese Kale Seedling

ประสิทธิภาพของการใช้เชื้อจุลินทรีย์ชนิดเชื้อเดี่ยวและชนิดเชื้อผสม ต่อการเจริญเติบโตและการดูดใช้ธาตุอาหารของกล้าคะน้าฮ่องกง

ฟ้าไพลิน ไชยวรรณ และ อรวรรณ ฉัตรสีรุ้ง

The study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of single and multiple inoculation of beneficial microorganisms on growth and nutrients uptake of Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). The experiment was performed in plug tray containing coconut husk compost as seedling media. The media was inoculated with single or multiple isolates of Azospirillum sp. (VAs 2), Beijerinckia sp. (VBe 75) and Actinomycetes (VAc 077). Randomized Complete Block Design was applied and each treatment was repeated three times. The results demonstrated that triple inoculation with VAs 2, VBe 75, and VAc 077 gave the highest shoot dry weight (2.927 g/plant) with the value of 20% higher than that of the control. Single inoculation with VAc 077 gave the highest root dry weight (0.360 g/plant) with the value of 32% higher than that of the control. The use of single and multiple isolates increased all nutrient elements uptake (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) especially for N uptake which was 61 %higher than the control.


P.166-175

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Utilization of Wastewater Sludge to Improve Soil for Khao Dawk Mali 105 Rice Planting

การใช้ประโยชน์จากกากตะกอนน้ำเสียเพื่อปรับปรุงดิน สำหรับปลูกข้าวขาวดอกมะลิ 105

กัณฑมาศ อยู่เจริญ และ ชมพูนุท ไชยรักษ์

The aim of this research was to study the utilization of wastewater sludge from peanut food factory to improve soil for rice planting. Experimental soil was from Samutprakarn and Suphanburi farmland. In the experiments, the ratio of wastewater sludge to soil was varied as followed 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 kg/m2. Khao Dawk Mali 105 was planted for 97 days before harvesting. Chemical characteristics of soil and wastewater sludge were analyzed both before and after planting. After harvesting, the concentration of heavy metals in grain and shoot, shoot length, yield and grain mass were analyzed. It was found from experiments that the value of pH, EC, Moisture, OC, total N, Available P, Available K, total content of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in the mixture of wastewater sludge and soil were decreased after planting. The concentration of all heavy metals in grain and shoot were found in the safe limits of human consumption except Fe in shoot. The results indicated that the shoot length, yield and grain mass were higher in the wastewater sludge soil. Mixture treatment 36 kg/m2 wastewater sludge content in the soil was gave the highest shoot length. However, the 36 kg/m2 and 12 kg/m2 mined in the Samutprakarn soil aim the highest grain mass and yield respectively While the 48 kg/m2 mixed treatment of Suphanburi soil affected to the highest grain mass and yield.


P.176-182

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Biodiesel Production from Refined Palm Oil Using KF/CaO Catalyst in a Co-Solvent

การผลิตน้ำมันไบโอดีเซลจากน้ำมันปาล์มบริสุทธิ์ โดยใช้ตัวเร่งปฏิกิริยา KF/CaO ในตัวทำละลายร่วม

จักรพงศ์ ไชยบุรี และ สรพงษ์ แสงสุวรรณ

The research was studied solid base catalyst KF/CaO for transesterification reaction of methanol with refined palm oil to produce biodiesel. The catalyst using KF 80 wt.% coated on CaO solid base catalyst and using co – solvent, namely tetrahydrofuran (THF). The temperature for the reaction was 65 ºC, 3 h. The catalyst of the reaction was 10 wt.% of refined palm oil. The molar ratio of methanol to oil was 6:1. Then the methyl ester was 99.37 %


P.183-192

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Product Development of Mao Juice Mixed with Vegetable and Fruit Juices in Clear-Glass Bottle and Tin-Can

การพัฒนาผลิตภัณฑ์น้ำเม่าผสมน้ำผักและผลไม้บรรจุขวดแก้วและกระป๋อง

พรประภา ชุนถนอม สุภกาญจน์ พรหมขันธ์ และ สุกัญญา สายธิ

A study was aimed to mix mao juice with vegetable or fruit juices including longan, tomato and mango juice at 5 ratios including, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 2:1 and 4:1 to evaluate an appropriate ratio of each plant for the further process. Fifteen trained-panelists were used for Hedonic scale (1-9 point) sensory evaluation. The best ratio of mao juice to longan, tomato and mango juice mixture were 1:1, 2:1 and 2:1, respectively. The mixture product comparison of each plant was studied. The best mixture product was mao with mango juice. The odor and taste of this mixture product was better than those but the color and overall liking were not different from mao with tomato juice. Nutritive value evaluation compared between mixture juice including energy, carbohydrate content (including fiber), sugar, sodium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, calcium, iron and ash content was studied. It was found that energy, carbohydrate and sugar content of mao with mango juice was highest but sodium content was lowest. Calcium content of mao with mango juice was less than mao with longan juice but vitamin B1 was not different from mao with longan juice. The effect of thermal processing and packaging including clear glass-bottle (85◦C for 15 min) and tin-can (80◦C for 30 min) on nutritional value of mao with mango juice was studied. It was found that energy, carbohydrates, sugar, vitamin B1, iron and ash content in glass bottle product was higher than those in tin-can. Calcium content in all samples was similar. However, the content of sodium and vitamin B2 of tin-canned product were higher than those in glass bottle. Furthermore, Vitamin C content of all samples was disappeared.


P.193-202

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Natural Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients for Solar Drying of Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa Striatus)

การหาค่าสัมประสิทธิ์การพาความร้อนแบบธรรมชาติ ของการทาแห้งปลาช่อนด้วยแสงอาทิตย์

อีลีหย๊ะ สนิโซ อามีเนาะ สาเล็ง และ แวรอมละห์ แวดอเลาะ

In this research work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa Striatus) in open sun drying conditions. The initial sample had slice of 0.5 x 4.5 x 7.0 cm. The convective heat transfer coefficient was determined by Nu = hCX/K = N(Ra)n equation. Values of the constant, N and n were obtained by linear regression analysis. The results showed that the natural convective heat transfer coefficients was 10.9 W/m2-oC, when N and n were found to be 2.2 and 0.1, respectively for free air flow rate and the natural convective heat transfer coefficients was 9.4 W/m2-oC, when N and n were found to be 1.3 and 0.2, respectively for blocked air flow rate., at Pr = 0.7 and 1.9104 < Gr < 3.6104.


P.203-212

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Physical Structure of W Uma Binary System LO Andromeda

โครงสร้างทางกายภาพของระบบดาวคู่ ดับเบิลยู เออร์ซา เมเจอร์ แอลโอ แอนโดรเมดา

ธนวัฒน์ รังสูงเนิน

The aims of this research were to study the orbital period change, parameter analize and its evolution of W Uma binary system LO Andromeda. The data gathering were done via CCD Photometer (SBIG ST10-XME) that attached to the 0.5 m - reflecting telescope of Princess Sirindhron Observatory, Chiang Mai University. The light curves obtained through B, V and R filters on UVB standard system were collected and processed via MaxIm DL4 softwere. The three times of minimum (2 primary eclipes and 1 secoundary eclipe) were determined. The result has shown that the new ephemeris equation from this research is HJD (Min) = 2453655.45049+0.38082E and the light curve has shown that the orbital period of LO Andromeda was 0.38082378 day. Calculated data, the orbital period change was +3.96238 x 10-10 day/cycle or 0.00189048 sec/year. While, the best parameter by WD Program was 2.15947 of mass ratio and inclination was 89.450. The temperature of primary star and secoundary star were 5250 K and 5252 K respectively. The binary system has shown that it is a KW type for H – R diagram. The best parameter was employed to make the model via a binary Maker 3.0 software. Finally, the result has represented that LO Andromeda is on the over contact phase but it still hold the W Uma type.


P.213-225

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Sugarcane Production Forecasting Model of the Northeastern by Artificial Neural Network

แบบจำลองการพยากรณ์ปริมาณอ้อยของภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือโดยการใช้โครงข่ายประสาทเทียม

อรนงค์ บุเกตุ และ พุธษดี ศิริแสงตระกูล

This paper presents models to predict sugarcane production in the Northeastern of Thailand using back propagation artificial neural network. In order to select appropriate input factors for the model, the researchers studied other related researches about sugarcane production factors that effect to the sugarcane product. There are six factors (province, production year, average rainfall, average temperature, average sugarcane area, and average cane yield data) effect to the sugarcane production. Those factors were considered as the input of an ANN1 model. In order to confirm factors relationships, autocorrelation and regression were used to analyze the factors. The analysis results showed that just five factors (province, production year, average rainfall, average sugarcane area, and average cane yield data) have relationships. These five factors were considered as the input of an ANN2 model. Base on assumption that major competitive crops in the Northeastern may has effected on the sugarcane production. Therefore, three more factors (sugarcane price, rubber price and cassava price) were considered as the additional factors of the ANN2 models called ANN3. In order to analyze for the appropriate model, those factors data from year 2004 to 2010 were used in the study. The results showed that the best estimate models of the study are as followings: 1) The ANN1 is with architecture of 5:10:1, correlation at 0.9794. 2) The ANN2 model is with architecture of 6:8:10, correlation at 0.9822. 3) The ANN3 model is with architecture of 8:4:1, correlation at 0.9973. The study indicates that the ANN3 with 8:4:1 architecture of neural network has maximum accuracy.


P.226-238

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A Study of Efficiency of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics in Testing of Central Difference between Two Populations

การศึกษาประสิทธิภาพของสถิติอิงพารามิเตอร์และสถิติไม่อิงพารามิเตอร์ในการทดสอบความแตกต่างของค่ากลางระหว่างประชากร 2 กลุ่ม

มนตรี สังข์ทอง

This research aimed to study the efficiency of parametric and nonparametric statistics in testing of central difference between two populations. The test statistics used to study the efficiency were t test, Mann Whitney U test, Van der Waerden test, Wald Wolfowitz Runs test and Modified U test. Classification of the population according to normal distribution, negative skewness and leptokurtic kurtosis distribution and positive skewness and leptokurtic kurtosis distribution. The sample sizes of two population were (5,5), (5,10), a small sample representative, (20,20), (25,20), a medium sample representative, and (50,50), (50,100), a large sample representative. The ratios of variance were (1:1) and (1:2) at a significant level of 0.05. The criteria used to compare the efficiency were the ability to control the type I error and power of the test. The results showed that: When the population has normal distribution, The test statistics have the highest power of the test and to control the type I error for small sample sizes were t test and Van der Waerden test, for medium and large sample sizes were Modified U test. When the population has negative skewness and leptokurtic kurtosis distribution, The test statistics have the highest power of the test and to control the type I error for small sample sizes were t test and Van der Waerden test, for medium and large sample sizes were Mann Whitney U test. When the population has positive skewness and leptokurtic kurtosis distribution, The test statistics have the highest power of the test and to control the type I error for small sample sizes were t test and Van der Waerden test, for medium sample sizes were Mann Whitney U test and for large sample sizes were t test and Mann Whitney U test.


P.239-249

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Equation for Rapid Calculation of the Standard Deviation

สมการสำหรับการคำนวณค่าเบี่ยงเบนมาตรฐานแบบรวดเร็วต่อเนื่อง

พงษ์วุฒิ ดวงศรี

This paper proposes rapid standard deviation equation for determining the standard deviation of variable-size data. The novel method calculates the standard deviation in an accumulative way: it requires only new observation to be included, instead of using whole data, in calculation. The method has the running time of O(N) instead of the traditional O(N 2). The proposed rapid standard deviation equation depends on the following factors: new observation (xN ), the amount of current data size (N), the average of the value of current data ( ), and standard deviation of previous data set (). The equation is in a compact form, easy to understand and apply to data sets.


P.250-261

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A Variable Selection in Multiple Linear Regression Models Based on Tabu Search

การคัดเลือกตัวแปรในตัวแบบการถดถอยเชิงเส้นพหุ โดยใช้วิธีการค้นหาแบบต้องห้าม

กานต์ณัฐ ณ บางช้าง และ จิราวัลย์ จิตรถเวช

This research has proposed a variable selection method based on the Tabu Search for multiple linear regression models. In this study two objective functions used in the Tabu Search are mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE). The results of Tabu Search are compared with the results obtained by the stepwise regression method based on the hit percentage criterion. The simulations cover both cases, without and with multicollinearity problems. There are six independent variables in full models with four independent variables that influence the dependent variable. The sample sizes are 25 and 100, repeated 500 times for each situation. Without the multicollinearity problem, the hit percentages of the stepwise regression method and Tabu Search using both objective functions are almost the same. With the multicollinearity problem, the hit percentages of Tabu Search using both objective functions are more than the hit percentage of the stepwise regression method. In particular, the regression coefficients have the wrong sign from simulation by the stepwise regression method.


P.1-15

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Biology of Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

ชีววิทยาของปลากัดไทย (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

การุณ ทองประจุแก้ว

Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910) is a native species of ornamental and sport fish of Thailand. The commercial production of this species as ornament tends to increase progressively whereas the basic biology is scarcely known. This literature review provides elementary knowledge on taxonomy, ecology and distribution, morphology and anatomy, behavior, reproduction and development, digestion and feeding, pigmentation, heredity and aquaculture of the fish. These data are important for improving the quality of fish production. Whereas culture techniques, such as aquaculture system for intensive rearing, artificial feed with optimized nutrient content, female-to-male sex reversal, and breeding for improving color and fin shape are mainly required for fish farming. In addition, studies on biodiversity and natural habitat for conservation of wild type should be of interest.


P.16-35

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Control of Mosquito Larvae by Bacteria

การควบคุมลูกน้ำยุงโดยใช้แบคทีเรีย

บุญศรี จงเสรีจิตต์ และ วชิราภรณ์ ถูปาอ่าง

Mosquitos cause of the human disease. In the past, to control mosquito often uses chemical insecticides that eliminated mosquito rapidly. However, these chemicals have affected to human and environment. Therefore, biological insecticides have been developed by using bacterium that produced crystal protein toxins specifically to mosquito larvae and have no affect to non-target species. The crystal protein toxins will dissolve in the alkaline condition of mosquito larvae guts and activated by gut protease. The active toxin will be released to kill mosquito larvae and have no affect to human. However, these bacteria still have limitation that they persist in the environment in short time and sensitivity to UV light and temperature. Development of protein production and protein structure should be considered in order to improve production level and toxicity of mosquito-larvicidal proteins.


P.36-45

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Determination of Nitrofuran Antibiotics in Animal Products and Feeds

การตรวจวัดยาปฏิชีวนะกลุ่มไนโตรฟูแรน ในผลิตภัณฑ์เนื้อสัตว์และอาหารสัตว์

อุมาพร ฉัตรศรีสุวรรณ ธนาภัทร ปาลกะ และ กิตตินันท์ โกมลภิส

Nitrofurans are a group of antibiotics widely used to treat infected livestock. However, residues of their metabolites could be found in animals after use. This could be harmful to human who consume the contaminated animal products. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these residues by efficient detection methods. Currently, the methods used to analytically detect the residues in meat are the chemical methods such as Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the biological methods such as microbiology test and immunoassay based on the technique of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or ELISA. Each method possesses different advantages and disadvantages and the selection depends on the objectives of the users. However, ELISA is a suitable method for screening a large number of samples because of its specificity, accuracy and precision and user friendliness. In addition, it can be used to detect a residue in many samples simultaneously, while the chemical based methods are suitable as confirmatory detection of a suspected sample after screening.


P.46-55

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Green Tea Catechins and Storage Stability

คาเทชินในชาเขียวและความคงตัวระหว่างเก็บรักษา

ธีรพงษ์ เทพกรณ์

Fresh tea leaves are processed differently to produce green, oolong, and black teas. Green tea is a non-fermented tea. Oolong tea is semi-fermented to permit a partially enzymatic oxidation, whereas black tea is a completely enzymatic oxidation. Among 3 types of teas, scientific evidences to support the health benefits of green tea consumption begin to appear. This might be due to the fact that green tea contains catechins which have anti-oxidative, anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Owing to the health benefits, green tea consumption is increasing, which is reflected by the increasing annual growth of its consumption. Unfortunately, the level of green tea catechins can be reduced as a result of degradation, epimerization, oxidation and polymerization during long-term storage as influenced by pH, temperature, oxygen availability, the presence of metal ions, and also other ingredients in products. A better understanding of storage effect on catechin stability of commercial products is important. It would suggest good preservation methods for maintenance of high quality products as of high health benefits to consumers. The present review summarizes the finding of catechins and its storage stability.


P.56-66

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Zeolite and Zeolite Technology

ซีโอไลต์และเทคโนโลยีซีโอไลต์

ศิรินุช ลอยหา

Zeolites are tetrahedrally connected framework solid based on silica and alumina. The structure possesses channels and cages which are large enough to contain extra-framework cations and to permit the adsorption and desorption of organic molecules varying size up to 1 nm. Their crystalline structure directly controls their properties such as acidity, selectivity, and stability and consequently their performance in applications such as ion exchange, separation, and catalysis. Zeolite catalysts have been brought to in industrial processes for economical and environmental benefits due to their properties such desired product selectivity and high thermal stability. More than 90 % of the industrial zeolites are applied in petrochemistry and refining industries. Due to the global energy and goods consumption has increased much more rapidly than in the previous decades, a strongly pressure for reducing the environmental impact has adopted more severe regulations for the production of waste and gas emission such as CO2, SOx and NOx. In this article, the potential of zeolites in supporting the technology innovation especially in the environmental cleaner and renewable fuels is the most interesting.


P.67-79

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CaCu3Ti4O12: Future Material for Fabricating Small-Size Capacitors

CaCu3Ti4O12: วัสดุแห่งอนาคต เพื่อการประดิษฐ์เป็นตัวเก็บประจุไฟฟ้าขนาดจิ๋ว

ประสิทธิ์ ทองใบ

In recent years, giant dielectric materials have been playing a significant role in microelectronic devices such as capacitors and memory devices. This is because such devices often require materials with high dielectric constants () and low loss tangents (tan). CaCu3Ti4O12 has gained considerable interest both scientifically and technologically. Its giant dielectric constant exhibits values in the range of 103105 at room temperature, depending on ceramic microstructures and processing conditions. It is now widely accepted that the origin of the giant dielectric response in the CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics is attributed to the MaxwellWagner polarization effect at grain boundaries. Unfortunately, their tanδ values are still too large. Investigation to optimize the value tanδ by controlling the microstructure and doping metal ions into CCTO ceramics is therefore important.


P.80-91

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Stefan Banach and Banach Spaces

สเตฟาน บานาค และปริภูมิบานาค

ฐิตารีย์ วุฒิจิรัฐิติกาล

Almost all of the modern analysis is the study of some form or a combination of Banach space, or generalized or specialized variants of Banach space, or operators on, or between them. In this article, we will first take a brief look at the life of the remarkable Polish mathematician Stefan Banach. Banach spaces and more recently Banach algebras are named after him. Then various examples of Banach spaces will be given. These examples are so basic that most mathematicians would agree that every mathematician, whether working on analysis or not, should have some degree of familiarity. Further recent work in the area will be briefly discussed with references at the end.


P.92-100

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Hypercircle Inequality and Its Application

อสมการไฮเพอร์เซอร์เคิล และการประยุกต์

กรรณิการ์ ขาพึ่งสน

In this paper, we present the hypercircle inequality which is well known in mathematics. Moreover, we apply the available material of it to the problem of learning the value of a function in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space.


P.101-111

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Mathematical Methods for Schrödinger Equation and the WKB Approximation Method

วิธีการทางคณิตศาสตร์สาหรับสมการชเรอดิงเงอร์ และวิธีประมาณค่าแบบดับเบิลยูเคบี

เพชรอาภา บุญเสริม

The Schrödinger equation is a fundamental equation in physics for describing quantum mechanical behavior. It is a partial differential equation that shows how a wave function of a physical system evolves over time. In addition, it is associated with the kinetic energy and the potential energy, both of which contribute towards the total energy. This paper explains mathematical aspect of the Schrödinger equation. The concept of the WKB approximation has also been reviewed, which is an important method in finding the approximate solutions for the wave function. In addition, the paper also shows how to derive the transmission and reflection probabilities in relation to a one-dimensional quantum problem, called a “tunneling problem”, which occurs when a classical particle passes through a region where total energy is less than its potential energy. The WKB approximation can be used as a basis for formally writing down the exact solutions. Furthermore, it gives a high accuracy for the propagation of waves with high frequency or short wavelength.


P.112-120

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On the Length of a Shortest Spanning Walk

แนวเดินแผ่ทั่วที่สั้นที่สุด

Wasamon Jantai

A spanning walk of a graph is a walk that contains all vertices in a graph. The purpose of this article is to find number of edges of a shortest spanning walk of a connected graph G with n vertices. There are 3 cases in the scope of the study: a shortest spanning walk with respect to fixed endpoints; a shortest spanning walk with respect to a fixed initial vertex and a shortest spanning walk without any restriction. Define   2 , ( ) max u v V G w G   {number of edges of a shortest spanning walk with endpoints u and v where u  v} ,   1 ( ) max v V G w G   {number of edges of a shortest spanning walk that starts at v} , and   w0 G = number of edges of a shortest spanning walk. It is obvious that   wi G1 0 and   wi G2 1 for i 0,1,2 and a connected graph G j with j 1 or 2 vertices. We find bounds on each parameter in which all bounds are sharp for n  3 as follows   n1w2 G 2n3;   n1w1 G 2n3;   n1w0 G 2n4. Moreover for each k between lower bound and upper bound of any wi , there exists a graph G with n vertices and   wi G k .


P.121-133

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Cross Language (Thai-English) Information Retrieval: Concepts and Challenges

แนวคิดและความท้าทายในการพัฒนาการค้นคืนข้อมูลข้ามภาษาไทย-อังกฤษ

ไกรศักดิ์ เกษร

Documents on the Internet have been written using several languages. The benefit of this is those documents are useful for users to verify the information from different sources. However, users are not able to use a single language in a query to retrieve all relevant documents written in different languages. Moreover, some users do not know exactly what the keywords to be used in a query to retrieve desired documents. As a result, search engine cannot find the relevant documents effectively. In addition, a keyword can refer to many different concepts in the real world, so-called “Polysemy” or many keywords refer to one thing, socalled “Synonym”. They are two significant problems that decrease a search engine performance. Consequently, many researchers try to overcome the problem by developing the Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) system in order to retrieve documents written by different languages from using a single query. This idea is now a new trend of search engine and can be developed as a commercial product for a popular search engine e.g. Google or Bing. The article presents the concepts and ideas of CLIR and summary of the main challenges in this research area.


P.134-143

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Cyperaceae Along the Nature Trails in Nam Nao National Park

พืชวงศ์กกตามเส้นทางเดินศึกษาธรรมชาติในอุทยานแห่งชาติน้าหนาว

Amornrat Meesawat and Phutsadee Phromprasit

A survey of the family Cyperaceae along the nature trails in Nam Nao National Park was studied between November 2007 and November 2008. Dried and living specimens were studied. Eight genera and 40 species were enumerated, Cyperus L. is the most common genus in the area with 11 species. The second is Carex L. with eight species. Whereas, Fuirena Rottb. and Lipocarpha R.Br. were found only one species in each genus, namely Fuirena umbellata Rottb. and Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) Kern. Key to genera is provided.