ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 41 No.3 July - September 2013


P.508-517

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Sugar Palm (Arenga westerhoutii Griff.) Seed: Nutritional Value and Product Development from Sugar Palm Seed with Quality and Safety

ลูกชิด: คุณค่าทางโภชนาการ และการพัฒนาผลิตภัณฑ์ลูกชิดให้มีคุณภาพและปลอดภัย

พันธ์สิริ สุทธิลักษณ์

Sugar palm (Arenga westerhoutii Griff.) usually found in the north of Thailand especially in Nan, Uttaradit, Pitsanulok, Phrae and Kanchanaburi provinces. The seeds are a good source of beneficial nutrition for human health. A hundred grams of sugar palm seeds contain 9.77 g of carbohydrate which highly consist total dietary fiber content at 8.59 g (6.61 g of soluble dietary fiber and 1.98 g of insoluble dietary fiber) when compared to other palm families. Moreover, the sugar palm seeds can be a good source of calcium (96.51 mg/100 g) which contain low fat content (0.07 g) and provide energy at 52 kcal. Sugar palm seeds in syrup and dried form are consumed as desserts throughout Thailand. However, highly sulfur dioxide residue remaining in the products may harm consumers. Therefore, safety levels for sulfiting agent or its alternatives are needed for manufacturers to keep nutritional quality of the sugar palm products during storage and distribution processes, in addition to safety insurance to consumers. Besides, product development without chemical additives is still required for the sugar palm seeds as well as additional forms of the product presentations. These would ensure product safety and quality to customers, and bring up sugar palm seeds to a selected choice of healthy products.


P.518-531

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Monodon Baculovirus: The Detection of Infection in Penaeus monodon

เชื้อโมโนดอนแบคคิวโลไวรัส: การตรวจสอบการติดเชื้อในกุ้งกุลาดา

ดวงแขฑิตา กาญจนโสภา

Monodon baculovirus (MBV) may cause reduction of growth rate and increase of culture period in shrimp. In addition, virus infection in the larva, post larva and juvenile stages shows a high rate of death to 90%. This has indicated very serious in many hatcheries. Diagnosis of MBV was originally accomplished by microscopic observation of inclusion bodies in hapatopancreatic cells via malachite green staining of hepatopancreatic squash mounts or hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) of hepatpancreatic tissue sections. Now a day, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that is more sensitive molecular method has been reported. However, only the method of Belcher and Young (1998) has been found to be reliable for the detection of MBV from Australia, India and Thailand. Recently, other highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification methods were developed, including a real-time PCR method and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Although PCR-based methods are used widely for the detection of MBV in the laboratory, they are not suitable for pond-side detection by farmers. Simpler immunological methods using monoclonal antibody have been developed into immunochromatographic strip test. Although less sensitive than PCR, antibody-based diagnostic methods trend to be simpler, less expensive and more amenable to use in less well equipped laboratories or by unskilled personnel in the field. It is sustainable to restrict a prevalence of MBV virus.


P.532-541

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Malaria in Mice: Models to the Discovery of Novel Anti-Malaria Drugs in Humans

โรคมาลาเรียในหนูไมซ์: โมเดลสู่การค้นพบยาต้านมาลาเรียใหม่ในมนุษย์

สิทธิพร ภัทรดิลกรัตน์

Malaria parasites are prevalent in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including rodents. Rodent malaria parasites have been adapted to complete its life cycle in laboratory mice (Mus musculus) and Anopheles mosquitoes, and they can therefore be used as a model to study host-parasite interaction, immunology and chemotherapy that are intractable to study using the human malaria parasites. In this review, the life cycle and the applications of malaria parasites in laboratory mice as a research tool for discovery of new anti-malaria drugs are described.


P.542-566

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Biological Activities of Albizia spp.

ฤทธิ์ทางชีวภาพของพืชสกุล Albizia

นันทิยา จ้อยชะรัด และ สุรศักดิ์ ลิ้มสุวรรณ

The genus Albizia belongs to the family Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. Several species of Albizia have been used in folk medicine both in Thailand and other countries for the treatment of many ailments. The plants in this genus are sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities, many of which are useful in pharmaceuticals and medicine. This genus posseses several pharmacological activity such as cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic activities. Triterpene saponins, spermine alkaloids, and flavonoids are the main active components of this genus. Some of these components have a potential to be developed into new drug. Therefore, this review will focus on the biological activities and active compounds from the genus Albizia.


P.567-581

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Natural Rubber Modification Technology and Its Applications

เทคโนโลยีการดัดแปรยางธรรมชาติและการประยุกต์ใช้

สุวดี ก้องพารากุล

Natural rubber or Para rubber is an important natural polymeric resource in Thailand. The outstanding mechanical properties of natural rubber, such as elasticity and tear resistance, are more than synthetic rubber from petrochemical industry. However, natural rubber is easily degraded when exposed to sunlight, heat or non-polar organic solvent. Therefore, natural rubber usages required a modification process to improve its properties and reduce its defects. This review article presents various natural rubber modification methods and its properties of modified natural rubber from previous research articles. This would be an alternative way to improve some properties of natural rubber for further application.


P.582-594

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Carbohydrate Hydrolysis by Glycosidase: Mechanistic Aspects and Applications

การย่อยสลายคาร์โบไฮเดรตโดยเอนไซม์ไกลโคสิเดส: ทัศนะเชิงกลไกและการประยุกต์ใช้

จิตระยุทธ์ จิตอ่อนน้อม

Recent studies of the carbohydrate hydrolysis by glycosidase (GH) have shown that a number of GH families undergo various unusual mechanisms, which differ from the known classical mechanisms, including substrate-assisted catalysis, exogenous bases, alternative nucleophiles and NAD-dependent hydrolysis. The main reason for such specific mechanisms is the diversity of key amino acids, which function as a catalytic base/nucleophile. Mutation of the catalytic base/nucleophile can have a profound impact on substrate specificity, producing enzymes with new function roles and better activity. This principle can be applied in protein engineering for the design and synthesis of proteins with specific properties and high efficiency. Gaining the knowledge of GH mechanism, especially the catalytic diversity, is thus crucial and has been updated in this review.


P.595-606

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What Should We Consider Before Making Compost?

ข้อควรพิจารณาก่อนทำปุ๋ยหมัก

นันทวัน ฤทธิ์เดช

Agricultural waste, plants trimming waste, animal manure and household waste are wastes that can be converted into a valuable material. It is beneficial to the growth of crops and maintenance of soil fertility. Use of the chemical fertilizer in agriculture for a long time which led to the soil degradation and imbalance of organisms in the soil was also occurred. Compost production is a process that turns waste into an organic matter which calls humus. To get stable, homogeneous, useful humus product and the fermentation process occurs rapidly. Considerations and awareness are needed to know before making compost.


P.607-620

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Magnetic Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: a Magic Bullet for Cancer Therapy

การนำส่งยาด้วยอนุภาคนาโนแม่เหล็ก: กระสุนจิ๋วพิชิตมะเร็ง

ธีระพงษ์ พวงมะลิ

Ferromagnetic materials exhibit superparamagnetic properties with enhanced magnetic moments when their dimensions are smaller than critical sizes. The magnetic moments are directly proportional to the size of nanoparticles; therefore, the magnetic force is increased with increasing volume. Besides, high response to magnetic force can be observed. Their coercivity is approaching zero making this possible for biological applications. At room temperature these nanoparticles are unable to agglomerate thus reducing embolisation in blood vessels. In magnetic drug targeting, magnetic nanoparticles are coated with therapeutic agents and biocompatible materials including various ligands to enable multifunctionality from a single particle platform. The coated nanoparticles are then injected into the circulatory system and are intentionally directed into the target site by external magnetic field. Releasing of the nanoparticles and conjugated therapeutic agents are controlled by pH or unique molecular signature found on malignant cells. The potential of targeted drug delivery stems from significant advantages as follows : (i) the ability to target specific location in the body; (ii) the reduction of the quantity of drug needed to attain a particular concentration in the vicinity of the target; and (iii) the reduction in the concentration of the drug at non-target sites minimizing severe side effects.


P.621-637

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DRASTIC: Geographic Information System Model for Evaluating Groundwater Pollution Potential

DRASTIC: แบบจำลองระบบสำรสนเทศภูมิศำสตร์ สำหรับประเมินศักยภำพกำรปนเปื้อนของแหล่งนำบำดำล

จิระเดช มาจันแดง

DRASTIC is the most widely used method for evaluating groundwater pollution potential. This method is the geographic information system model in the form of index model and use the overlay method for data analysis. DRASTIC are acronym of words in English, include: Depth to water, [net] Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography [slope], Impact of vadose zone, and Conductivity [hydraulic] of the aquifer. The result index is ranged for classifying the groundwater pollution potential levels. DRASTIC model validation effort is always constrained by the quantity and quality of the factors, in particular the factors have high influence in the model.


P.638-647

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Comparison of Test Statistics Using Simulated Data

การเปรียบเทียบสถิติทดสอบโดยใช้การจำลองข้อมูล

มานะชัย รอดชื่น

This article considers the comparison of the test statistics under the test of size  or level . The criteria of Cochran (1947), the criteria of Bradley (1978, cited in Tomarken and Serlin, 1986) and the criteria under hypothesis testing for  are applied with distributions that are well approximated by a normal distribution and binomial distribution.


P.648-656

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Round Robin Tournament and One-Factor

การจัดการแข่งขันทัวร์นาเมนต์แบบแบ่งรอบโดยใช้ 1-แฟกเตอร์

ธนวัฒน์ วิเชียรไพศาล มงคล ตุ้นทัพไทย และ จริยา อุ่ยยะเสถียร

In a sport tournament, each team plays with all other teams. In many two-team sports, there is a home team and an away team in each match. If the tournament has no suitable schedule, some teams will have a disadvantage. This paper constructs a suitable schedule for some sport tournaments by using 1-factorization.


P.657-663

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The Applications of Fixed Point Theorems for Multi-Valued Mappings on a Metric Space with a Graph

การประยุกต์ทฤษฎีบทจุดตรึง สาหรับการส่งแบบหลายค่าบนปริภูมิเมตริกที่มีกราฟ

จักรกฤษ กลิ่นเอี่ยม

The main purposes of this article are to review some existing fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings and to introduce the application of these fixed point theorems for a multi-valued mappings to the basic knowledge of graph. Let (,)Xd be a metric space and :2XTX be a multi-valued mapping. We then obtained sufficient conditions for the fixed point existence of the mapping T in the metric space X endowed with a graph G such that the set ()VG of vertices of G coincides with X and the set of edges of G is(){(,):(,)}EGxyxyXX.


P.664-670

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Power Function Solutions of Iterative Functional Differential Equations with Some Conditions

ผลเฉลยฟังก์ชันกำลังของสมกำรเชิงอนุพันธ์ฟังก์ชันเชิงทำซำกับบำงเงื่อนไข

ศุกระวรรณ มะเวชะ (ตาลวงค์)


P.671-678

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Functional Equations with Trigonometric Function Solutions

สมการเชิงฟังก์ชันที่มีผลเฉลยเป็นฟังก์ชันตรีโกณมิติ

จรินทร์ทิพย์ เฮงคราวิทย์


P.679-688

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Diversity of Ficus L. in Huay Nam Pam Forest Conservation Unit, San Pan Dan Wildlife Sanctuary, Pang Mapha District, Mae Hong Son Province

ความหลากหลายของพืชสกุลไทร (Ficus L.) ในบริเวณหน่วยพิทักษ์ป่าห้วยน้าแพม เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าสันปันแดน อ้าเภอปางมะผ้า จังหวัดแม่ฮ่องสอน

ณัชชา สุจริตใจ วัฒนา ตันมิ่ง และ อังคณา อินตา

Survey and study species diversity of Ficus spp. at Huay Nam Pam Forest Conservation Unit, San Pan Dan Wildlife Sanctuary, Pang Ma Pha District, Mae Hong Son Province were carried out between May 2012 and March 2013. Three survey lines were set up for data collecting with the total distance 10.35 kilometers. Twenty-seven species, 197 trees of Ficus species belonging to 6 subgenera were found. The largest subgenera is Urostigma, with 13 species, followed by Sycomorus with 7 species. Subgenera Ficus, Sycidium and Synoecia each with 2 species and Pharmacosycea with 1 species. Total number of Shannon and Weaver Index is 2.93. The first line had the most species composition and species diversity, followed by the third and second line respectively.


P.689-701

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Red-Breasted Parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) Breeding Strategy in Captivity at Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo

กลยุทธการเพาะเลี้ยงขยายพันธุ์นกแขกเต้า ในสภาพกรงเพาะเลี้ยงของสวนสัตว์นครราชสีมา

วิชิต กองคำ วันชัย สวาสุ จำนงค์ สุรพัฒน เอนก พิมพ์จันทึก บัญญัติ อินทร์สุวรรณ์ และ สราวุธ แก้วศรี

Breeding of red-breasted parakeet (Psittacula alexandri) in captivity was conducted at Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo during October 2008 and September 2009. Courtship behavior, mating behavior, laying egg, hatching, parent raising, growth and development of the newborn bird were investigated. Cock and hen breeders were weighed. Upper mandible length, tarsus length and wingspan were measured. The behavior of the experimental animals was also observed. The results showed that average body weight, upper mandible length, wing span length, and tarsus length of the cock and hen breeders were 121.75±8.13 g, 21.67±2.19 mm, 201.33±9.00mm, and 18.42±2.87 mm, respectively. Breeding season of P. alexandri appeared during October to May. They spent an average of 2.38±0.58 minutes per time of mating and the mating frequency of 2.58±1.44 times per day. The average egg weight of the bird was 10.00±0.08 g and its white elliptic-shape had an average measurement of 23.88±0.64 mm x 29.75±0.89 mm. Eggs were laid at 1-5 day intervals with the average clutch size of 3-4 eggs. An average incubation period was 24±3 days. The average of 79.16±4.16 % of the laid eggs was fertile and 100±0.00 % of the fertile eggs was hatched. The babies have full feathers and beak color as orange-red at about 50 days. They start flying at 55 days. They can eat by themselves around 70 days. With more than 70 days of age, their beak color will change to black. Sexing the birds by external characteristics can be done when the birds are 12 month old. 90.91 % of young birds survived until 12 month old.


P.702-708

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The Study of Effects of Thai Native Silkworm and Mulberry Varieties on Silk Production in Sakon Nakhon Province

การศึกษาผลของไหมพันธุ์ไทยพื้นบ้านและหม่อนที่มีต่อการผลิตไหม ภายในจังหวัดสกลนคร

รุ่งทิพย์ มาศเมธาทิพย์ และ ภานุวัฒน์ คัมภีราวัฒน์

The study on growth and production of four Thai native silkworm varieties (Nangsew, Nangtui, Huacharuad, Samrhong) fed by using three difference mulberry varieties (Burirum 60, Sakon Nakhorn 10, Sakon Nakhorn 72) was under taken. The experimental design was 4×3 factorial in RCBD with four replications of block. The result showed that the Thai native silkworm varieties had significant effect on number of eggs per female, hatching percentage, early instar larvae survival percentage, full-grown instar larvae survival percentage, weight of fifth instar larvae, percentage of cocoon, percentage of complete pupae, fresh weight of cocoon, weight of cocoon shell, percentage of cocoon shell and silk length per cocoon (P<0.05). From this study, it was found overall that Nangtui had the highest growth and presented total product higher than other varieties. The mulberry varieties had significant effect only on early instar larvae survival percentage and weight of fifth instar larvae (P<0.01). Additionally, in this study represented that the correlation values were -0.81 to 0.93. Therefore, for the breeding program of Thai native silkworm variety, if it is considered only single trait, the result will affect on the other traits. However, it depends the correlation level. คา


P.709-722

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Relationship between Water Quality and Distribution of Stonefly Larvae in Pristine Areas at Huai Nam Dung National Park, Thailand

ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างคุณภาพน้ำและการกระจายของตัวอ่อนแมลงเกาะหินในพื้นที่ซึ่งไม่ถูกรบกวนของอุทยานแห่งชาติห้วยน้ำดัง ประเทศไทย

Ratitorn Jaihao and Chitchol Phalaraksh

The aims of this study were to investigate how the distribution of stonefly larvae is related to the water quality of selected streams in Huai Nam Dung National Park, Thailand. Three streams were selected from pristine areas of the national park. Fifteen genera from four families were identified from this study. The highest total numbers of individual was found in genus Cryptoperla (476 individuals, 37.9%). The highest genera diversity was found from Mae Jok Stream (13 genera), and the highest total number of individuals specimens was also found from this stream (555 individuals). The Pearson’s Correlation value indicated the positive correlation between stonefly abundance and the elevation (r = 0.540, P < 0.01), and the negative correlation between stonefly abundance and many physico-chemical parameters especially water temperature (r = -0.481, P < 0.01) which revealed the highest negative correlation in this study. In order to consider the water quality using the Chemical Index, it was found that Nam Dung and Mae Ping Stream were found to be clean streams (Water temperature = 18.5, 19.1 °C, pH = 7.4, 6.9, Conductivity = 37.65, 26.99 μS/cm, BOD5= 0.6, 0.5 mg/l, NO3-N = 0.13, 0.08 mg/l, NH4-N = 0.91, 0.86 mg/l, O-PO4-P = 0.41, 0.28 mg/l), whereas the quality of Mae Jok Stream was in the fairly clean level (Water temperature = 20.2 °C, pH = 7.1, Conductivity = 44.78 μS/cm, BOD5 = 0.7 mg/l, NO3-N = 0.19 mg/l, NH4-N = 0.75 mg/l, O-PO4-P = 0.56 mg/l). The results of this study indicate that the high abundance of stonefly larva could be found in the streams, which were located in the pristine areas that undisturbed by human activity, and the environment was suitable for stonefly larva.


P.723-730

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Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Clerodendrum disparifolium Leaves

การทดสอบองค์ประกอบทางพฤกษเคมี และฤทธิ์ต้านออกซิเดชันของใบข่อยดา

ศรินรัตน์ ฉัตรธีระนันท์ วรางคณา สบายใจ และ สิริมาส นิยมไทย

Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and 95% ethanolic extracts from the dried leaves of C. disparifolium revealed the presence of bioactive substances such as flavonoids and alkaloids. The anthraquinones, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides were also tested but not found. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were evaluated according to DPPH assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results showed that ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts had antioxidant activities calculated in IC50, 4.46±0.04, 4.03±0.14 mg/mL, respectively. The total phenolics content of the ethyl acetate extract was 258.84±3.84 mg GAE/g extract whereas the ethanolic extract was 289.49±1.32 mg GAE/g extract. The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolics content was observed with correlation coefficient 0.8191.


P.731-743

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The Antibacterial Activity of some Pure Compounds from Diospyros curranii Against some Opportunistic Gram-negative Bacteria

ฤทธิ์ของสารบริสุทธิ์จากรักดา (Diospyros curranii) ในการยับยั้งการเจริญเชื้อแบคทีเรียแกรมลบฉวยโอกาส

วิสาตรี คงเจริญสุนทร วารี เนื่องจานงค์ และ พนิดา อภิบาล

This research was aimed to study effect of cholestanol, stigmasterol and friedelin, derived from the root of Diospyros curranii (Ebenaceae), and compare anti-bacterial activity with two antibiotics; ampicillin and tetracycline against some gram negative opportunistic bacteria. The antibacterial activity of all bioactive compounds were tested against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli ATCC 25913 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To determine value of Minimal Inhibitory concentration (MIC), the broth dilution susceptibility test was designed to test all pure compounds. The results were indicated that some pure compounds of D. curranii could inhibit the growth of some opportunistic bacteria with the best MICs of 128 μM for stigmasterol. Friedelin could inhibit the growth of E. coli ATCC 25913, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa with the MIC of 512 256 and 1024 μM friedelin, respectively. Cholestanol could inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa with the MIC of 2048 μM, but could not inhibit A. baumannii and E. coli ATCC 25913 (MIC more than 2048 μM). When compared antibacterial activity of the compounds to ampicillin and tetracycline, friedelin gave the best antibacterial activity, followed by antibacterial activity of stigmasterol that had antibacterial activity closed to tetracycline. Cholestanol gave antibacterial activity as well as antibacterial activity of ampicillin. In conclusion, some pure compounds from D. curranii could inhibit the growth of bacteria by the different concentrations that correlated to a number of opportunistic bacteria with statistic significance (p<0.05).


P.744-755

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Analysis of Factors Affecting the Arsenic Contamination in Toenails Using Loglinear Models

การวิเคราะห์ปัจจัยที่มีผลกระทบต่อการปนเปื้อนของสารหนูในเล็บคน ด้วยตัวแบบล็อกลิเนียร์

เอกพันธ์ หวานใจ วีรานันท์ พงศาภักดี และ ไพโรจน์ ขาวสิทธิวงศ์

Arsenic contamination in human is possibly affecting one’s body from several hazard factors. Public health and epidemiology works concern and monitor to this issue. One way to tackle this problem is to investigate several effecting factors that may associated with Arsenic cumulatively contamination in toenails. This research aims to study effective factorss on Arsenic contamination in toenails data obtained from website http://lib.stat.cmu.edu (8 March, 2010), on “Toenails Samples as an Indicator of Drinking Water Arsenic Exposure”. The factors consist of 6 categorical variables: Age is categorized into 3 levels, similarly, for Sex is categorized into 2 levels, Drinkwater into 5 levels, Cookwater into 5 levels, Arswater into 2 levels, and Arsnails into 2 levels. Statistical analyses based on Fisher’s exact test and loglinear modeling are performed using SAS version 9.1. The results under Fisher’s exact test and those from log-linear modeling are concluded that for Fisher’s tests, each Age, Sex, Cookwater, Drinkwater, is not associated with Arsnails under the level of significance at 0.05. However, it is found that the Arswater is associated with Arsnails significantly (p-value = 0.026). The analysis using loglinear models reveals that there is significantly associated between the Arsnails and Arswater at α = 0.05. The estimated loglinear model, arswater arsnails arsnails*arswater ij i j ij log(mˆ )  uˆ  uˆ  uˆ  uˆ has adequate of fit (P = 0.999), of which the predicted values ( ˆij m ), the corresponding probabilities ( ˆ ij P ), and odds ratios can be obtained and further studied.


P.756-769

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The Studying Potassium Bromide Profile (KBr profile) of Drilledholes K-68 and K-70 in Nachueak District, Maha Sarakham Province to Prove the Overturn Bed of Rock Salt and Potash Bed in Maha Sarakham Formation by Comparative KBr Contents with a Normal Bed

การศึกษาปริมาณโพแทสเซียมโบรไมด์โปรไฟล์ (KBr profile) ในหลุมเจาะ K-68 และ K-70 ที่อาเภอนาเชือก จังหวัดมหาสารคาม เพื่อพิสูจน์การเกิดชั้นหินแบบตลบทับของชั้นเกลือหินและโพแทช ในหมวดหินมหาสารคาม โดยเปรียบเทียบกับชั้นหินปกติ

ปกรณ์ สุวานิช

The studying Potassium Bromide content as a profile (KBr profile) along the depth in each rock salt layer of Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Group of rock in northeastern Thailand can tell not only which is the layer of Upper, Middle or Lower Salt bed, but also tell about the overturn bed of the rock salt layer. The author tries to do the research by using some drilled-holes samples from Department of Mineral Resources who drilled in the Potash and Rock Salt Project in the northeastern part of Thailand. There are 2 holes, K-68 and K-70, at Nachueak District, Maha Sarakham Province, found that the sequences of the stratigraphy are so different from others. The author tries to use the KBr profile in rock salt layers in the holes K-68 and K-70 comparing to other normal sequence in other holes. The result is found that in the drilled-hole K-68, the rock salt layer overlaying the “potash zone” bed (sylvite and carnallite) is the upper sequence of “lower salt” bed instead of the lower salt should be under the potash zone. This is because the KBr profile is so higher than other salt layers and it is the interval contact the potash layer. The beyond layer is thin “color salt” bed that has the KBr profile like other holes but in the reversed direction. The next lower drilled through the “middle salt” layer which normally it should be over the lower salt. This layer by the KBr profile, is found the overturn fold clearly because the KBr content is always high at 200 ppm This is the “lower sequence” of the “middle salt”. Then it is down through the “lower clastic” again before the drilling activity is abandon. For the drilled holes K-70, the first drilled layer is the “lower salt” because the KBr content is so high at 400-500 ppm which mean that the layer is near the contact with potash layer, but the shape of the profile is reverse direction comparing to normal drilled holes. Then, it is drilled through the “potash zone” that is all carnallite before going through the “color salt” layer. The KBr profile in the “color salt” layer is like the KBr-68 that is reversed side. The drilling was stopped in the “lower clastic” layer. The characteristics of these rock layers indicate that the bedding of these 2 drilled holes is sequential layer as an “overturn bed” certainly.


P.770-780

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The Difference of Bullet Marks at Metal Sheets of .38 Special Revolver (LRN) and 9 mm. Luger Automatic (LRN)

ความแตกต่างของร่องรอยที่เกิดจากลูกกระสุนปืนรีวอลเวอร์ ขนาด .38 สเปเชียล (LRN) และลูกกระสุนปืนออโตเมติก ขนาด 9 มิลลิเมตร ลูเกอร์ (LRN) เมื่อเข้าปะทะบนแผ่นโลหะ

อัจฉราพร พาเก่าน้อย จิรวัชร ธนูรัตน์ พิพิธชัย สร้อยชมภูพงศ์ และคมศร ลมไธสง

This research aims to study the difference of bullet marks on the car metal sheets , caused by the collision of lead ammunition (Lead-Round Nose : LRN), shooting from .38 Special revolver and 9 mm Luger automatic pistol at the different distances and angles. This research will be benefit in the process of forensic identification caused from shooting vehicles crime scene. In this experiment, the metal sheets used from Toyota taxi car, size at 30 x 30 x 0.1 cm. The guns used in this research was a .38 Special revolver Smith & Wesson Model 15 - 4 with Winchester .38 Special Lead-Round Nose (LRN), and a Browning Hi-Power 9mm Semi Automatic pistol with Royal Ammunition Industrial 9 mm luger Lead-Round Nose (LRN). The shooting assessment was tested at 3 different distances, and with 4 shooting angles. The images of bullet marks on the metal sheets were recorded by digital camera. The width, length and depth of bullet marks were measured by the Digital vernier caliper and the obtained data were statistically analyzed. Land and Groove of the bullet which appeared on the metal sheets were investigated using Stereo Microscope. The results revealed that the sizes of bullet marks on the metal sheets caused by. 38 Special revolver ammunition are larger than the bullet marks from 9 mm Luger automatic ammunition. However, the distance of shooting has no effect to the size of bullet marks (at the significant level of .05). In the case of 30 degree shooting angle, the land and groove of bullet marks were detected on the metal sheets. This could be used for calculation in number of land and groove present on the barrel of the shot gun.


P.781-788

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A Comparison of the Power of Test of Test Statistics for 2×2 Factorial Designs

การเปรียบเทียบกาลังการทดสอบของสถิติทดสอบ สาหรับแผนการทดลองแบบ 2×2 แฟคทอเรียล

พรนภา ด่านไทยวัฒนา และ กมลชนก พานิชการ

The objective of this research is to compare the power of test of parametric and non-parametric test statistics, namely F-test, ranked transform test (RT-Test) and adjusted ranked transform test (ART-Test) for balanced 2×2 factorial designs including tests of main effects and interaction effect. The power of tests was calculated with 10,000 replications in each situation. The data was conducted from error distributed as chi-square. The results indicated that ART-Test performs well for interaction effect test in the most of situations. For main effect tests, the RT-Test gives the most power of test


P.789-796

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Evaluation and Bacterial Contamination of Public Toilets

การประเมินมาตรฐานและการปนเปื้อนแบคทีเรียในห้องส้วมสาธารณะ

กิจจา จิตรภิรมย์

Evaluations of public toilets in a large retail supermarkets, A and B were 30 branches in Bangkok by using a HAS toilet standards developed by the Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand and bacterial swab on the surface of the material with a 5-point touch, including faucets, sinks, toilet seat, door handles/knobs and toilet flushes. The total number is 100 samples that isolate and identify of bacterial contamination in the public toilet such as coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Results, Supermarkets A were not standard of HAS in 2 branches (6.7%) forasmuch of the standards of Healthy of criteria to evaluate all three aspects of Healthy (H), Accessibility (A) and Safety (S). The results of sampling and isolation of bacterial contamination were found in the toilets, Coliform bacteria, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative- Staphylococcus spp. (CNSA), but not found Salmonella spp. The majority of bacteria contaminated isolated from faucets, sinks, door handles/knobs, toilet seats and toilet flushes, respectively. So that, the lack of appropriate management in public toilets to clean or use an unhygienic habits cause the accumulation of bacteria and can spread. Finally, there is the health risk by the services of public toilets available in these supermarkets.