ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 43 No.1 January - March 2015


P.1-18

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Organic Reactions on Water

ปฏิกิริยาเคมีอินทรีย์ในน้ำ

อารดา ชัยยานุรักษ์กุล

It has been known that most of organic reactions have to be conducted in organic solvents due to solubility of organic substrates and reagents in organic solvents. However, it has been found recently that many classical organic reactions can be carried out using water as a solvent. This has raised much attention on organic reactions on water due to many advantages of water over organic solvents both handling and environmental aspects. The most important aspects are high reaction rate and selectivity of the organic reactions on water over organic solvents. Therefore, organic reactions on water have been more studied and it is believed that hydrophobic effect plays a role in bringing non-polar substrates and reagents together to make organic reactions on water possible and proceed with high reaction rate and selectivity.


P.19-27

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Li-S Battery: A New Kind of Rechargeable Battery for the Future

ลิเทียม-ซัลเฟอร์: แบตเตอรี่ชนิดใหม่แห่งอนาคต

ธันยาภรณ์ ฮอมณี และ นงลักษณ์ มีทอง

Rechargeable batteries are energy storage devices that are critical to portable electronic industries such as cell phones, computers, and electric vehicles. It is also the key enabling technology for renewable energy. Lithium-Sulfur is one of the future chemistry options of rechargeable batteries. Compared with lithium- ion batteries currently in use in many applications, this new battery chemistry has many advantages such as the ability to store higher energy, wider working temperature range, cheaper, safer and has lower toxicity. However, the downside is that there are chemical changes that affect the stability of the structure causing a rapid decrease in capacity (i.e. high capacity fading) and shorten its cycle life. Nanotechnology plays a crucial role in solving these problems. As a result, the performance of this new type of battery has been significantly improved. This new battery has the potential to foster widespread use of electric vehicles and renewable energy in a near future.


P.28-38

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Significant Properties and Examples of Unitary Matrices

สมบัติและตัวอย่างที่สำคัญของเมทริกซ์ยูนิแทรี

ภัทราวุธ จันทร์เสงี่ยม และ อานนท์ พลอยมุกดา

This article surveys significant properties and examples of unitary matrices. Various characterizations of unitary matrices, involving algebraic properties and properties related to orthogonality, inner products, norms and eigenvalues, are provided. We consider groups of unitary matrices and their important subgroups. Practical examples of unitary matrices are rotations, reflections, Householder reflections and matrices which represent quantum gates.


P.39-48

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Karyological Analysisof Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758) Using Egg Fibroblastic Cell Culture

การวิเคราะห์คาริโอไทป์ของไก่ป่าแดงตุ้มหูขาว (Gallus gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758) ด้วยการเพาะเลี้ยงเซลล์ไฟโบรบลาสต์จากไข่

สุมาลี พิมพันธุ์  อลงกลด แทนออมทอง  ยอดชาย ช่วยเงิน และ โดม ประทุมทอง

This is the first report karyological analysis of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) from Thailand. This research aimed to examine karyotypes ofthe red junglefowl. Fibroblastic cells were taken from junglefowl egg and cultured at 41 °C for 24 hr. The cultured fibroblast were then prepared for chromosomes by using the colchicine-hypotonic-fixation-air drying technique and followed by conventional staining and GTG-banding techniques. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=78, and fundamental number (NF) were 88 in both male and female. The types of macrochromosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 2 medium telocentric, 2 medium submetacentric, 4 small telocentrics, 4 small metacentrics, and 30 microchromosomes. The Z chromosome was a medium metacentric chromosome, while the W chromosome was the small metacentric chromosome.  The GTG-banding technique clearly revealedthe compatible pairs of bands on each of macrochromosome and also showed 139 bands’ number from all of those macrochromosome. The karyotype formula of the junglefowl is as follow:

2n (78) = Lm2+Lsm2+Mt2+Msm2+St4+Sm4 + microchromosomes + sex chromosomes (ZW)


P.49-59

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The Relationships between Body Weight and Size of the Elongated Tortoise Shell, Indotestodo elongata at Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างน้ำหนักตัวกับขนาดของกระดองเต่าเหลือง Indotestudo elongata ที่จังหวัดขอนแก่น ประเทศไทย

กัลยา ศรีประทีป

The objective of this study is to find out the relationships between body weight and size of Indotestudo elongata shell by measuring on both carapace and plastron of animals. The study area is "Tortoise Village" or Ban Kok in Suan Mon Subdistrict, Mancha Khiri District. The sample size comprised of 160 juveniles (hatchling - 6 years), 54 adult males and 50 adult females. From regression coefficient analysis, the coefficient of determination (R2) of juveniles was 0.9642 - 0.9779, adult males and adult females were 0.9159 - 0.9468 and 0.9273 - 0.9458, respectively. The relationships between weight and length and weight and width of juveniles were higher than that of adults. The relative equation was Log W = 2.794log PL – log 3.181 (R2= 0.9779, n = 160, p < 0.01). Moreover, the adult males had the highest relationship between weight and carapace width (CW) and the relative equation was Log W = 3.128log CW – log 3.535 (R2 = 0.9468, n = 54, p < 0.01). In addition, adult females had the highest relationship between weight and plastron length (PL) and the relative equation was Log W = 3.028log PL – log 3.705 (R2 = 0.9458, n = 50, p < 0.01). It had been found that this method could be used to estimate the weights of the tortoises using these equations with 99% confidence interval (p < 0.01). Therefore, regression coefficient analysis could be used to estimate weights and length and weight and width of elongated tortoise.


P.60-68

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Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus High Risk Type by High Resolution Melting Analysis

การตรวจจำแนกสายพันธุ์เชื้อ Human Papillomavirus ชนิดเสี่ยงสูงต่อการเกิดมะเร็งปากมดลูกด้วยเทคนิค High Resolution Melting Analysis

ปรางทิพย์ อุทัยวัตร  อาภาพรรณ ภูมิกอง  สุขุมาลย์ สว่างวารี  เยาวลักษณ์ ธีระเจตกูล  ดวงฤดี จังตระกูล  และ  จุรีรัตน์ ดาดวง

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer, with high incidence as the second most common cancer of women in Thailand. The objective of this study is to develop the technique for identifying of high risk HPV types 16, 18, 45 and 58 by real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis (HRM). DNA specimens were provided by National Cancer Institute. The quality of DNA was checked by housekeeping gene (beta actin) determination. Then, type specific primer of E6/E7 of HPV genes was used for DNA amplification. After using, SYBR Green staining, melting curve were analyzed for classification of HPV based on the difference of amplicon size and % GC contents in target genes. The entire assay time of HRM was 90 minutes compared to 4 hours of cervista technique. The detection limit of HRM assay for HPV type 16, 58 was 104 and for HPV type 18, 45 is 103 copies, respectively. No cross-reaction is observed. 34 known HPV genotype samples by cervista were subjected to HRM. The result showed that the sensitivity of HRM for HPV16 and HPV18 were 73.7% (n = 19) and 80% (n = 5), respectively. The specificity of HRM for HPV16 and HPV18 were 100% (n = 10) and 90% (n = 10), respectively. In summary, the developed technique is simply and rapid for detection of high risk HPV with high specificity.


P.69-82

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Study on Growth of Large-Leaved Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata) from Granular Chicken Manure and Phosphate Fertilizer

การศึกษาการเจริญเติบโตของโกงกางใบใหญ่ (Rhizophora mucronata) จากมูลไก่อัดเม็ดและปุ๋ยฟอสเฟต

สุบัณฑิต นิ่มรัตน์  ชุติมา กิติสาร  และ  วีรพงศ์ วุฒิพันธุ์ชัย

In this study, the effect of granular chicken manure and super phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) on the growth of Rhizophora mucronata was assayed. The experimental design was assigned as completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments including C (control), T1 (using 250 kg/Sq Mts of granular chicken manure), T2 (using 50 kg/Sq Mts of super phosphate fertilizer) and T3 (using 250 kg/Sq Mts of granular chicken manure and 50 kg/Sq Mts of super phosphate fertilizer) for 90 days. The results of growth parameters revealed that T2 had the most fresh weight of pods (39.77±4.77 g) and dry weight of stem and roots (84.73±7.76 g). T3 had the highest plant height with 26.30±0.20 cm and T1 had the highest leaf area with 42.20±2.15 cm2. In addition, the study of soil properties after planting R. mucronata on Day 70 showed that T1 had the highest value of ammonium, while T3 demonstrated the highest value of phosphorus. Soil texture was determined as sandy soil over a period of 90 days. Total heterotrophic bacteria of T3 had the highest level with (234.00±1.00)×103 CFU/g on Day 4. Therefore, the results of this study shown that granular chicken manure and super phosphate fertilizer are capable of enhancing the growth of Rhizophora mucronata, which can used further as a guideline for leading to the development and conservation of important mangrove plants in Thailand.


P.83-90

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Contamination of some Residues in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) in Shrimp Pond from Chanthaburi and Trat Provinces

การปนเปื้อนของสารตกค้างบางชนิดในกุ้งขาว (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) จากบ่อเลี้ยงกุ้ง ในจังหวัดจันทบุรีและตราด

ชวัลรัตน์ สมนึก*  จักรพันธ์ โพธิพัฒน์  และ  ศุทธินี เมฆประยูร

Four types of residue including organophosphate insecticides, heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium and zinc), pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and antibiotics (Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline and Nitrofuran) in Pacific white shrimp from shrimp pond in four Districts (Muang, Laem Sing, Kloong and Tha Mai Districts) of Chanthaburi Province, and three Districts (Muang, Laem Ngob and Klong Yai Districts) of Trat Province were determined. Results show that only copper level exceeds standard value specified by Ministry of Public Health from Kloong District, Chanthaburi Province (32.18±8.64 µg/g). The result also indicates residue of antibiotics, especially tetracycline at a quantity of less than 0.05 µg/kg in area of Muang District, Chanthaburi Province, V. parahaemolyticus at 3.0±2.4 MPN/g in 25 g of sample from Laem Ngob District, Trat Province and zinc at 17.30±4.67 µg/g from Klong Yai Districts, Trat Province. However, it was less than specified standard value. In addition, no residue of organophosphate insecticides, V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, oxytetracycline and nitrofuran was detected in all samples from both Chanthaburi and Trat Provinces.


P.91-105

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Variation of Ambient Bioaerosol at The King,s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Developmental Project, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province

การผันแปรของอนุภาคแขวนลอยชีวภาพในบรรยากาศ ณ โครงการศึกษาวิจัยและพัฒนาสิ่งแวดล้อมแหลมผักเบี้ย อันเนื่องมาจากพระราชดำริ จังหวัดเพชรบุรี

ศิริพร สันติวรพงศ์*  ฐิติมา รุ่งรัตนาอุบล  สุรัตน์ บัวเลิศ  และ  อริยา จินดามพร

The objective of this research was to investigate the variation of ambient bioaerosol at The King,s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Developmental Project, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi  Province. The factors of climate and environmental conditions were focused. The air sample with six-stage viable Andersen cascade impactor for 10 minutes at 1, 3 and 7 meter height from aboveground was collected during December, 2013 January and February, 2014. The results showed that the averaged concentrations of microorganisms significantly different statistically. The highest averaged concentration of microorganisms at 1 meter above ground was 1,320.08±30 CFU/m3 and the lowest averaged concentration at 7 meter above ground was 317.23±50 CFU/m3. It was caused by height, wind speed and solar radiation in the area. In addition, the microorganisms found mainly fungi, including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and bacteria. The particle sizes of microorganisms were important found in sizes 2.1-3.3 µm. The microorganisms were commonly found in the air.


P.106-115

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Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Jellyfish Curing Extract

พฤกษเคมีและฤทธิ์ต้านเชื้อแบคทีเรียของสารสกัดแมงกะพรุนดองฝาด

สุนิษา สุวรรณเจริญ  ทรงวิทย์ จันทรา  และ  อาภาพร บุญมี*

Phytochemicals and antibacterial activities of Jellyfish (Rhopilema hispidum) puckery curing, a traditional Thai food in the East of Thailand produced from the folk wisdom by using bark of Peltophorum dasyrachis, were studied comparatively with fresh jellyfish, P. dasyrachis bark water extracted and jellyfish marinade. The result showed that phytochemical components of jellyfish before and after curing were significantly different. By Wagner’s reaction, alkaloid was found only in fresh jellyfish and jellyfish marinade which implies that after curing process, alkaloid may be released from fresh jellyfish to marinade solution. Moreover, there were three compounds including tannin, flavonoid and phenolic were detected in jellyfish curing, jellyfish marinade and P. dasyrachis bark extracted. These compounds were not detected in fresh jellyfish. This refers to the phytochemicals from P. dasyrachis bark still contained in the jellyfish after preservation. Due to the presentation of phytochemical in jellyfish curing as in P. dasyrachis bark extracted, the jellyfish marinade showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and Psuedomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 whereas this property was not found in the fresh jellyfish.


P.116-125

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Effect of Ferrous Gluconate and Calcium Lactate Combined with Vacuum Osmotic Dehydration on Mass Transfer and Quality of Guava

ผลของความเข้มข้นของเฟอรัสกลูโคเนตและแคลเซียมแลคเตท ร่วมกับการใช้สภาวะสุญญากาศในการออสโมซิส ต่อการถ่ายเทมวลสารและคุณภาพของฝรั่ง

วิชมณี ยืนยงพุทธกาล*  ณัฎฐิกา โรจนเกียรติถาวร  และ  นันทมน ใหม่ยศ

Osmotic dehydration is a pre-treatment method used prior to drying for partially removal of water from fruit and vegetable. It also results in enriched the physiologically active compound inflow from the osmotic solution into fruit and vegetable pieces. The influence of factor variations in ferrous gluconate concentration, calcium lactate concentration and vacuum impregnation treatment for osmotic dehydration of guava were studied. It was found that all three factors influenced osmosed guava firmness (p0.05). Interaction of ferrous gluconate concentration and vacuum impregnation treatment had an effect on iron content of osmosed guava (p0.05). Similarly trend was observed that both calcium lactate concentration and vacuum impregnation treatment together influenced calcium content of osmosed guava (p0.05). Each main factor of ferrous gluconate concentration, calcium lactate concentration and vacuum impregnation treatment affected content of water loss, solid gain and weight reduction (p0.05). The addition of high concentration of ferrous gluconate and calcium lactate (2%) resulted the osmosed guava had the highest iron and calcium content as 26.57 and 60.13 mg/100 g, respectively.


P.126-135

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Effects of Microcystis aeruginosa Blooming on Community Wastewater Quality in Pond Technology System

ผลของการเพิ่มจำนวน Microcystis aeruginosa ต่อคุณภาพน้ำเสียชุมชน ในระบบเทคโนโลยีบ่อบำบัดน้ำเสีย

มัลลิกา ศรีชมภู*  ทัศนีย์ บุญประคอง  เกษม จันทร์แก้ว  ธนิศร์ ปัทมพิฑูร  และ  นพวรรณ เสมวิมล

Blooming of Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa affected on wastewater quality inpond technology system of King’s initially Laem Phak Bia Environmental Study and Development Project. Two months (January – February 2014) of water sampling in the oxidation pond were used for analyzing physical property, chemical property and amount of Cyanobacterium, M.aeruginosa. The results showed that averaged population density of M.aeruginosa was increased from 1.88×106 to 1.31×108 cell/m3in January, winter time with averaged water temperature 27.9°C. M.aeruginosa was decreased to 2.72×106 cell/m3 in February, beginning of summer time. Furthermore, blooming of M.aeruginosa affected on increasing of suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) which were higher than the water quality standard.


P.137-147

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Modeling Monthly Precipitation in Central Northeast of Thailand

การสร้างแบบจำลองปริมาณน้ำฝนรายเดือน ในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือตอนกลางของประเทศไทย

อรุณ แก้วมั่น  ปิยาพร บุตรจำรวญ  และ  ปิยภัทร บุษบาบดินทร์*

The purpose of this research is to model monthly extreme precipitation in central northeast of Thailand; Khon Kean, Kalasin, Roi-Et and Mahasarakham Provinces, by using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The maxima monthly rainfall, which are obtained from the Meteorological Department of Thailand, during January 1987 to September 2013; from six stations in the central northeast of Thailand were studied. There are four models via Generalized Extreme Value distribution with stationary (Form 1), the Generalized Extreme Value distribution in which the location parameter changes depending on linear trend (Form 2), the Generalized Extreme Value distribution in which the location parameter changes depending on quadratic trend (Form 3) and the Generalized Extreme Value distribution in which the location parameter changes depending on linear trend and the scale parameter changes depending on exponential (Form 4). The return levels for various return periods are estimated and the likelihood-Ratio test is evaluated as a criterion to find the best form. The study found that the Fréchet distribution is best fitted for all location when the process is stationary. Since the Kamalasai station of Kalasin province has the highest return level among various return periods, so it should be the first to be considered station in preventing or reducing the severity of floods. Furthermore, if the process is non-stationary there is only the Roi-et Station at Muang district of Roi-et province is form 1, and the rest are form 4.


P.148-162

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Forecasting Model for the Export Values for Fresh Frozen Shrimp of Thailand

ตัวแบบพยากรณ์มูลค่าการส่งออกกุ้งสดแช่แข็งของประเทศไทย

วรางคณา กีรติวิบูลย์

The purpose of this research is to forecast the export values of fresh frozen shrimp using three-time series analysis methods including Box-Jenkins, Winters’ multiplicative exponential smoothing, and combination forecasting. The secondary data obtained from the website of Office of Agricultural Economics with total 197 observations are used and divided into two series. The first 192 observations from January, 1998 until December, 2013 used to build the forecasting models and the last 5 observations from January until May, 2014 used to compare the forecasting methods performance via the criteria of the lowest mean absolute percentage error and root mean squared error. Research findings indicated that for all forecasting methods that have been studied, Winters’ multiplicative exponential smoothing method is the most appropriate method for this time series.


P.163-172

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Evaluating Outage Cost of Food Industries in Navanakorn Industrial Estate by Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)

การประเมินมูลค่าความเสียหายจากเหตุการณ์ไฟฟ้าขัดข้อง ของอุตสาหกรรมอาหารในเขตพื้นที่นิคมอุตสาหกรรมนวนคร ด้วยวิธีโครงข่ายประสาทเทียมแบบฟัซซี

ณรงค์กรณ์ อุทาทิพย์

This paper presents the impact and outage cost data of food industries in Navanakorn industrial estate in order to apply on planning, design and maintenance in electric power distribution system. The customer data and outage costs of food industries in Navanakorn industrial estate provided from survey approach are collected. Frist, the surveyed data which is significantly different or inconsistent with the remaining data is performed the hypotheses with chi-square method to identify the factors which relate to the outage costs at significant level of 0.05. The results of hypotheses show that four factors of average monthly of electrical energy consumption, time range of outage, outage duration and process recovery time are significantly related to the industrial outage cost. After that, these factors are assigned to be the inputs of customer outage cost model in ANFIS for evaluating outage cost of food industries in Navanakorn industrial estate. The analytical results show that the unplanned outage cost is higher than planned outage cost. In additional, the outage cost of small scale, medium scale and large scale of food industries evaluated from ANFIS model is lower than the outage cost from industrial customer survey. The learning algorithm by neuron network to adjust the membership function parameters of fuzzy inference system provides more appropriate information than using survey outage cost directly.