ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 43 No.3 July-September 2015


P.352-365

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DHEAs: Sex Hormone Precursor as Biomarker of Aging

DHEAs: สารตั้งต้นของฮอร์โมนเพศ ในบริบทของการเป็นดัชนีชี้วัดความชรา

ศิริพร ตันติพัฒนานนท์   ฉัฐญาณ์ วงศ์รัฐนันท์   อัครินทร์ ไพบูลย์พานิช และ รินา ภัทรมานนท์

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs) is the major prohormone mostly secreted from the adrenal gland. DHEAs is precursor for synthesis for the steroid hormones relating to body growth and sexual maturity including androgen and estrogen. Changing of DHEAs level has been shown to associate with risk of testosterone deficiency syndrome in men, cardiac diseases, Alzheimer‘s diseases, and cognitive impairment (dementia). The level of DHEAs in circulating blood and urine is highest in the adulthood before gradually declining with progressive aging at a rate of 1-2% per year until 90 years of age. Age-related declining of DHEAs level is a useful and reliable monitoring approach in following the rate of aging. DHEAs is considered a hormone marker of aging and its level can be used to assess the risk of diseases associating with age. DHEAs is also used in hormone therapies for anti-aging, reduction of the accumulation of visceral fat, enhancement of the immune system, prevention of cancer, and promotion of effective memory and mood.


P.366-379

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Broodstock Nutrition of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

โภชนาการอาหารพ่อแม่พันธุ์กุ้งขาวแวนนาไมและกุ้งกุลาดำ

พิเชต พลายเพชร

Pacific white and black tiger shrimp broodstocks require at least dietary 45 % protein, 10% lipid, 2% phospholipid and approximately 2% of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Other nutrients are vitamin E, vitamin C and pigment especially astaxanthin at ratios of 300-400, 800 and 250 mg/Kg feed, respectively. HUFA supplementation integrated with pigment or vitamin E shows positive interaction to reproduction. Artificial shrimp broodstock feed can replace fresh feed by only 50%, despite having similar nutrient patterns. Possibly, it contains less protein, ARA and EPA, also lacking hormone. Squid is most efficient fresh feed for enhancing reproduction because of containing high protein, ARA, EPA, DHA and cholesterol. However, integration of squid with various fresh feeds such as polychaete, a source of hormone benefits enhancing reproduction. Cost of fresh feed can be reduced by feeding broodstock with artificial feed at earlier culture period, then supplemented with fresh feed at the late period before spawning. Another method is partial replacing with Artemia biomass enriched with essential fatty acid, pigment, phytoplankton or herb.


P.380-394

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Reuterin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria

สารรอยเทอรินจากแบคทีเรียผลิตกรดแล็กติก

สุจิตรา เตโช และ สมบูรณ์ ธนาศุภวัฒน์

Reuterin or 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) is a neutral, water soluble, non-protein and low molecular weight aldehyde which exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Lactobacillus reuteri strains generally produce reuterin during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. However, many researches have been reported that other strains of Lactobacillus species such as L. coryniformis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and  L. collinoides acted as reuterin producers. The ability of these Lactobacillus strains to produce reuterin depended on the presence of glycerol dehydratase encoding gene (gld gene) which regulated the expression of glycerol dehydratase activity. Due to its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, the application of reuterin in the food industry has become a major interest.


P.395-402

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Production of Healthy Beverage from “Homnil” Rice

การผลิตเครื่องดื่มเพื่อสุขภาพจากข้าวหอมนิล

จุฑามาศ ถิระสาโรช และ เฉลิมพล ถนอมวงค์

The production of healthy beverage from “Homnil” rice was conducted to find a suitable ratio between rice flour and water at 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40 with rice flour extraction temperature at 50oC. Types and amount of sweeteners were 60oBrix sucrose syrup and 60oBrix Banana syrup at concentration levels of 7 and 9oBrix. Amount of gelatin stabilizer was used at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 percent and suitable period for disinfection at 90oC was studied at 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. It was found that the most suitable ratio between rice flour and water was 1:30. The batter viscosity was 14.73 centipoises, with pH, total soluble solids, protein content, fat content, and fiber of 6.71, 1.1, 0.23, 0.05 and 0.83 percent, respectively. The amount of Anthocyanin was 0.37 mg/ml. From adjustment of total soluble solids, it was found that the 7 oBrix sucrose syrup was most acceptable from testers in taste, texture, and overall liking (p<0.05). The use of 0.3 percent gelatin (by weight) resulted in wholeness of the beverage, without layers. The beverage had viscosity of 18 centipoises, pH of 6.4, total soluble solids of 9.8 percent, and Anthocyanin content of 0.7mg/ml. It was also found that with disinfection at the temperature of 90oC for 25 minutes, the beverage could be kept for 15 days at the temperature of 4-6oC with standard amount of microbes.


P.403-412

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Genetic Diversity Analysis of Stemona spp. by Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism Technique

การวิเคราะห์ความหลากหลายทางพันธุกรรมของหนอนตายหยาก ด้วยเทคนิค Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism

อภิชา ไชยเหล็ก และ สิริพร โรจน์อารยานนท์

Stemona spp. are widely known in Thailand and other foreign countries.  In Thailand there are about 10 species could be recognised. This research aimed to study the genetic diversity of Stemona spp. in a conserved plantation of Chiang Mai University. DNA fingerprints were constructed using the sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) technique to identify the species of Stemona spp. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of 160 samples. The DNA fingerprints were constructed by SRAP technique with 10 pairs of primers: M1E1, M1E2, M1E8, M2E10, M4E4, M4E8, M4E9, M5E5, M7E2 and M8E9. Two hundred and twenty five bands were detected, 222 (98.66%) of which were polymorphic. Analysis of genetic diversity with Dice Similarity Coefficient method showed the values of similarity coefficient to be 0.923-0.998. Cluster analysis of all the Stemona spp. samples revealed that they could be grouped into five clusters i.e. S. kerrii Craib, S. tuberosa Lour., S. burkillii Prain., S. curtisii Hook.f. and unidentified species that having the leaves similar to those of S. tuberosa Lour. These results indicated that SRAP technique for DNA fingerprint is an effective tool for determining genetic diversity of Stemona spp.


P.413-424

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The Study of the Heavy Metals Concentration (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) in Edible Bivalves Mollusks in Coastal Area of Leam Klat, Mueang District, Trat Province

การศึกษาความเข้มข้นโลหะหนัก (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) สะสมใน หอยสองฝาที่กินได้ บริเวณชายฝั่งทะเลแหลมกลัด ตำบลแหลมกลัด อำเภอเมือง จังหวัดตราด

เสถียรพงษ์ ขาวหิต   เกษม จันทร์แก้ว   วศิน อิงคพัฒนากุล   อรอนงค์ ผิวนิล และ อนุกรณ์ บุตรสันติ์

The six species of edible mollusks living in the coastal area of Leam Klat, Mueang District, Trat Province, including Meretrix casta, Meretrix meretrix, Solen grandis, Solen regularis, Solen strictus, Pseudodon sp., were examined to evaluate for the concentration of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb). These samples were collected at the lowest sea levels during the rainy season from July to September in 2012. The highest concentration level recorded where of Arsenic (As), on average were found within the tissue at 0.04037 milligrams/kilogram and It was found that 0.00427 milligrams/liter of water in the mollusk Pseudodon sp. Six bivalves recorded in the present study had heavy metal concentrated within their tissues not exceed the present environmental safety standards. The mollusks from coastal region of Leam Klat are safely for feeding. Therefore, they are edible and have no harm after human consumption.


P.425-438

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Optimization of High Protein Content Protein Hydrolysate Extraction from Hard Clam (Meretrix casta) Using Response Surface Methodology

สภาวะที่เหมาะสมในการสกัดโปรตีนไฮโดรไลเสตที่มีปริมาณโปรตีนสูง จากหอยตลับ (Meretrix casta) โดยใช้วิธีพื้นผิวตอบสนอง

นพรัตน์ มะเห   ดาริกา อวะภาค และ ดลฤดี พิชัยรัตน์

The objective of this study was to investigate the optimum condition for high protein content protein hydrolysate extraction from hard clam using Response Surface Methodology. Three independent variables were ratio of water to hard clam meat, enzyme (protamex) concentration and extraction time. Box-Behnken design was used for experimental design. After protein hydrolysate production from hard clam, protein content was evaluated. The statistical analysis indicated two variables, linear of ratio of water to hard clam meat () and enzyme (protamex) concentration () had significant effects on protein content of protein hydrolysate (p<0.05). The optimum condition for high protein content protein hydrolysate () were: ratio of water to hard clam meat was 1:8, enzyme (protamex) concentration was 1.5% and extraction time was 5.5 hours. Under these conditions, the predicted protein of protein hydrolysate was 84.97 mg albumin / ml protein hudrolysate.


P.439-445

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Development of an Indirect ELISA for the Detection of Newcastle Disease Antibodies with the antigen preparation from the Vero Cell Line

การพัฒนา Indirect ELISA สำหรับตรวจแอนติบอดีต่อโรคนิวคาสเซิล โดยใช้แอนติเจนที่ผลิตได้จาก Vero Cell Line

อรวรรณ์ บุตรดี   วิไลรัตน์ ฉ่ำสิงห์   น้องนิด เก้าลิ้ม และ นรินทร์ อุประกรินทร์

We developed an indirect ELISA test (NDV KP-54) for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens. The viral antigen was prepared from NDV KP-54 strain which was produced on African green monkey (Vero) cell line and use for an antigen coated plate. Serum samples from 14 flock of chicken (n=219) were tested by the NDV KP-54 ELISA compared with Hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). A cut-off point was established considering the distribution of reactivity values obtained by Two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC) template, The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were found to be 79.76% and 88.0% respectively, appropriated that cut-off point of the S/P ratio=0.450. In addition, The developed ELISA kit were evaluated by comparison with the ELISA commercial test kit (BioChek®) on 519 chicken serum The result showed that, the ELISA developed had sensitivity = 86.47% specificity = 84.57% and kappa value at 0.710 indicated that the efficiency of developed ELISA was close to that the commercial test kit and useful for improving NDV disease diagnosis in our laboratory.


P.446-458

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Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Adsorption between Green Urban Area and Green Rural Area

ประสิทธิภาพในการดูดซับก๊าซคาร์บอนไดออกไซด์ระหว่าง พื้นที่สีเขียวในเขตเมืองและพื้นที่สีเขียวในเขตชนบท

สายรุ้ง แววตะคุ   สุจิณณา กรรณสูต และ สุรัตน์ บัวเลิศ

The objective of the study was carbon dioxide absorption efficiency of green areas by using carbon dioxide concentration and its movement. The measurement was in a unit of concentration per unit area per unit of time, eddy covariance technique with 3D sonic anemometer. Averaged ambient carbon dioxide concentrations measured at green rural area (mangrove forest of Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project, Phetchaburi Province) was 2.41 mg/m3 and green urban area (Benjasiri Park, Bangkok) was 4.82 mg/m3. Criteria for considering carbon dioxide absorption efficiency were 1) carbon dioxide flux (concentration of carbon dioxide which moved per unit area and per unit of time) and 2) frequency of downward vertical movement (Z axis) which were negative values in daytime. Because plant’s photosynthesis process needs carbon dioxide. It was found that green rural area gave the highest CO2 Flux -0.06 mg/(m2s) and the downward vertical movement frequency was 25%. The secondly was green urban area -0.02 mg/(m2s) with the frequency of was 41.7 %. Considering the frequency in rural green area was lower 50% but the downward carbon dioxide volume in the green rural area was higher than the urban green area caused the higher
carbon dioxide absorption efficiency.


P.459-468

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Effect of Drying Temperature on Quality of Spirogyra sp.

ผลของอุณหภูมิในการทำแห้งต่อคุณภาพของสาหร่ายเทา

อาภัสสร ศิริจริยวัตร   สุธิชา พืชสิงห์ และ ชาติสยาม ผลวิลัย

Desorption isotherm of Spirogyra sp. was studied at the water activity range of 0.2 - 0.8. The data were fitted to 3 desorption isotherm models which were GAB, Halsey and Oswin models. GAB model was the best model to describe desorption isotherm of Spirogyra sp. The temperature of hot air drying process was studied in the range of 50 – 70°C. The result showed drying temperature at 60°C was the suitable condition to process dried Spirogyra sp. The texture and b-carotene content of the dried sample at 60°C were not significantly different from the dried sample at 50°C but the drying time at 60°C was shorter. Moreover, the dried sample at 60°C showed the lowest color difference from the fresh sample and had significantly higher b-carotene content than the dried sample at 70°C.


P.469-479

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Effect of Pesticides on Growth and Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin for Controlling of Cassava Pink Mealybug

ผลของสารเคมีป้องกันกำจัดศัตรูพืชต่อการเจริญและประสิทธิภาพของ เชื้อราขาว Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin ในการควบคุมเพลี้ยแป้งสีชมพูมันสำปะหลัง

จันทิมา จันทนพิมพ์   ศิวิลัย สิริมังครารัตน์ และ วีระศักดิ์ ศักดิ์ศิริรัตน์

The effect of chemical pesticides such as insecticides (thiamethoxam, amitraz), fungicides (mancozeb, benomyl) and herbicide (paraquat dichloride) on the growth of white mascardine fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and its efficiency for controlling of cassava pink mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) was carried out. The pesticides were mixed in medium. Spore suspensions of 1x104 and 1x105 spores/ml were spread on the medium. The spore survival after 1 and 3 days after spreading was evaluated. It was found that the highest survival was detected in control treatment (PDA without pesticides) with concentration of 1x105 spores/ml at 1 day after spreading (444.33 cfu/plate) and significantly different (P<0.05) to others. Only the treatment of PDA+thiamethoxam, the fungus was able to grow and express viability of 185.33 cfu/plate For the concentration of 1x104 spore/ml treated after 3 days, the maximum fungal growth was found in PDA+thiamethoxam medium (269.00 cfu/plate) which was not significantly different to the following treatment (control treatment, 252.60 cfu/plate). Whereas, the growth of fungus on PDA+ amitraz (166.80 cfu/plate) and PDA+paraquat dichloride (145.00 cfu/plate) were similar and not significantly different. The effect of pesticides on mycelial growth was depended on age. It grew on PDA+thiamethoxam with colony diameter (Ø) of 2.72 (7 days) and 4.67 cm (14 days), which was not significantly different with control (2.72 and 5.32 cm, respectively). Only on PDA+benomyl, the fungus was unable to grow. When the spore of good survival fungi from all treatments were tested on the infection efficiency against the 3rd instar-adult cassava pink mealybug with conidial concentration of 1x108 spore/ml, the result revealed that the fungal infectivity trended to increase by the time after inoculation. The fungal spore obtained from PDA+thiamethoxam had the most infection rate at all dates after inoculation (17.78%, 43.33%, 46.67%, 46.67% at 7, 10, 14 and 21 days respectively), which were clearly higher than the spores derived from other treatments and control treatment (PDA) (9.44, 30.25, 30.25 and 33.28%, respectively). However, the infectivity from both treatments (PDA+thiamethoxam, PDA) at all checking times were not significantly different. The result of this study indicates that the B. bassiana could be used in combination with the pesticides, especially thiamethoxam as well without adverse effect against cassava pink mealybug


P.480-489

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Lupane- and Ceanothane-Type Triterpenes from Stem Barks of Ziziphus cambodiana Pierre with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

ไตรเทอร์ปีนชนิด lupane และ ceanothane จากเปลือกต้นตะครองที่แสดงฤทธิ์ยับยั้งเชื้อแบคทีเรีย Helicobacter pylori

อัจฉรา แสนคำ   ณัฏฐกัลย์ ลมเชย   จันทร์นรินทร์ นนทะขาม   มาลัย ทวีโชติภัทร์ และ สุนิตย์ สุขสำราญ

From the stem barks of Ziziphus cambodiana Pierre, four known triterpenes and one known phenolic derivative were isolated and identified as lupeol (1), belulin (2), betulinic acid (3), ceanothic acid (4) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5). Their structures were mainly elucidated by NMR data analysis and by comparison of their spectroscopic data with the reported values. In addition, evaluation for antibacterial activity against H. pylori of the major isolated compounds was also investigated. The results from Broth micro dilution method showed that ceanothic acid (4) exhibited highest inhibitory activity against H. pylori DMST20165 with MIC value of 16.03 mM, which was approximately 2.6 times greater than that of the standard drug amoxicillin, but displayed weak inhibitory activity against H. pylori HP40 with MIC value of 64.22 mM. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity against H. pylori of lupane- and ceanothane-type triterpenes.


P.490-502

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Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Different Parts of Gac Fruit

ฤทธิ์ต้านออกซิเดชันและฤทธิ์ต้านแบคทีเรีย ของสารสกัดเอทานอลจากส่วนต่าง ๆ ของผลฟักข้าว

Mallika Chantarangsee

The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts from gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit peel, pulp, aril and seed were investigated in this study. The antioxidant activities of each ethanolic extract were determined as the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, which pulp extract showed the highest ability. The peel extract showed the highest ability to chelate ferrous ion and the highest reducing power. The peel extract also had the highest value for total phenolic contents, assessed by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Therefore the phenolic compounds in peel extract might contribute to inhibition of oxidation by chelating the prooxidant ions as well as by reducing the reaction. Antibacterial activities were evaluated against five pathogens by the agar disc diffusion method. It was found that the peel extract was the most active against the tested bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, different parts of gac fruit appear to inhibit oxidation reactions and exhibit antibacterial activity.


P.503-514

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Preparation of Cassava Starch/Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites for Coating Controlled-Release Fertilizer

การเตรียมแป้งมันสำปะหลัง / พอลิไวนิลแอลกอฮอล์ / มอนต์มอริลโลไนต์นาโนคอมพอสิต สำหรับเคลือบปุ๋ยที่ควบคุมการปลดปล่อย

สิรินันท์ วิริยะสุนทร และ ว่าที่ ร.ต.สงวนศักดิ์ ศรีพลัง

The aim of this research is to prepare polymer nanocomposites of cassava starch, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) and montmorillonite (MMT) by solution method for coating controlled release fertilizer. The polymer nanocomposites were prepared by mixing cassava starch and PVOH at dry weight ratios of 70/30, 80/20 and each of these with various amounts of MMT (2 4 6 8 and 10 parts by weight per hundred of cassava starch and PVOH) The obtained homogeneous solution was casted into sheets using plastic mold and dried at 60 oC in a hot air oven. The obtained polymer nanocomposites sheets have been characterized for those; water absorption, moisture permeability, ammonium ion permeability biodegradability and their structure. The water absorption moisture permeability and ammonium ion permeability of polymer nanocomposites were enhanced with increasing amount of PVOH. However, these properties were decreased by the addition of MMT. After soil burial for 50 days, percent weight loss and biodegradability of the polymer nanocomposites enhanced as the amount of starch were increased. The X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs showed that the polymer nanocomposites formed were exfoliated. In this work the encapsulation of the commercial granular fertilizers, NPK 16-16-16 and NPK 18-46-0 were prepared by dip coating technique with 80/20/8 starch:PVOH:MMT nanocomposites. The coated fertilizer was put into the deionized water and, at a specified period, water solution was analyzed for amount of nitrogen. The results showed that the amount of nitrogen released rate of the coated fertilizer was less than the uncoated one.


P.515-526

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Rectangular in Twisted Tape Economizer Shell and Tube

อุปกรณ์อุ่นน้ำป้อนแบบเปลือกและท่อ ชนิดใส่แผ่นบิดตัดตรงกลางเป็นสี่เหลี่ยม

อุทัย ผ่องรัศมี   เสนีย์ ศิริไชย   อนุชา สายสร้อย และ สำรวจ อินแบน

This paper presents the effects of insertion of twisted tape on heat transfer performance a shell-and tube heat exchanger recovering a waste heat from an once-through boiler. The heat exchanger consisted of tube of 0.033 m outside diameter and 34 m total length, corresponding to total heat transfer area of 3.55 m2. The twisted-tape with rectangular-shape hole with twist ratio (y/w) of 3 and total area of 0.09 m2 was inserted in the heat exchange tube. As revealed by the experiential results, at exhaust gas speed of 5 m/s, the heats of 429 kW and 212.82 kW were found at outer and inner surfaces of tube, respectively, ensuring the heat transfer coefficients of 5,470 W/m2◦C and 24.82 W/m2◦C and corresponding pressure drops were 28.77 Pa and 5.34 Pa. The performance of the heat exchange was 0.6. As a result, energy saving cost of 136,084 Baht/year was achievable, leading to quite short simple payback period of 1.1 year. These operating conditions were recommended/suitable for the once-though boiler generating steam at 500 kg/h at the maximum pressure of 7 kg/cm2


P.527-541

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Application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Incorporated with Water Balance Model to Land Evaluation and Optimum Pond Capacity Analysis for Economic Crops Production in Nakhon Ratchasima Province

การประยุกต์หลักการรับรู้จากระยะไกลและระบบสารสนเทศภูมิศาสตร์ร่วมกับสมการสมดุลน้ำเพื่อประเมินพื้นที่และขนาดสระที่เหมาะสม ในการผลิตพืชไร่เศรษฐกิจของจังหวัดนครราชสีมา

Pichai Wongsawat and Songkot Dasananda

Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques incorporated with water balance model were applied to evaluate suitable area and determine the optimum on-farm pond capacity for economic crops (cassava, sugarcane, and maize) production in an area of interest (representative area) in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. This study aimed for 1) formulation of the Landsat-based land use/land cover map; 2) suitable land evaluation; and 3) optimum on-farm pond capacity determination.  It was found that 1) the 3 crops had occupied about 27.77% of the entire provincial area including cassava (17.70%), sugarcane (4.14%), and maize (5.93%); 2) sugarcane was found to be the most grown crop with highest percentage of land in highly suitable area (19.94%) and cassava is the second favorite crop with percentage in highly suitable area of 15.44%. Maize is the least grown crop with highly suitable land (7.49%); and 3) the representative area with a total area of 176,756.0 m2 was delineated and the optimum on-farm pond capacity was determined based on knowledge of full demand for the 3 crops. The optimum on-farm pond capacity was found to be 56094.6 m3 (with surface area of 10.62% of the representative area) which was sufficient for supplying full irrigation water to all 3 crops.


P.542-551

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The Use of Traditional and Fuzzy Association Rule Mining for Student Learning Outcome Forecasting

การใช้กฎความสัมพันธ์ ร่วมกับฟัซซี่กฎความสัมพันธ์ เพื่อคาดการณ์ผลการเรียนของนักศึกษา

พงษ์เทพ รักผกาวงศ์ และ อุไรวรรณ์ รักผกาวงศ์

Each student is has to complete the curriculum with a cumulative grade point average (GPA) not less than the requirements, which is calculated from the total amount of grade points of each course learned in the whole curriculum. In this research, an association rule mining is deployed to determine the relationship of the learning outcomes of each course. In addition, the fuzzy association rule mining is used to predict the overall GPA into categories; high, medium or low in order to fill out students who study the courses in which the grades are found. It is expected that the GPA will be in the low category, and the university should adjust their learning processes from the begining to help them reach the requirement at the end of course.


P.552-563

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Learning Achievement in Studying Elementary Statistics and Satisfaction of the Students Using Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD)

ผลสัมฤทธิ์ทางการเรียนในวิชาสถิติเบื้องต้นและความพึงพอใจของผู้เรียน เมื่อใช้การจัดกลุ่มเรียนรู้เป็นทีมเทคนิค STAD

บรรทม สุระพร

The objective of this research was to compare learning achievements and satisfaction of students enrolled in Elementary Statistics. The students were divided into 2 groups: the selected group was taught according to STAD method; while the other group was taught according to the conventional way. The group of sample used in this research was 52 students who were purposively sampled from those enrolled in Elementary Statistics. Research instruments were the midterm test and final test of Elementary Statistics, the Elementary Statistics by STAD method satisfaction test. The statistics used are mean, standard deviation, t–test independent samples and chi-square test.

The results of this study were: 1) the achievement of learning in studying Elementary Statistics by STAD method was higher than that learning by conventional method at the significance 0.05; 2) the satisfaction of learning in studying elementary statistics by STAD method was good level, and 3) the score of satisfaction and the learning achievements are positive correlation in studying elementary statistics by STAD method.