ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 43 No.4 October-December 2015


P.564-578

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Electrospinning for Biomedical Applications

กระบวนการปั่นเส้นใยด้วยไฟฟ้าสถิตสำหรับประยุกต์ใช้ทางการแพทย์

อรวรรณ สุวรรณทอง

Electrospinning has been received much interest, since it is a simple and versatile process for fabricating continuous ultrafine fibers using electrical forces. The use of electrospun fiber mats in biomedical applications (i.e., tissue engineering, wound dressing, and drug delivery system) has been gained interest in the past several years due to its unique properties such as high surface area to mass/volume ratio, high porosity, and high mechanical properties. This review summarizes the background of electrospinning, factors affecting to electrospinning, polymers used in biomedical applications, and the use of electrospinning in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, and drug delivery system.


P.579-594

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The Use and Toxicity of the Filler Reinforcement in Rubber Industry

การใช้งานและความเป็นพิษของสารตัวเติมเสริมแรงในอุตสาหกรรมยาง

โฉมศรี ศิริวงศ์

The use of particulate fillers to achieve the desired reinforcement has widely been acknowledged by rubber industry. Generally, carbon black (CB) and precipitated silica (PSi) are most widely used as reinforcing filler. The presence of reinforcing filler is essential to reach longer-wearing products, improved tyre strength and longevity and, especially for silica, alleviated greenhouse gas emissions of the vehicles using these tyres. Although, the use of fillers in the rubber industry has been safe for decade, however, these fillers are being associated with man-made nanomaterials, which are being substantially investigated for their potential adverse health effects and are the subject of pending regulatory controls. This article provides the information of the use of fillers in the rubber industry, differentiates the filler materials used by the industry toward their particle sizes, and summarizes the state of knowledge based on the toxicological properties of silica and carbon black fillers.


P.595-608

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Lower Bounds on Transmission Probabilities in One-Dimensional Quantum Scattering Problems

การหาขอบเขตล่างของความน่าจะเป็นของการส่งผ่าน ในปัญหาการกระเจิงทางควอนตัมใน 1 มิติ

ไตรทศ งามปิติพันธ์* และ เพชรอาภา บุญเสริม

Quantum mechanics is the theory that describes dynamics of small objects such as atom and molecule. In this paper, Schrodinger’s wave mechanics, a part of quantum mechanics, is studied. The central equation of this wave mechanics is the Schrodinger’s equation. Solving this equation, quantum system dynamics can be described. In this work, the quantum scattering problem in one dimension is studied. Wave functions are obtained by exactly solving the Schrodinger’s equation in case of the delta function potential and the rectangular potential. The transmission and reflection probabilities are calculated from the obtained wave functions. Lower bounds on the transmission probabilities are presented. Finally, the lower bounds on the transmission probabilities are applied to the delta function potential and the rectangular potential problems. The results show that the exact transmission probabilities satisfy the lower bounds on the transmission probabilities.


P.609-619

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An Extending Classical Problem in Geometry

ปัญหาคลาสสิกภาคขยายปัญหาหนึ่งในวิชาเรขาคณิต

ลาวัณย์ รัตนจันทร์   เล็ก แซ่จิว และ อาทิตย์ อินทรสิทธิ์*

In geometry, there is a classic theorem states that the sum of the distances from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle to each of the sides of the triangle is a constant. This theorem has received many interests and been widely studied, resulting in other lemmas and theorems extended from this classic theorem. In this paper, we analyze and discuss a lemma and a theorem about the calculation of the sum of such distances for any triangle and regular polygon.


P.620-631

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Population Dynamics of Hard clam (Meretrix casta, Chemnitz, 1782) in the coastal area of Laem Phak Bia: The King's Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project, Phetchaburi Province

พลวัตประชากรหอยตลับ (Meretrix casta, Chemnitz, 1782) บริเวณพื้นที่ชายฝั่งทะเลแหลมผักเบี้ย โครงการศึกษาวิจัยและพัฒนาสิ่งแวดล้อมแหลมผักเบี้ย อันเนื่องมาจากพระราชดำริ จังหวัดเพชรบุรี

เสถียรพงษ์ ขาวหิต*   เกษม จันทร์แก้ว   วศิน อิงคพัฒนากุล   อรอนงค์ ผิวนิล และ อนุกรณ์ บุตรสันติ์

Population dynamics of hard clam (Meretrix casta, Chemnitz, 1782) were estimated using length–frequency data from the coastal area of Laem Phak Bia: The King's Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand between May 2012 and April 2013. Monthly length frequency data of Meretrix casta were analyzed by FiSAT_II Asymptotic length (L∝) and growth co-efficient (K) were 6.56 cm and 0.88 year-1, respectively. The growth performance index (/) was calculated with 1.56. Total mortality (Z) by length-converted catch curve was estimated at 3.10 year-1, fishing mortality (F) at 0.37 year-1, and natural mortality (M) at 2.63 year-1. The exploitation level (E) of Meretrix casta was 0.12 and the maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) was 0.42. The recruitment pattern was continuous with one major peak in the months of July-October. Habitat temperatures were 28.12 to 33.48 oC (30.96±1.79oC); salinity range was from 25.50 to 31.91 psu (28.89 ± 2.17 psu); pH range was from 7.12 to 8.48 (8.06±0.39); dissolved oxygen range was from 12.36 to 26.0 mg/l (5.22±0.86 mg/l).


P.632-640

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Genetic Diversity in Wild Populations of the Scaly-breasted Munia (Lonchura punctulata)

ความหลากหลายทางพันธุกรรมของประชากรในธรรมชาติ ของนกกระติ๊ดขี้หมู (Lonchura punctulata)

อำพร แก้วแสงสุข   วังวร สังฆเมธาวี   Andrew J. Pierce   Trevor N. Petney และ วีระชัย สายจันทา*

We analyzed 290 nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) gene from 29 samples of Scaly-breasted Munia (Lonchura punctulata) from three natural populations from the north and northeast of Thailand. Eleven variable nucleotide positions were observed. Based on these variations, 14 haplotypes were generated. Low genetic difference among three populations in Thailand was observed and there was no population sub-structuring related to their geographic distribution. This may be influenced by trading in this species in order to allow its release during Buddhist ceremonies. However, an isolate from Java was highly genetically distinct from those from Thailand, indicating that large geographic distances act as a natural barrier and play an important role in genetic differentiation. Our finding thus provides evidence of a species complex of Scaly-breasted Munia in Southeast Asia. A more comprehensive analysis based on the morphology, biology and genetics of scaly-breasted munia from throughout its distribution will be required in order to determine the number of genetically divergent groups present.


P.641-655

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Shell Anomalies in the Elongated Tortoise Indotestudo elongata (Blyth, 1853) at Ban Kok Village, Amphur Muncha Kriri, Khon Kaen Province

ความผิดปกติของกระดองเต่าเหลือง Indotestudo elongata (Blyth,1853) ที่บ้านกอก อำเภอมัญจาคีรี จังหวัดขอนแก่น

กัลยา ศรีประทีป* และ วรัญญู พรหมกุล

Exploration of shell anomalies in the elongated tortoise Indotestudo elongata is studied at Ban Kok Village, Amphur Muncha Kriri, Khon Kaen Province, from October 2013 to January 2014. A total of 514 tortoises were corrected and determined the shell anomalies. Forty-one tortoises had shell anomalies that could be separated into 3 groups. The first group, 24 tortoises (4.67%) had the additions or reductions in the number of scutes especially vertebral and costal scutes. The second group, 12 tortoises (2.33%) had the lesion or fracture of shell and the third group, 5 tortoises (0.97%) had deformation. Anomalies were found only in the carapace. The lesion or fractures on the carapaces were caused by accident due to living with communities in the village. This study is the information for the way to protect and conserve elongated tortoise with the communities.


P.673-687

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In Vitro Propagation of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa for Conservation of Rare Plant Species in Thailand

การขยายพันธุ์เปราะราศี (Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa) ในหลอดทดลองเพื่อการอนุรักษ์พืชหายากในประเทศไทย

จิราภรณ์ ผุดผ่อง   สุรพล แสนสุข และ ปิยะพร แสนสุข*

The tissue culture technique has been widely used for collection, propagation and preservation of rare plant species. In this study, in vitro propagation of Kaempferia larsenii Sirirugsa, a vulnerable, endemic and rare plant in Thailand was investigated. Microshoots of K. larsenii Sirirugsa were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) media supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/l) of cytokinin (BA, Kinetin and TDZ), a combination of cytokinin (BA with Kinetin or TDZ), and MS media supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/l) of auxin alone (IAA, IBA and NAA) for eight weeks to induce shoot and root formation. The maximum number of shoots was observed in the medium supplemented with 1 mg/l TDZ (6.6 shoots/explant) and the best rooting was induced in MS medium with 0.5 mg/l IAA (10.60 roots/explant).


P.656-672

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กายวิภาคศาสตร ใบของพืชเผา Miliuseae วงศกระดังงา (Annonaceae) สกุล Miliusa, Mitrephora, Polyalthia และ Sageraeaบางชนิดในประเทศไทย

เกื้อชน ปยะประภาพันธ และ อนิษฐาน ศรีนวล

The leaf anatomy of four genera and 15 species in the tribe Miliuseae (Annonaceae) were investigated including four species each of Miliusa and Mitrephora, six species of Polyalthia and one species of Sageraea. Permanent slides of leaf epidermis were prepared by epidermal peeling and stained with 1% safranin in water while transverse section of leaf blade and petiole were prepared by paraffin method using a sliding microtome and stained with 1% safranin and 1% fast green in 95% ethanol and examined using light microscope. Anatomical characteristics were described. Photographs were taken with an Olympus DP 12 digital camera fitted with the microscope. The results indicated that the significant leaf anatomical characteristics for species identification are 1) shapes and characteristics of anticlinal cell wall of epidermal cells of leaf blade, 2) types and distribution of stomata, 3) the presence, types and distribution of trichomes on leaf blade and petiole, 4) number of palisade layers in leaf blade, 5) types and distribution of crystals in leaf blade and petiole, 6) shape of petiole in transverse section and 7) types of cells in the cortex of petiole.


P.688-697

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Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) Producing Coliform Bacteria in Public Toilets

ความชุกของแบคทีเรียกลุ่มโคลิฟอร์มที่สามารถสร้างเอนไซม์ขยายการดื้อยาในกลุ่มบีตา-แลคแทม (ESBLs) จากห้องสุขาสาธารณะ

กิจจา จิตรภิรมย์* และ ปิยะรัตน์ จิตรภิรมย์

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of ESBLs producing coliform bacteria from public toilets. A total of 138 coliform bacteria (79.7% E. coli, 14.5% K. pneumoniae, 3.6% Citrobacter spp. and 2.2% Enterobacter spp.) isolated from the public toilets in Bangkok were tested susceptibility by Double Disc Synergy (DDS) method with 6 antibiotics (20µg amoxicillin/10 µg clavulanate, 10µg cefpodoxime, 30µg ceftazidime, 30µg ceftriaxone, 30µg cefoxitin, and 30µg aztreonam). The results revealed the coliform bacteria were mainly resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate (39.2%), and cefoxitin (27.5%). All these bacteria showed 5 patterns of antibiotic resistance. The prevalence of ESBLs production was also found in 14 (10.1%) isolates classified as Class A [2 (1.4%)], Class C [5 (3.6%)], and ESBLs + Amp C [7 (5.0%)], respectively.

This study indicates that ESBLs production of coliform bacteria from public toilets has increased, which results in higher resistance to antibiotics and causes obstacles to treatment, especially the opportunistic infection from hospitals or communities. These data are useful to monitor, manage, and control the spread of colifrom bacteria.


P.698-714

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Swine Wastewater Treatment Using Water Fern (Azolla microphylla) in Floating Aquatic Plant Wastewater Treatment System

การบำบัดน้ำเสียจากฟาร์มสุกรด้วยแหนแดง (Azolla microphylla) ในระบบบำบัดน้ำเสียพืชลอยน้ำ

พันธ์ทิพย์ กล่อมเจ๊ก*   วิภา หอมหวน   ดำรงศักดิ์ สุวรรณศรี และ นุชนันท์ พลฤทธิ์

The purposes of this study were to evaluate of swine wastewater treatment and production of water fern in floating aquatic plant wastewater treatment system. Efficiency of the system with water fern (Azolla microphylla) for treating of 25 % dilution swine wastewater was examined. Pollutant removal efficiencies of the system at different plant harvest intervals (every 1, 2 and 3 week) were compared. The result showed that average removal efficiencies of the system for COD, BOD5, TSS, TDS, TKN and TP in each week were (-125.0)-35.4, (-22.2)-60.0, (-502.9)-54.7, (-1.7)-13.7, (-79.5)-51.5 and (-429.5)-52.0 %, respectively. There were not significantly different between pollutant removal efficiencies of systems operated at various plant harvest intervals. Increasing of water fern yield in tested system was low comparing with yield from conventional culture system in suitable environment. For 6 weeks of operation, the highest net fresh water fern yield was found in the system operated at every week of harvest interval however it was similar to net fresh yield of water fern from the system operated at every 2 week of harvest interval.


P.715-725

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The Short Arm of Chromosome Pair 15 Deletion (15p-) of Albino Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides) in Laos PDR

การขาดหายของแขนข้างสั้นบนโครโมโซมคู่ที่ 15 ในลิงเสน (Macaca arctoides) ที่มีภาวะเผือก จากสาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาว

Nuntiya Maneechot   Sarawut Kaewsri   Isara Patawang   Sarun Jumrusthanasan   Krit Pinthong and Alongklod Tanomtong*

The first cytogenetic study of one male and one female of albino stump-tailed macaque, Macaca arctoides (Primates, Cercopithecidae) in, Laos PDR was carried out. Blood samples were collected from this species maintained in Laos Zoo. The standard whole blood lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of colchicine, metaphase cells were spread on slides and air-dried. Conventional staining was applied to stain the chromosome. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of albino stump-tailed macaque was 2n=42, the fundamental number (NF) were 82 in both sexes. The types of autosomes were 18 metacentric, 20 submetacentric and 2 telocentric chromosomes. The X and Y chromosome was the submetacentric chromosome and founded that a chromosome pair 13 is a clearly observable satellite chromosome that has secondary constriction on short arm chromosomes. However, detected abnormality of chromosome pairs 15 is deletion in the short arms (del,XX,XY,42,15p-), cause the transition of chromosome type from submetacentric to telocentric. This might involved in the loss of melanin pigment that causes fractures in albino stump-tailed macaque. The karyotype formula for the albino M. arctoides is as follows:

2n (diploid) 42 = Lm6+Lsm8+Mm4+Msm10+Mt2+Sm8+Ssm2+sex chromosomes (XX/XY)


P.726-737

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Properties of Phenoloxidase and Its Response to Challenging by White Spot Syndrome Virus in Litopenaeus vannamei

คุณสมบัติของเอนไซม์ฟีนอลออกซิเดสและการตอบสนองต่อการเหนี่ยวนำด้วยไวรัสตัวแดงดวงขาวในกุ้งขาว

นงเยาว์ เทพยา   พันทิพา รุณแสง   พรรณี อัศวตรีรัตนกุล และ ประภาพร อุทารพันธุ์*


P.738-748

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Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Chicken Fat Using Ultrasonic Assisted in Transesterification

สภาวะที่เหมาะสมในการผลิตไบโอดีเซลจากน้ำมันไขไก่ โดยใช้อุลตราโซนิกในการทำปฏิกิริยาทรานส์เอสเทอริฟิเคชัน

ธีร์ธวัช สิงหศิริ

The aim of this work was to investigate the optimum conditions of biodiesel production from waste chicken fat by ultrasonic assisted transesterification. The Box–Behnken design of experiment was carried out using the Minitab (version 16) with three experimental factors affecting on the production of biodiesel including  catalyst concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % w/w), methanol to oil molar ratio (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) and reaction time (20, 30 and 40 min) using ultrasonic at 30 kHz. The results were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model was used for the prediction of the methyl ester yield. Probability value (P < 0.05) showed a very high significance for the regression model with the R2 of 99.96% indicating the high accuracy of the model. The optimum conditions were 1.50 %w/w NaOH, methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.87:1 and reaction time of 32.52 min. Using the optimum conditions, the production yield of methyl ester was of 99.11%. The chicken fat has a potential to be used as raw material in the biodiesel production as it provided the production yield higher than the 96.5% according to biodiesel standard of ASTM 6751.


P.749-760

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Concentration of Major Elements, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals and Risk Assessment of Water Quality for Consumption and Agriculture at Nong Leng Sai Reservoir, Mae Jai District, Phayao Province

ความเข้มข้นของธาตุหลัก จุลธาตุ และโลหะหนัก และความเสี่ยงของคุณภาพน้ำ เพื่อการบริโภคและการเกษตร ของอ่างเก็บน้ำหนองเล็งทราย อำเภอแม่ใจ จังหวัดพะเยา

จอมจันทร์ นทีวัฒนา*   ไมตรี สุทธจิตต์   วิชัย เทียนถาวร   แซง ดอน คิม และ ควอง วู คิม*

Nong leng Sai is the vital freshwater marsh of Phayao province for consumption, agriculture, and human well being. This water source conservation within needs of Mae Jai district residents is necessary. The objectives of study were to risk assessment of physico-chemical properties, concentrations of major and trace elements, heavy metals for surveillance water quality to consumption and irrigation, as well as to assess health risk from drinking water. The result showed that physico-chemical characteristics included pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), hardness, and total dissolved solid (TDS) were under the permissible limit. As a result of element concentrations, Fe concentration ranged from 312.44–563.52 µg×L-1 exceed drinking water guideline and high risk. In the addition the concentrations of Al, Mn, Pb, and Se were indicated medium risk. Health risk indicators as follow health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) revealed that non-carcinogen effects of single elements and overall elements were posed insignificant health risk (HRI and HI<1.0). Cancer risk stayed at the highest safe standard for carcinogenic risk. Therefore this water source appropriated quality for consumption after pre-treatment for Fe elimination for example aeration and filtration, reverse osmosis. On the other hands, the risk assessment of water quality for agriculture exposed that the physico-chemical parameters were within allowable Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standard. Elevated concentration of potassium was above FAO standard at 1.84 mg×L-1. Nevertheless local community should participate to surveillance water quality of Nong Leng Sai for sustainable utilization.


P.761-774

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Screening and Characterization of Aspergillus sp. KB2 for Decolorize Reed Dye

การคัดแยกและศึกษาคุณสมบัติของ Aspergillus sp. KB2 ในการลดความเข้มสีย้อมกก

จิรภัทร จันทมาลี*   มธุรา อุณหศิริกุล   ณมนรัก คำฉัตร และ กมลชนก ปกาสิทธิ์

Wastewater generated from reed mat production contains the high amount of exhausted dyes and pigments. This research aimed to isolate and characterize a fungal strain capable of decolorizing reed dye from soils and effluents collected from the manufacturing areas in Chanthaburi. A total of 19 indigenous fungal strains were obtained, but only nine of them could grow and produce a clear zone around the fungal colony culturing on red reed dye containing Czapek-Dox agar. After that, the dye removal efficiency of the selected strains was determined in Czapek-Dox broth containing 100 mg/l red dye. The treatments were incubated with shaking (80 rpm) at room temperature for 5 days. Isolate KB2, the most effective strain could reduce the color intensity at 87%. Therefore, KB2 was selected to test for its efficiency in reducing intensity of 100 mg/l mixed reed dyes (containing red, yellow, green and pink reed dyes in ratio of 1:1:1:1) and showed approximately 90% efficacy after 9 days incubation according to an increasing of cell mass. The identification results found that KB2 was belonged to genus Aspergillus by colony and cells morphological features. After that, the effect of reed dye concentration on KB2 biodegradation efficiency was determined. The treatments were incubated under the same conditions in C-limited Czaped-dox broth containing 50–500 mg/l mixed reed dyes. The results found that the high degradation efficiency (~75%) was obtained when culturing Aspergillus sp. KB2 in 50 mg/l reed dye. As a result, this condition was used for immobilization of KB2 cells by adding 5 fungal discs into flasks containing immobilizing agents (5 g dry weight) incubating at room temperature for 7 days. The results showed that the corncob - immobilized KB2 gave higher percentage (79%) of dye reduction compared to the zucchini fiber-immobilized KB2 (72%). In the future, this corncob-immobilized fungi may be used for decolorization of reed dyeing wastewater.


P.775-787

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Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide Gases Removal by Dual Fixed-Film Bioscrubbers System

การกำจัดก๊าซไฮโดรเจนไซยาไนด์และก๊าซไฮโดรเจนซัลไฟด์ ด้วยระบบฟิกซ์-ฟิล์มไบโอสครับเบอร์แบบคู่

มุจรินทร์ บุญเสริฐ   สิราภรณ์ โพธิวิชยานนท์* และ ประพัฒน์ เป็นตามวา

In this research, a dual fixed-film bioscrubber was applied for hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide gases removal. Pseudomonas monteilii SUTS 2 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens SUTS 1 are a group of hydrogen cyanide degrading bacteria whereas Acinetobacter sp.MU1_03 and Alcaligenes faecalis MU2_03 are a group of hydrogen sulfide degrading bacteria. The preliminary experiment was set to study elimination capacity of microorganisms degrading hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide gases. Second experiments were set to study optimum operating parameters such as the height of packing media, mixed-gases flow rate, and empty bed retention time. After that, the optimum efficiency of dual fixed-film bioscrubber system in long-term operation was studied for 72 hrs. The results show that these bacteria exhibited the efficiency more than 90% gases removal. The suitable operating parameters were 16 cm of packing media height, 204 ml/min of mixed-gases flow rate, and 132 sec of empty bed retention time. The optimum efficiency of the dual fixed-film bioscrubbers were 96% hydrogen cyanide gas removal and 98% hydrogen sulfide gas removal when gases loading rate and gases eliminate capacity of hydrogen cyanide were 15.60 g/m3•h and 15.06 g/m3•h, and that of hydrogen sulfide were 88.70 g/m3•h, 86.85 g/m3•h, respectively.


P.788-798

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Preparation of Activated Carbons with High Surface Area from Wood Charcoal Powder by Dry Chemical Activation

การเตรียมถ่านกัมมันต์ที่มีพื้นที่ผิวสูงจากผงถ่านไม้ โดยการก่อกัมมันต์ทางเคมีแบบแห้ง

พิทักษ์ อยู่มี

Wood charcoal powder was used to prepare high surface area activated carbon by dry chemical activation method. Optimum activation conditions i.e. activation reagent and wood charcoal powder ratios, activation temperatures and activation times were investigated. The experimental results showed that the weight ratio between wood charcoal powder and NaOH as 1:3, activation temperature of 600 °C and activation time of 2 hours gave the highest surface area product. The activated carbon production under optimum conditions had an iodine number of 1,247 mg/g and BET surface area of 1,214.52 m2/g. The activated carbon was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Therefore, the preparation of activated carbon by dry chemical activation has several benefits i.g. it is cheap, simple and it provide high surface area products