ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 44 No.3 July - September 2016


P.419-434

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Dyes treatment in wastewater using adsorption processes

การบำบัดสีย้อมในน้ำเสียด้วยกระบวนการดูดซับ

รวินิภา ศรีมูล

Dyes contaminated in wastewater come from many sources. These dyes are difficult to decompose and also carcinogenic. Contamination of dyes in water reduces primary production due to decrease in light penetration. Moreover, it is not desirable and causes scenery impact. Therefore, it is very important to treat the wastewater before disposal. Adsorption has been preferred because of its effectiveness. This review describes the treatment of dyes in wastewater using adsorption processes on various types of dyes, the use of activated carbon and agricultural and industrial solid wastes as adsorbent to remove dyes, adsorption factors, column adsorption and adsorption isotherms.


P.435-457

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Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Derris scandens Benth.

องค์ประกอบทางเคมีและฤทธิ์ทางชีวภาพของเถาวัลย์เปรียง

Suwanna Deachathai

Derris scandens Benth. is well-known as an Asian medicinal plant and an important source of bioactive compounds. This review focuses on the isolated chemical structures and biological activities of the phytochemicals isolated from D. scandens from 1966-2016, according to the literature from ScienceDirect and SciFinder. Phytochemical investigation of the stems afforded a number of secondary metabolites, providing benzil derivatives, coumarins, flavones, isoflavones, isoflavone glycosides, pterocarpans, steroids, and terpenes. Sixty-six of these compounds have been reported from the plant. Twenty compounds are the new isolated compounds and three compounds are the firstly isolated from D. scandens. Several compounds have interesting pharmacological activities.


P.458-474

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Crystallization Behavior and Kinetic of Polylactide via Heterogeneous Nucleation and Plasticization Processes

พฤติกรรมและจลนศาสตร์การเกิดผลึกของพอลิแลกไทด์ผ่านกระบวนการก่อผลึกแบบเนื้อผสมและการเสริมสภาพพลาสติก

วรศักดิ์ เพชรวโรทัย* และ  นีรนุช ภู่สันติ

Polylactide (PLA), one of well-known biodegradable materials, is used to replace the conventional plastics which can not be degraded and lead to environmental concerns about waste accumulation. PLA is a thermoplastic polyester that can be synthesized from renewable resources. The outstanding advantages of PLA are high mechanical strength, transparency, easy processability. However, its drawbacks are brittleness, low crystallinity and slow crystallization rate, which limit wider applications, especially in packaging industry. Therefore, crystallization behaviors of PLA are studied to control and improve crystallinity and crystallization rate leading to appropriate properties in each application. This article reviews the current researches and informs the basic knowledge in terms of crystallization factors, types of nucleating agent and plasticizer, nucleation and plasticization processes, including synergistic combination of nucleation and plasticization, affecting to kinetic and crystallization behaviors of PLA.


P.475-492

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Jiraporn Khwanmunee  Ladda Leelawatwattana  and  Porntip Prapunpoj*

Transthyretin Intron 1 based Interordinal Relationships of Laurasiatheria

ความสัมพันธ์เชื่อมโยงระหว่างกันและกันทางวิวัฒนาการของสิ่งมีชีวิต ในกลุ่มลอราเซียเทอเรียบนฐานข้อมูลอินทรอน 1 ของยีนทรานส์ไทรีติน

Transthyretin (TTR), a major thyroid hormone distributor protein (THDP) in the blood, is coded by a gene which contains four exons and three introns. Nowadays, several nuclear gene introns have been successfully utilized to elucidate the relationships of organisms, including TTR intron 1 nucleotide sequence. In this study, the utilization of TTR intron 1 to resolve the interrelatedness of mammals in Laurasiatheria was explored. The complete TTR intron 1 sequences from 36 animal species including human (Homo sapiens) were extracted from the genome sequences retrieved from the GenBank. In addition, the sequences from two microbats e.g. intermediat horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) and lesser Asiatic yellow house bat (Scotophilus kuhlii) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The phylogenetic relationship of the studied animals was analyzed using MEGA 6 program. Based on the TTR intron 1, the phylogenetic tree with most of major nodes was strongly supported by bootstrap >75% was successfully produced. The monophyletic relationships within each order were strongly supported, ranging from 67% (within Eulipotyphla) to 100% (within Cetratiodactyla and Carnivora) bootstrap. However, the placement of Perissodactyla as the sister group to Carnivora was supported at low bootstrap. The paraphyletic relationships of the members within Chiroptera was highly supported with >85% bootstrap. In addition, more closely relatedness of the microbat R. affinis to the megabats than to the other microbats was supported with 97% bootstrap. The results presented here indicated to the usefulness of TTR intron 1 in resolving the relationships of the animals in Laurasiatheria.


P.493-504

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Phage Isolations from Nature and the Environment for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Escherichia coli Infection (Colibacillosis) in Broiler Chickens

การแยกฟาจจากธรรมชาติและสิ่งแวดล้อมเพื่อรักษาและป้องกันโรคติดเชื้อ Escherichia coli (Colibacillosis) ในไก่เนื้อ

นริศร นางาม* และ เสรี แข็งแอ

The objectives of this study were to isolate and test efficacy of phage for prophylaxis and treatment of E.coli causing collibacillosis in broiler chickens. Fifty chickens were divided into 5 groups; the 1st group was a control, given neither organisms nor phage, 2nd group was daily spraying phage for 3 consecutive days without E. coli, 3rd group was once spraying 105 cfu/ml of E. coli with following 1010 pfu/ml phage for 3 consecutive days, 4th group was spraying E. coli after that administered norfloxacin within 2 hours at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days, 5th group was given only E. coli by aerosol spray. The results in this study showed that the morbidity and mortality rates were low both control (1st group) and spray with phage (2nd group), 20%, 20% and 10%; respectively. The birds exposed aerosol spray with only E. coli as 5th group were high morbidity and mortality rates with 70% and 70%. However, the chickens were administered with either phage plus E. coli (3rd group) or norfloxacin plus E. coli (5th group) were low morbidity and mortality, the same as control group, 30%, 10% and 30% and 20%; respectively. This study concluded that phage was no toxic in the broilerchickens. Phages had provided comparable advantages with norfloxacin for treatment of E. coli infection. This phage demonstrated highly significant decreasing pathogenic E. coli with 44.44%. Morbidity and mortality rates of 3rd group and 4th group had no significant (p ≥ 0.05).


P.505-517

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Effects of Dietary Probiotic Supplementation on Growth Enhancement and Immune Against Aeromonas in Pangasius bocourti

ผลของโปรไบโอติกต่อการเจริญเติบโตและการกระตุ้นภูมิคุ้มกัน ต้านต่อเชื้อแอโรโมแนส ในการเลี้ยงปลาโมง

นันทวัน เอื้อวงศ์กูล*  ชนาพร รัตนมาลี  และ  ศักดา ดาดวง

The work aimed to study of dietary effective microorganism (EM) supplementation on the growth and immune enhancement for prevention of Aeromonas in Pangasius bocourti culture was divided into 24 groups at density 10, 20, 30 and 40 fishes/100 L and EM ratio 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ml/1 kg of feed for 8 weeks. The results found that there was not effect from EM ratio on length gain, length gain per fish, length gain per fish per day, weight gain, weight gain per fish, average daily weight gain (ADG) food conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate (p>0.05). For density, the culture at density 20 and 30 fishes/100 L had significantly higher weight gain, weight gain per fish and average daily weight gain (ADG) than density 10 and 40 fishes/100 L (p<0.05). However, there was no statically significant data of survival rate between density (p>0.05). The results of immune analysis using ELISA against Aeromonas hydrophila showed that Pangasius bocourti did not produce specific antibody against Aeromonas hydrophila. The results of disc diffusion exhibited that there was no antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. From the results concluded that there was no effect of dietary effective microorganism (EM) supplementation on the growth and immune enhancement for prevention of Aeromonas in good feed and water quality management of Pangasius bocourti culture.


P.518-529

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Effect of nitrogen on fruit quality of pummel (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) cv. Tubtim Sayam

ผลของไนโตรเจนที่มีต่อคุณภาพผลผลิตส้มโอพันธุ์ทับทิมสยาม

Maitree Kaewtubtim*  Montree Issarakrisila  and  Somsak Maneepong

Effect of nitrogen on fruit quality of pummelo cv. Tubtim Sayam was carried out between January 2013 to February 2014 at a pummelo orchard in Sub-district Klong-Noy, Pak Panang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The objectives of the study were to examine the nitrogen rate that affect on fruit quality. The study in relation to application of nitrogen, there were three treatments: no application of nitrogen-fertilizer (T1), application of nitrogen at farmers’rate (T2), and application of farmers’rate with additional 40 kg of calcium nitrate per rai (T3).Tubtim Sayam pummelo fruits were harvested 28 weeks after the flowers bloomed, it was found that those from the three treatments did not show significant difference in their weight, width, height, peel thickness, fresh pulp weight, fresh peel weight, dry pulp weight, dry peel weight, total soluble solid (TSS), total acid (TA), andvitamin C. The trees receiving nitrogen at farmers’rateproduced fruits which had high levels of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar as 124.06, 50.61, 16.59, and 191.26 g/l. respectively, significantly different from the trees receiving no fertilizer. As for the trees receiving nitrogen and additional calciumnitrate, their fruits had the lowest level of limonin (1.99 mg/l) and highest levels of lycopene and anthocyanin (2.38 and 7.01 mg/100 ml). The fruits of the trees receiving no fertilizer had the highest level of b-Cerotene (0.54 mg/100 ml).


P.530-541

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The Effect of 6-Benzylaminopurine on In vitro Shoot Multiplication from Shoot and Lateral Bud Explants of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.)

ผลของ 6-เบนซิลอะมิโนพิวรีนที่มีต่อการเพิ่มจำนวนยอดสลัดน้ำ (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) จากการเพาะเลี้ยงเนื้อเยื่อยอดและตาข้าง

พิสุทธิ์ พวงนาค

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) on In vitro shoot, leaf, root and shoot length multiplication from shoot and lateral bud explants of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) The explants had been cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with 6-BAP in different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l). The surface sterilization technique had been employed in the experiment. First, the shoot and lateral bud explants, which were pulled down without being taken apart from the stem, were sterilized by soaking in 70% (v/v) ethyl alcohol for one minute. Next, the shoots were cut and soaked in 2.5% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite for ten minutes, and cleaned for three times by sterilized water. After that, they were cultivated on MS medium for ten weeks in order to produce the sample plants. Then the sample shoots were cut and grown on MS medium of 6-BAP with different concentrations for four weeks. For In vitro shoot culture, it was found that the watercress propagation with 2 mg/l of 6-BAP increased the most average number of shoots (7.50±1.18 shoots/explant), of leaves (29.40±2.46 leaves/explant) and the average length of shoots (0.87±0.29 cm.).However, no root was detected. Regarding In vitro lateral bud culture, it was shown that the watercress propagation with 2 mg/l of 6-BAP induced the highest average number of shoots (5.60±0.97 shoots per explant), leaves (25.10±0.88 leaves per explant), with length (0.92±0.51 cm.) and roots growth rate at (0.60±0.52 roots per explant).


P.542-552

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Improvement of Adsorbent from Water Supply Sludge System for Phosphate Adsorption

การปรับปรุงตัวดูดซับฟอสเฟตในน้ำเสียด้วยตะกอนจากระบบผลิตน้ำประปา

สุภาวดี น้อยน้ำใส*  และ  สมสกุล รัตนกุญชร

This research has a purpose to study the adsorption efficiency of phosphate in wastewater with sludge from water supply system by activating sludge with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) at concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 M, respectively. and compared to uncoated adsorbent. Results showed that the equilibrium times for adsorption of both coated adsorbents and uncoated adsorbents was 16 and 24 hours, respectively. The phosphate removal efficiencies of coated and uncoated adsorbents were 68.77% and 50.10% respectively. The adsorption isotherms could be well explained by Langmuir and Freundlich models. According to the correlation coefficient (R2) from Freundlich models of coated and uncoated adsorbents were 0.9639 and 0.9613, respectively. The Freundlich sorption isotherm constants (Kf) of the adsorbent with coated and uncoated with acetic acid were 0.125 and 0.118 L/g, respectively. It can be concluded that adsorbent coated with acetic acid can adsorb phosphate higher than uncoated adsorbent because the hydrogen ion of acetic acid that has a positive charge to attach a negative charge of phosphate molecules.


P.553-565

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Effect of Calcium Chloride and Acid Condition on free GABA content and Pasting Properties of Germinated Brown Rice “Khao Banna 432” (Oryza sativa L. cv. PCRC92001-432)

ผลของแคลเซียมคลอไรด์และสภาวะกรดต่อปริมาณสาร GABA อิสระ และคุณสมบัติด้านความหนืดของข้าวกล้องงอกพันธุ์ขาวบ้านนา 432

The effect of calcium chloride and acid condition on free GABA content and pasting properties of germinated brown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. PCRC92001-432) was determined. The experimental design in CRD was conducted by using 8 soaking solutions consisted of different concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM of calcium chloride at pH 3 and 5 controlled by citrate buffer designated as; P3 (citrate buffer pH 3), P5 (citrate buffer pH 5), C5 (0.5 mM CaCl2), C1 (1.0 mM CaCl2), C5/P3 (0.5 mM CaCl2, pH 3), C5/P5 (0.5 mM CaCl2, pH 5), C1/P3 (1.0 mM CaCl2 ,pH 3 and  C1/P5 (1.0 mM CaCl2, pH 5). The non germinated brown rice was served as control. The result showed that moisture content ranged from 6.60-7.15%. The highest free GABA content 120.79 mg/100 g of germinated brown rice produced from brown rice soaked in C1/P5 and were higher than those from soaked in calcium chloride and citrate buffer only. Then, soaking in 8 solution peak viscosity and set back from trough decrease while reducing sugar increase.


P.566-578

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Rice Landraces Diversity for developing products of Food Supplements and Functional Foods in Chachoengsao Province

ความหลากหลายของพันธุ์ข้าวพื้นเมืองเพื่อการพัฒนาผลิตภัณฑ์เสริมอาหารและอาหารสุขภาพของจังหวัดฉะเชิงเทรา

This research aimed to: (1) determined diversity of native thai rice and Social Cultural economy and local wisdom dimension about native thai rice in Amphoe ThaTakiap and Amphoe Bangkhla, Chachoengsao province. (2) evaluated chemical composition and anti-oxidant activity for developing new product to be food supplements and functional foods. Four rice varieties are Hom-Kan-Jan, Hang-moo, Yenng-lod-nee, and Yenng-song-Klong in Amphoe ThaTakiap. Two rice varieties were Maled-Ma-Kear and Yenng-Na-Khwan in Amphoe Bangkhla. The results indicated that carbohydrate content of six rice varieties was around 72.21-79.42%. The protein content, fat, ash, and dietary fiber were around 0.59-9.78%, 0.61-9.41%, 0.52-7.14%, 0.67-9.25%, 1.24-10.25% and1.59-11.21%. In addition, researchers had taken a traditional rice varieties stored at 4 °C to weed seeds, and bark is not completely left out. Then analyzed the chemical properties include moisture, fat, protein, fiber, ash by AOAC (2000) and the quantity of amylase.The amylose  content was around 21.03%, 11.10%, 10.25%,  7.61%, 6.28% และ 5.79%, respectively. Total phenolic content of six native Thai rice was around 11.39-112.24 mg/100g. The target group of consumer in this research was the elderly (60 years olds up). From the consumer survey, the results showed that most consumers were interested in instant rice product. The canned native Thai rice that prepared by using ratio of native Thai rice and water equal to 1:2.34. The result from marketing survey indicated that 95.14% of consumers accepted this product with the average 8.12 score. This score indicated that the consumers moderately like the product.


P.579-592

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Effect of Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate Mixed Polyvinyl alcohol Adsorption on the Dispersion Stability of Ceramic Glaze Suspension

ผลของการดูดซับโซเดียมโดเดซิลเบนซีนซัลโฟเนตผสมกับ พอลิไวนิลแอลกอฮอล์ ที่มีต่อเสถียรภาพการกระจายตัว ของสารแขวนลอยน้ำเคลือบเซรามิก

ปรีชา ปัญญา

The dispersion stability of ceramic glaze particles, including kaolin, limestone, quartz and feldspar suspension, achieved through adsorption of single and mixed of uncharged polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) were investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the zeta potential were studied in order to understand the dispersion stability as a function of polymer and surfactant concentration at pH 9 and 0.01 M NaCl. It was found that the PVA strongly adsorbed on the ceramic glaze and the zeta-potential decreased slowly upon addition. The stability of these dispersions is relatively poor. The higher adsorption of PVA onto ceramic glaze particles was obtained using pre-adsorbed SDBS ceramic glaze particles. This  lead to improve stability by introducing additional negative charges on the polymer chain giving rise to an extra electrical double layer repulsive force in addition to the steric force between ceramic glaze particles. It was interesting that the adsorption of SDBS on ceramic glaze particles in the pre-adsorbed PVA (PVA+SDBS) was lower than that of single SDBS, but the dispersion stability was higher than the single SDBS adsorption. It was probably due to cooperative adsorption of PVA-SDBS complexes. It can be concluded that the optimum condition for addition of PVA and SDBS influenced the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze component suspensions. Either electrical double layer repulsion or steric repulsion from PVA-SDBS complexes adsorption can increase dispersion stability depending on the concentration of surfactant or polymer added.


P.593-607

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The Opinions about an Importance of the Information Quality on E-Commerce Website: The Undergraduate Students in Khon Kaen University

ความคิดเห็นเกี่ยวกับความสำคัญของคุณภาพสารสนเทศบนเว็บไซต์ พาณิชย์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์: นักศึกษาปริญญาตรี มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น

วิชุดา ไชยศิวามงคล*  จิตรภรณ์ ทับทิม  และ  อรณี ปินะการัง

The objective of this research was to study the opinions of students about the importance of information quality on e-commerce website in the four dimensions of information quality (IQ); (1) the Intrinsic IQ (2) the Contextual IQ (3) the Interactional IQ and (4) the Representational IQ.  The results of the research can be used to improve and to be the guideline of how to develop the information quality on an e-commerce website to make it more efficiently. The study tool was the questionnaire for surveying the 385 undergraduate students who registration in Khon Kaen University (Except Nong Khai Campus) in 2014 semester that divided into 3 fields; the Humanities and Social Sciences, the Science and Technology, and the Heath Science. The respondents had experienced in shopping on an e-commerce website at least one time in the last year. The results showed that the respondents focus as a very important level on the information quality in all dimensions. The mean score in each dimension was 3.90  4.10  and 3.96 and 3.89 respectively. The contextual got the highest score than other dimensions (p<0.05). The health sciences field got the highest score in all information quality dimensions compare with other fields (p<0.05). Moreover, the respondents also focus as an important level on the information quality all step of on the electronic commerce especially in the step of payment and delivery (p<0.05). However, on all dimensions of information quality there had no different in the gender or the purchase prices attribute (p> 0.05). As a result, the entrepreneurs should be aware of the information quality on the e-commerce website, especially in the context dimensions step of payment and delivery.


P.608-624

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Payoff Distribution of Agents in Optimal Coalition Structure under Non-Superadditive Environment by Shapley Value

การกระจายส่วนแบ่งของเอเจนต์ในโครงสร้างการรวมกลุ่มที่ดีที่สุดภายใต้สภาพแวดล้อมแบบนอนซุปเปอร์แอดดิทีพด้วยหลักค่าแชปลีย์

เบญจวรรณ อินทระ*   ฉัตรตระกูล สมบัติธีระ  และ  สวนิต วัฒนศักดากุล

An important feature in multiagent systems is forming coalitions among agents to execute tasks. At the system level, the most important thing for forming coalition is the system’s benefit. At agent level, the most important factor for forming coalitions is the division of joint benefits accruing from agents’ cooperation—agents must negotiate among themselves for maximizing their individual payoffs.

In superadditive environment, each agent can divide the payoffs equally because agents can always form grand coalition which yields maximal benefit for the system. However, in non-superadditive environment, forming grand coalition cannot guarantee such outcome. To yield maximal benefit to the system, cardinalities and coalition values may vary that means some agents may belong to low-valued coalitions, which do not attract agents to cooperate for the benefit of the system. This research applies Shapley Value concept in order to distribute coalition values more fairly. The concept follows the principle of agents’ contribution to the system in order to convey more fairness to agents in small coalitions. The results show that applying the concept can distribute the system’s benefit to coalitions of small, medium and large sizes more fairly and yields maximal benefit to the system. That is it can help agents in coalitions of low values to gains higher payoffs in proportion that the coalitions contribute to the system.


P.625-636

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Natural Convection In Triangular Cavity With Partially Insulated Inclined Walls

การพาความร้อนแบบธรรมชาติภายในโดเมนปิดรูปสามเหลี่ยม ที่ผนังเอียงบางส่วนมีฉนวน

วสันต์ ดอนน้อยหน่า  และ  สุพจน์ ไวท์ยางกูร*

In this research, we study the numerical model for natural convection heat transfer of flow within triangular cavity with partially insulated inclined walls. Boundary conditions; one-third and two-third of both right and left wall lengths are insulated while the rests are heated. The bottom wall is cold isothermal. This research used finite element method to solve and used FlexPDE Student version 6.36s for calculating the numerical solution with Rayleigh number  and Prandtl number  The numerical solutions are presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines, and heatlines.


P.637-649

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The Hybrid Classification using Empirical Bayes and Nearest Neighbor with Stable Distribution

การจัดกลุ่มด้วยวิธีเอ็มพิลิคัลเบส์ผสมผสานกับเนียเรสเนเบอร์ เมื่อข้อมูลมีการแจกแจงเสถียร

ณัฏฐินี ดีแท้

The propose of this research aimed to investigate a classification technique using Empirical Bayes in combination with Nearest Neighbor (EBNN) when data are distributed as Stable-normal, Cauchy and Levy distributions. The study is performed using informative priors, normal distributions with unknown mean but known variance. Data employed in this study were generated into two equal sets, consisting of training set and test set with the sample sizes 100 and 500 for the binary classification. In each situation, the data are simulated with Monte Carlo technique and repeated 5,000 times. The average percentage of correct classification is used as criteria for comparison. The results found that EBNN method exhibited an improved performance over Empirical Bayes method in all distributions under study. Increasing neighborhood (k) exhibited higher percentages of correct classification in all distributions. Stable-normal and Levy distribution with increasing sample size also exhibited higher percentages of correct classification.


P.650-657

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Assessment and Management of Feldspar Deposits at Noppitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province

การประเมินและการจัดการแหล่งแร่เฟลด์สปาร์ อำเภอนบพิตำ จังหวัดนครศรีธรรมราช

ปริญญา พัฒนเดช* และ มนูญ มาศนิยม

This research is aimed to study geology of Noppitam sodium feldspar bearing alaskite, production cost, raw material transportation cost, mineral processing cost and goods delivery cost in 2013 and used for mine design and mine optimization. Mine life was also estimated. The study area covers 7 mining concessions; both operating and on-renewing concessions. The inferred reserves was estimated to be around 82 million metric tons with 1.52 : 1 break even stripping ratio. The grade of mineral would be produced up to the customer specification as lightness (L*) ≥ 80, red/green (a*) ≤ 2, yellow/blue (b*) ≤ 20, refractoriness ≤ 65% at the price 850 baht/metric ton (F.O.B.) at Thasala port. At the market yearly growth rate 5%, mine life would be 40 years.