ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 44 No.4 October - December 2016


P.658-669

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Seaweed succession: Research in Thailand

การเปลี่ยนแปลงแทนที่ของสาหรายทะเล: งานวิจัยในประเทศไทย

จารุวรรณ มะยะกูล

Seaweed succession study shows that the pioneer species which are small size with a high degree of dispersal and high rate of growth are the first colonist that recruit and colonize cleared space. In early successional stage, it is dominated by green algae especially Ulva. Then, it is replaced by mid-successional species which red algae become very common at this middle stage. As time passes, the late successional species which generally have lower rates of dispersal and colonization, slower growth rates and larger size and longer-lived tend to dominate at the latest stage. Late successional stage is often dominated by large brown algae. There were only 2 research studies on algal succession in the coastal areas of Thailand. The results showed that green alga, Ulva paradoxa was the first colonist that recruited and colonized cleared space in the first 10 months. Then, it was replaced by Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa and followed by Padina in the Dictyerpa stage or Vaughaniella stage. In this community, the pattern of algal succession showed a simple pattern and seemed to follow an inhibition model which the early colonist inhibited the recruitment and suppressed the growth of later species. However, the pattern of seaweed succession varies both in space and time depending on kind, timing and frequency of disturbances and availability of propagules of seaweed species.


P.670-680

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Effect of Salinity on the Alteration of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha (TR α ) Protein Expression in the Chinese edible Frog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, Tadpole

ผลของความเค็มตอการเปลี่ยนแปลงระดับการแสดงออกของโปรตีน ตัวรับไทรอยดฮอรโมนชนิดแอลฟาในลูกออดกบนา ชนิด Hoplobatrachus rugulosus

Sukpaporn Phummisutthigoon and La-iad Nakkrasae *

Thyroid hormone (TH) promotes growth and remodels of the tadpole into complete adult frog. Since water salinity is a one factor effect on metamorphosis of anuran. Thus, the present study aims to study the effects of saline water on the levels of total body fluid of TH (T 4 ) and TRα protein expression in gill, skin, and tail fin of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus tadpoles at pro-metamorphic stage. Tadpoles (stage 27–30) were exposed to salinities (NaCl); 0, 2, 4 and 6 parts per thousand (ppt) for 21 days. The total body fluid of T 4 increased in 2 and 4 ppt groups, while in 6 ppt group was not change. Western blot analysis revealed that 34 kDa of TRα was detected in the larval gill, skin and tail fin. The expression of TRα protein increased in gill and kin in 2 and 4 ppt groups, but decreased in 6 ppt group. Decreased of TRα protein expression in tail fin was found in tadpoles exposed to 2 ppt, but not in 4 and 6 ppt groups. These suggest that at low water salinity (≤4 ppt) increased in T 4 and TRα protein could be involved in promoting growth and metamorphosis in H. rugulosus tadpoles.


P.681-690

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Membranes Containing Dimethylglyoxime as Optical Sensors for Nickel Ion Detection

เมมเบรนที่มีไดเมทิลไกลออกซีมสําหรับตรวจวัดไอออนนิกเกิล

Surangkhana Martwiset *   Chonnakarn Panawong   Kullanat Kawkhiaw   Kandamanee Srikongpan   Chayanan Boonrawd and Sujittra Kaenphakdee

Polyvinyl chloride containing dimethylglyoxime (DMG) membranes were prepared as optical sensors for detection of nickel ions based on the formation of Ni(DMG) 2 complex. The resulting pink complex was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Sensing performance was found to increase with increasing DMG content; however a high deviation was observed in PVC with 20%DMG membrane due to the inhomogeneous surface. The use of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) (PS-co-PMMA) as a polymer matrix provided a slightly higher sensing ability compared to that of PVC membranes. The optimized pH range for Ni 2+ detection of PS-co-PMMA containing 20% DMG membrane was 9.0 - 10.0. The maximum reflectance occurred to Ni 2+ concentrations above 0.8 mM. The membrane was capable of determining Ni 2+ with a high selectivity over other selected metal ions. However, the performance decreased in the presence of both Ni 2+ and other metal ions.


P.691-704

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An Ontology-based Supporting System for Integrated Farming towards a Concept of the Sufficiency Economy

Wichuphon Chariyamakarn *   Poonpong Boonbrahm   Thepchai Supnithi and Taneth Ruangrajitpakorn

Sufficiency Economy has been a guideline in several aspects in Thai culture and has been applied to agriculture theory called The New Agriculture Theory. Its core concept is to maintain self-reliant and sustainable resources within one’s own farmland by integrating farming parts. To promote the theory, we propose the first framework to support farmers who are interesting in exploiting the theory by providing a suggestion on how to be self-reliant and sustainable farm. Ontologies are designed to capture domain knowledge of the theory along with inference rules for making a logical suggestion of farming process. An inference engine is utilized to suggest a logical setting plan according to environment and need of individual farmer. Not only a self-reliant and sustainable procedure in farm setting is suggested, but the framework also provides an optimizing selection for each agriculture part. By testing, we found that the recommendations are accurate for 94.75% when they are compared with experts’ opinion.


P.705-718

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Linearization of Third-order Ordinary Differential Equations by Generalized Sundman Transformation

การทําสมการเชิงอนุพันธสามัญอันดับสามใหเปนเชิงเสน โดยการแปลงของซันดแมนแบบวางนัยทั่วไป

Rakkiet Srisuntorn and Warisa Nakpim *

This research considers an application of the generalized Sundman transformation, i.e.,

to the linearization problem of third-order ordinary differential equations. Complete necessary and sufficient conditions for third-order ordinary differential equations to be linearizable into the general form of a linear third-order ordinary differential equation where

and are constants, are obtained for the case


P.719-731

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Chromosomal Aberration Assessment of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) with Arsenic Contamination from a Gold Mine In Vivo

การประเมินความผิดปกติของโครโมโซมกบนาจากการรับสัมผัส สารหนูเหมืองแรทองคําในสภาพการทดลอง

The objectives of this study were to investigate the chromosomal aberrations of the East Asian bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) exposed to arsenic contaminated in water and sediment from gold mining in vivo compared to an unaffected area. The water and sediment samples were collected from Huai Lax Stream near the tailing pond where arsenic concentrations were analyzed before the experiment. Arsenic concentrations in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and chromosomal aberration assessment was prepared from bone marrow by direct method. The average arsenic concentrations of water and sediment samples were 0.23±0.01 mg/L and 192.80±8.08 mg/kg, respectively, which were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards. The average arsenic concentrations of H. rugulosus samples exposed to arsenic in period 1, 2 and 3 weeks were 0.04±0.01, 0.11±0.05 and 0.33±0.03 mg/kg, respectively which were lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. Chromosomal aberrations assessment of H. rugulosus have been exposed to arsenic in a period of 1 week found 4 forms including chromatid gap (SCG), single chromatid break (SCB), deletion (D) and fragmentation (F). The period of 2 week found 3 forms including iso chromatid gap (ISCG), deletion (D) and fragmentation (F). The period of 3 week found 5 forms including single chromatid gap (SCG), iso chromatid gap (ISCG), single chromatid break (SCB), deletion (D) and fragmentation (F). Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the percentage of chromosomal aberration of bullfrog that have been exposed to arsenic in period of 3 week (p<0.05).


P.732-746

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Assessment of Heavy Metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) Accumulation in Tissue of Hard Clam (Meretrix casta, Gmelin, 1791) in Mudflat of Laem Phak Bia, the Area Receiving Effluent from Phetchaburi Municipal Wastewater Treatment System, Laem Phak Bia

การประเมินโลหะหนัก (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) สะสมในเนื้อเยื่อหอยตลับ (Meretrix casta, Gmelin, 1791) บริเวณหาดเลนแหลมผักเบี้ยพื้นที่รองรับน้ำทิ้งจากระบบบําบัดน้ำเสียชุมชนเทศบาลเมืองเพชรบุรีตําบล แหลมผักเบี้ย อําเภอบานแหลม จังหวัดเพชรบุรี

เสถียรพงษ ขาวหิต*   เกษม จันทรแกว   วศิน อิงคพัฒนากุล และ อรอนงค ผิวนิล

An assessment of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb) accumulating in hard clam (Meretrix casta, Gmelin, 1791) was examined in clam found in mud flat area of Laem Phak Bia, the area receiving effluent treated wastewater from Phetchaburi Municipal Wastewater Treatment System Laem Phak Bia Sub District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province. A simple technology based on nature-by-nature purifying processes was used including 1) oxidation ponds 2) plant and grass filtration 3) constructed wetland 4) mangrove forest filtration. Samples were collected during the lowest sea levels in September 2012 (Rainy season) and March 2013 (Dry season). Three sets of clam tissues including the original, boiled and sea-soaked hard clam tissues were analyzed using Inductively Couple Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Statistical results showed no significance amount of heavy metals with p>0.05 among those three sets. The highest value of Arsenic (As), at 0.01468 milligrams/kilograms was found in sea-soaked tissues, whereas the lowest value of Lead (Hg), at 0.00023 milligrams/kilograms was found in original tissue. The concentration of heavy metals in tissues of calm living in mud area of Lam Phak Bia is at standard level which is safe for eating.


P.747-758

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The Responses of Some Pansy Butterfly Species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Junonia) on Warmer Temperature

การตอบสนองของผีเสื้อแพนซีบางชนิด (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Junonia) ตอสภาวะอุณหภูมิที่สูงขึ้น

Global warming is caused of warmer climate in Thailand which may affect to the survivorship of living organisms, particularly cold-blooded animals. Global warming effects may cause of biodiversity loss and ecosystem malfunction. This study was focused on the responses of some pansy butterfly species under warmer temperature i.e. Junonia almana, J. iphita and J. lemonias. In experiments, the butterflies were reared at temperature 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C according to compare survivorship, development time, weight and size of butterflies. Survivorship of three butterfly species was decreased with warmer temperature and no butterfly survived at 40 °C. The development time of all butterfly species at all temperature were different significantly (Tukey’s HSD test, p < 0.0001) and the shortest development time were at 30 °C condition. At temperature from 25 to 30 °C, response pattern of three butterfly species were not difference except J. lemonias which had increased in dry weight. J. iphita had lowest tolerance to temperature which was 30 °C. Thus, the extinction risk under warmer climate of J. iphita may higher than other species. The idiosyncratic responses to warmer temperature in congeneric species indicated that this is emergency topic to study this information of the butterflies and other animals, which increase sufficient information for management and conservation of biodiversity under warmer climate effectively.


P.759-769

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Isolation of the cellulase enzyme-producing fungi for utilizing in biofertilization

การคัดแยกเชื้อราที่มีศักยภาพในการผลิตเอนไซมเซลลูเลส เพื่อใชในกระบวนการหมักปุยชีวภาพ

ปริญญา ไกรวุฒินันท* และ ลินดา ใจปง

The purpose of this study to isolate the cellulase enzyme-producing fungi from soil samples collected from different areas in Uttaradit Province. A total of 15 cellulase enzyme-producing isolates were found on Carboxy methyl cellulose agar. Among these isolates, three of them including isolates B, D and E produced the highest number of cellulase enzyme (HC value) at 2.11, 1.88 and 1.79, respectively. These three isolates were then applied in six formulas of biofertilization and used for 20 days to test for the agricultural waste degradation efficiency. At the end, all of formulas had pH ranging 7.9 - 8.5. Total nitrogen (TKN) was varied between 1.01 and 1.14%. Organic matter (OM) number was varied ranging from 18.83 - 33.62%. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) had ranged between 10.26 and 17.30. Among six fertilizer formulas, formula-6 (isolates B, D and E) is the best one in terms of degradation efficiency followed by formula-3 (isolate B). Isolate B was identified as Aspergillus allahaba.


P.770-782

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Tissue Culture and gus Gene Transformation into Young Leaf of Angelonia goyazensis Benth.

การเพาะเลี้ยงเนื้อเยื่อ และการสงถายยีน gus เขาสูใบออนของแวววิเชียร

รัฐพร จันทรเดช   วารุต อยูคง* และ ภพเกา พุทธรักษ

The objective of this research was to study tissue culture and gus gene transformation into A. goyazensis. In vitro culture of young leaf of A. goyazensis using MS medium supplemented with 0-0.5 mg/L of TDZ and IAA was studied. Highest shoots regeneration, 38.21 shoots per explants was found on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/L TDZ and 0.1 mg/L IAA. The MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IAA induced rooting of all shoots with the highest average number of 5.3 roots per shoot. A study on the effect of antibiotics on growth of young leaf of A. goyazensis was conducted for 6 weeks. The highest concentration of cefotaxime in the medium that A. goyazensis young leaf can grow and regenerate shoots without significant difference from the control was 250 mg/L, while 25 mg/L kanamycin was sufficient for inhibition of young leaf growth. The gus gene transformation into young leaf of A. goyazensis by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pSTART) for 20 minutes resulted in the highest transformation efficiency of 32.30 percent and gus gene expression was confirmed by gus assay.


P.783-793

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Effect of Alternative Current and Direct Current Stimulation on Anode on Electricity outputs of Microbial Fuel Cell

ผลของการกระตุนแอโนดดวย กระแสไฟฟากระแสสลับและกระแสตรง ตอไฟฟาที่ไดจากเซลลเชื้อเพลิงจุลินทรีย

กมล รอดอยู   มานะ ศรียุทธศักดิ และ ศิริรัตน เรงพิพัฒน *

Selection of consortium for microbial fuel cell (MFC) needs effective consortium that can both utilize organic compound and directly transfer electron to anode. Poised potential and current stimulation on anode could enhance electricity output and COD removal in anode of MFC. The aim of this research was to study the effect of alternative current (AC) and direct current (DC) and culture media (NB, PBBM and FWA) that use for anode stimulation on voltage, current density and power density outputs of MFC. The result show that PBBM+AC stimulation at 5 milli-ampere (mA) gave the highest current density and voltage at 72.9 mA/m 2 and 719 milli-volt (mV) respectively. Moreover PBBM+AC stimulation at 10 mA gave the highest power density at 13.4 milli-watt/m 2 . Ferric reducing bacteria such as Shewanella putrefaciens and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from anode biofilm of PBBM+AC stimulation at 10 mA indicating that effective directly electron transfer bacteria could be enriched by AC stimulation. From this study, AC current stimulation on anode at 0-10 mA in PBBM medium can be used to enrich the effective consortium on anode for use in MFC.


P.794-808

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Effect of Dan Kwian Wood Ash and Tapioca Waste on Insulating Firebrick

อิทธิพลของเถาไมรวมดานเกวียนและกากมันสําปะหลัง ตออิฐฉนวนทนไฟ

ออนลมี กมลอินทร * และ ชัยศิริ หลวงแนม

Currently, the development of insulating fire bricks for Dan Kwian Kiln is firing temperature below 1,300 °C. A literature review in a proposal to investigate and development of the insulating fire bricks for performance benefit of Dan Kwian Kiln will find little. This research was development of Insulating Firebrick for Dan Kwian Kiln. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) techniques was used to investigate there phase and chemical composition of Dan Kwian clay and Dan Kwian wood ash. Mixtures ratios and compound are consist of Dan Kwian clay, Kaolinite clay, Dan Kwian wood ash and Tapioca waste. Then, all samples fired at 1,250 °C under oxidizing atmosphere. Investigation of Physical and Mechanical Properties such as drying and firing shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, density, specific gravity and modulus of rupture. The results indicated that the chemical component of Dan Kwian clay are consist of quartz (SiO 2 ) 70.44 wt.%, Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) 19.10 wt.%, iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) 7.40 wt.%, etc. The results of chemical analysis of Dan Kwian wood ash are calcium oxide (CaO) 56.54 wt.%, silica (SiO 2 ) 24.21 wt.%, Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) 10.50 wt.%, etc. Moreover, the mixture ratio of P5 consists of Dan Kwian clay 20 wt.%, Kaolinite clay 30 wt.%, Dan Kwian wood ash 30 wt.% and tapioca waste 10 wt.%. and also P6 consists of Dan Kwian clay 20 wt.%, Kaolinite clay 40 wt.%, Dan Kwian wood ash 30 wt.% and tapioca waste 20 wt.% The maximum porosity achieved was 47.20% and 45.13%, respectively. It can be used to produce insulating firebrick.


P.809-819

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เชฎฐา ชํานาญหลอ *   จักรินทร กลั่นเงิน และ ไตรภพ แซตั้ง

The Application of Optimization Technique in Production Line Balancing of Electronic Devices

การประยุกตใชเทคนิคการหาคาที่เหมาะสมที่สุดในการจัดสมดุล สายการผลิตอุปกรณอิเล็กทรอนิกส์

This paper studied the improvement of line efficiency of electronic devices production in order to meet demands. In many situations, the production line balancing is solved by applying the developed mathematical models such as the basic line balancing, the line balancing with restriction constraint, and the balanced lines considering merged resources. The current method of case study and the reviewed heuristic as Modified Helgeson-Birnie were used in the comparison. From the computational results, it can be shown that the proposed models can be applied for solving the real situations appropriately. The line efficiencies are increased to become 87% of the product_A and 86% of the product_B. And, the averaged line efficiency can be increased to 90.43% if the case of merged resources is allowed.


P.820-839

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Application of Time Series Analysis and Geographic Information Systems for Particulate Matter Less Than or Equal to 10 Microns in Diameter (PM10) Assessment in Bangkok

การประยุกตการวิเคราะหอนุกรมเวลาและระบบสารสนเทศภูมิศาสตร์ เพื่อประเมินฝุนละอองขนาดไมเกิน 10 ไมครอนในกรุงเทพมหานคร

สัญญา พันธพิทยุตม และ จินตนา อมรสงวนสิน *

The study aims to forecast the particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns in diameter (PM10) in 31 stations in Bangkok and surrounding provinces. The data of monthly average PM10 from 1997 to 2014, were analyzed to evaluate the dispersion of PM10 and demarcate the risk areas in Bangkok. The estimated data imputation technique was applied to represent the non-measurement data. The monthly average PM10 in 2015 was predicted using time series analysis technique. The calculated yearly average PM10 was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) using data interpolation technique to classify five levels of risk areas, and then the size of areas. The number of affected people were analyzed by the overlay technique. The result showed that the 2015 yearly average PM10 was between 15.5 to 80.3 μg/m 3 . The highest value was found at the station of Vibhavadi Forest Park Din Daeng, Chulalongkorn Hospital, and Phra Khanong District Office, respectively. For the size of risk areas in Bangkok, most of the areas (80.14%) were classified within moderate risk level and the highest risk area (1.95%) was 30.673 km 2 . For the analysis of the number of affected people, 156,175 people would be affected in high risk areas (the annual average PM10 exceeding standard) and 17,262 persons were in the highest risk areas. This study showed that the Time Series Analysis is a good technique to forecast the monthly average PM10. The Mean Absolute Percentage Errors (MAPE) was in the range of 10.5 to 21.82. In addition, GIS could be used to estimate the concentration of PM10 in the non-measurement data area. The results of the study could support the planning, decision making on effective prevention and air pollution management.


P.840-853

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Spatial Data Integration for Monitoring Shoreline Changes in the Coastal Area using Hard Engineering Structures: A Case Study of Pattani Province

การบูรณาการขอมูลเชิงพื้นที่เพื่อติดตามการเปลี่ยนแปลงแนวชายฝงในพื้นที่ใชโครงสรางวิศวกรรมปองกันชายฝงแบบแข็ง กรณีศึกษาจังหวัดปตตานี

วุฒิพงษ แสงมณี และ ชาญชัย ธนาวุฒิ

This paper focuses on comparing the shoreline change rates in coastal areas, the impact occurred after the construction of coastal defenses hard engineering structures in the coastal of Pattani province during 1975 to 2011. The methodology is based on the application of remote sensing data in multispectral is during recording in 1975 to 2011, an algorithm that ensures accurate image geometric registration and improvement techniques on the edge of the image segmentation, Sobel edges detection and Panshaped for sub-pixel shoreline extraction. The processing and analysis of shoreline change using Arcview 3.3 application with extension plugins DSAS. Rate of shoreline change was demarcated based on shoreline change envelope (SCE) and End Point Rate (EPR). The results found that have during the before coastal structure erosion rate of 3.70 m/yr, after the structure erosion rate of 3.02 m/yr. Groyne structure prevent coastal erosion was less than the tripod seawall and revetment structure, and affect the erosion process to the area around the structure, especially in the west side, the erosion rate of 5.59 m/yr. While the use of a tripod seawall to prevent coastal erosion. The remains of the coastline and the material structure still works great. Using the revetment structure is slow erosion, but the rock dumps structure is damaged easily. The result of the study indicates that shore perpendicular structure, if construction a continuous or overlay structure built parallel to the coast is accelerate rate of change of the coastline and surrounding structures and the more side effects of severe erosion rates. Application of the remote sensing technique to extraction the shoreline and focus on the segmentation, Sobel edges detection and panshaped with color multispectral image information helps to easier and more accurate interpret for visual interpretation, Then techniques are very useful for impact assessment and monitoring coastal changes of spatial dynamics effectively.