ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 45 No.1 January-March 2017


P.1-16

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Recent Progress in Organic Solar Cells

ความก้าวหน้าของงานวิจัยด้านเซลล์แสงอาทิตย์ชนิดอินทรีย์

สมพิศ วันวงษ์

Increased consumption of petroleum and natural gas over several decades has led to the energy shortage concern. To meet a growing need for electrical energy, solar energy which is abundant and clean, has been widely employed. Solar radiation can be directly converted to electricity using photovoltaic devices or solar cells. Depending on the types of semiconductor, solar cells can be classified into four categories that are silicon solar cells, III-V solar cells, organic solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells. Among these solar cells, the organic solar cells have gaining attention due to the low cost of materials, light-weight, ease of fabrications and processes. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the stability of organic photovoltaics are considering low. The highest recorded efficiency of single-junction organic solar cells is 11.5 %. Therefore, improvement of the device efficiency has remained the challenge. In this review, we focused on the principle of organic photovoltaics, the recent progress of organic semiconductors, the advanced in large scaled fabrication and the future directions of organic solar cells research.


P.17-33

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Polarity Indicators and Scales

สารส่งสัญญาณและสเกลความมีขั้ว

โอภาส โตจิระ

Polarity is a crucial property in both chemical and biological systems. It determines the molecular interactions within the system. Therefore, it substantially influences both physical and chemical processes. In solution, change in the solute-solvent interactions due to the local polarity affects the molecular association, stability and energy levels which are evidently reflected by changes in the position and/or intensity of the absorption and emission spectra. There are many compounds, called solvatochromic compounds, whose spectra are sensitive to the local polarity and can shift to longer (bathochromic shift) or shorter (hypsochromic shift) wavelength ranges. They can be used to be the polarity indicators and to develop the empirical polarity scales. Some well-known polarity scales are stated in this review. Likewise, some solvatochromic compounds which have been extensively used to investigate chemical and biological systems are stated as an example. Furthermore, some details and applications of a well-known fluorescent polarity indicator, pyrene, whose spectral characteristic/intensity is sensitive to the local polarity of the system, are reviewed.


P.34-52

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Plant Extract Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles and their Antimicrobial Activity

อนุภาคเงินนาโนสังเคราะห์ด้วยสารสกัดจากพืชและความสามารถในการยับยั้งเชื้อจุลินทรีย์

กานต์พิมล กรไกร และ รินา ภัทรมานนท์*

Silver nanoparticles have many medical and industrial applications. The nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemical and physical approaches. However, major disadvantages of both approaches are non eco-friendly and costly synthesis processes. Therefore, biological approach has currently become an alternative and holds interest for many researchers. Nevertheless, biological mechanism of silver nanoparticle synthesis remains unclear. This review provides information on how to synthesize silver nanoparticles by plant extract, effects of the synthesis parameters, synthesis mechanism and some applications of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial activities.


P.53-67

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Biological Properties of Soil and Number of Coliform Bacteria in Water from Fruit Orchards of Pongrad area, Phlabphla subdistrict, Muang district, Chanthaburi province

คุณสมบัติทางชีวภาพของดินและจำนวนแบคทีเรียโคลิฟอร์มในน้ำ จากสวนผลไม้บ้านโป่งแรด ตำบลพลับพลา อำเภอเมือง จังหวัดจันทบุรี

จิรภัทร จันทมาลี* อิสยาภรณ์ บุญไทย ธัญญา โทนุการ กรรณิการ์ อินทร์ธรรม วิจิตรา ศรีดาพันธ์ และ ศิริรัตน์ บังเกิด

Microbiological properties are indicators for soil fertility and biological water quality. This research aimed to study the biological properties of orchard soil and analyse for coliform bacteria in agricultural water. Ten soil and water samples were collected from Pongrad area, Phlabphla subdistrict, Muang district, Chanthaburi province by two times of samplings, in September 2014 (after harvesting) and in December 2014 (in flowering). Soil samples were taken from the bush at a depth of 15 cm and was investigated for soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties. In September and December sampling, the results showed that pH, moisture and temperature of  soil samples ranged from 4.04 to 6.99, 4.04 to 6.66, 17.94 ± 0.36 to 33.98 ± 0.57%, 11.76 ± 0.29 to 24.50 ± 0.75%, 25 to 28 °C and 26 to 29 °C, respectively. Catalase activity of soil microorganisms in September and December sampling were ranged from 1.14 ± 0.04 to 1.84 ± 0.12, 1.10 ± 0.03 to 1.60 ± 0.07 ml O2 g-1 dry soil, basal soil respiration were ranged from 0.03 to 0.81 and 0.03 to 0.38 µg CO2 g-1 dry soil. The coliform numbers in agricultural water in September and December sampling were ranged from 11000 to 28000 and 7400 to 21000 MPN/100 ml for total coliform, 3600 to 9200 and 3000 to 7300 MPN/100 ml for fecal coliform. This study revealed that the physical and biological soils properties from the GAP-certified orchard and the conventional orchard were not significantly different (P = 0.05). Probably due to the collected sites had low degree of variability in soil type or land use pattern.


P.68-82

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Physical characteristics, lupinifolin content, and biological activity of the wood of Myriopteron extensum (Wight & Arn.) K. Schum.

ลักษณะทางกายภาพ ปริมาณสารลูปินิโฟลินและฤทธิ์ทางชีวภาพ ของเนื้อไม้ชะเอม

Nantiya Joycharat* Decho Thammanee Napat Phrommachan Sarit Trimanee Thanateap Poongern Chonlatid Sontimuang and Surasak Limsuwan

Myriopteron extensum (Wight & Arn.) K. Schum. of the family Apocynaceae is the medicinal plant used in folk medicine for its antitussive, tonic and antidote properties. This medicinal plant has often been substituted for other plants that have the same synonyms as Cha-em. This study revealed that the macroscopic characters of the dried stem of the wood of M. extensum were spherical liana, externally smooth dark brown, yellow wood inside, sweet, nonunique smell. Powdered drug of the wood of M. extensum possessed the microscopical characters including parenchyma cell with starch grains, bordered pit vessels, stone cells, fibers, and starch grains. Chemical identification using High Performance Liquid Chromatography revealed lupinofolin in hexane extract from the wood of M. extensum at 0.063 mg/g. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of the wood of M. extensum demonstrated that various solvent extracts including those of ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, and n-butanol exhibited IC50 in the range of 80.50 – 474.86 µg/mL by DPPH assay and showed reducing power in the range of 70.97 – 434.18 mM FeSO4/g by FRAP assay. Among all of the extracts, the highest DPPH scavenging activity and the highest reducing power were found in the dichloromethane extract (DPPH; IC50 80.50 µg/mL and FRAP; 434.18 mM FeSO4/g). However, all these extracts of M. extensum did not give antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, the major cause of tooth decay, and did not show α-glucosidase inhibitory activity at the highest tested concentrations of 1000 and 25 µg/mL, respectively.


P.83-94

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Synergistic Effect of Lupeol from Kri (Glochidion daltonii Kurz) with Tetracycline against Opportunistic Bacteria

การเสริมฤทธิ์ของ Lupeol จากไคร้ (Glochidion daltonii Kurz) ร่วมกับ ยาเตตราซัยคลินในการยับยั้งการเจริญของเชื้อแบคทีเรียฉวยโอกาส

วารี เนื่องจำนงค์ และ วิสาตรี คงเจริญสุนทร*

The isolation of natural products from crude hexane of the leaves of Glochidion daltonii Kurz were carried out by chromatographic techniques. One pure compound obtained as white crystal with melting point 214-215 °C. The structure was identified by spectroscopic techniques, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-90, and DEPT-135. The comparison between those spectra and the reference spectra of triterpenoids, confirmed that the pure compounds was Lupeol. Then, Lupeol was evaluated the antibacterial activity against opportunistic bacteria. It was found that Lupeol could inhibit the growth of ten species of opportunistic bacteria, studied in this project, except Bacillus subtilis. The Combination of Lupeol with tetracycline, showed synergistic effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with FICI value of 0.27. Also, partially synergistic effect was found against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with FICI value of 0.56. The times that could inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli ATCC 25922 were at the sixth and the fourth hour, respectively, from starting the inoculums of Lupeol with tetracycline.


P.95-104

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The Detection of Apoptosis Levels in 5-FU treated Cholangiocarcinoma Tissues using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Microspectroscopy

การตรวจวัดระดับเซลล์ตายแบบอะพอพโตซิสในชิ้นเนื้อมะเร็งท่อน้ำดีที่ได้รับยาเคมีบำบัด 5-FU ด้วยฟูเรียร์ทรานสฟอร์มอินฟราเรดไมโครสเปกโตรสโคปี

โมลิน ว่องวัฒนากูล พัชราภรณ์ ทิพยวัฒน์ และ พัชรี เจียรนัยกูร*

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an epithelial bile duct cancer which is found mostly in the northeast of Thailand. CCA patients have a low rate of survival due to delayed diagnosis and poor responses to chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, drug response screening is expected to improve the clinical outcome. Recently, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy is a potential tool for molecular changed detection in cells and tissues. Therefore, this study aimed to classify the chemotherapeutic responses in 8 CCA tissues by using Conventional-FTIR microspectroscopy. Tissue biopsies from CCA patients were cultured with 200 µM of 5-FU. Samples were paraffin embedded and sectioned into two pieces for, first, TUNEL staining to count apoptotic cells and calculate drug response as a % inhibitory index (%II) and, second, FTIR measurement. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed after FTIR experiment to classify the group of apoptotic levels. The results showed that FTIR microspectroscopy could distinguish resistant samples from a set of sensitive samples. In particular, we observed changes of bands at 1621 cm-1 in resistant samples shift to 1639 cm-1 in sensitive samples which is associated to the process of cell apoptosis. This approach is proposed as a rapid method for the apoptotic cell detection in chemotherapeutic response of CCA tissues before treatment. The correlation between the IR spectral signature and various % II should be evaluated in more samples in further study.


P.105-113

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A Comparative Histological Structure of the Spleens of Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) and Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton, 1822)

มิญชวิทยาเชิงเปรียบเทียบทางโครงสร้างของม้ามปลาฉลามหัวบาตร Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) และ ปลาไหลงู Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton, 1822)

ศิลปชัย เสนารัตน์*, ปิยากร บุญยัง, ภากร ณ. ลำปาง, อัมภรณ์พรรณ พลาศัย, วรรณีย์ จิรอังกูรสกุล, พิสิษฐ์ พูลประเสริฐ และ เจษฏ์ เกษตระฑัต

The present study aimed to compare the histological structure of the spleens between Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) and Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton, 1822). Histologically, the spleen of C. leucas was covered with a thick capsule and then its capsule protruded into the central zone, as called trabeculae. Two main components including white and red pulps are present from this event. The white pulp contained an aggregation of the diffuse lymphatic tissue and small lymphatic nodule, which stained more slightly eosinophila. Whereas the most region of the red pulp was a connective tissue and the ellipsoid was not observed Nevertheless, several cellular classifications including red blood cells (erythrocytes), thrombocyte, granulocyte, reticular cell and lymphocyte could be basically found in this region. Based on a histological comparison of the spleens between C. leucas and P. boro, they were slightly different. However, it was found that the numerous penicillar arteries were scattered throughout the red pulp of the P. boro spleen.


P.114-127

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Species Diversity of Benthic Water Phytoplankton and Relationships Between Benthic Water Qualities at Mud Flat Area of Laem Phak Bia, Laem Phak Bia Sub District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province

ความหลากหลายชนิดของแพลงก์ตอนพืชใต้พื้นท้องน้ำและความสัมพันธ์กับคุณภาพน้ำใต้พื้นท้องน้ำบริเวณพื้นที่หาดเลนแหลมผักเบี้ย อำเภอบ้านแหลม จังหวัดเพชรบุรี

เสถียรพงษ์ ขาวหิต* เกษม จันทร์แก้ว วศิน อิงคพัฒนากุล อรอนงค์ ผิวนิล และ เอกชัย บุดดา

Study on species diversity of benthic water phytoplankton and relationships between benthic water qualities at mud flat area of Laem Phak Bia of Laem Phak Bia, Laem Phak Bia Sub District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province. The samples were collected from underground at the depth of 30 cm during rainy period (September-2012) and summer period (March-2013). The results showed that benthic water phytoplankton was found in 21 genera of 2 Division, 3 genera in Cyanophyta and 18 genera in Chromophyta. The dominant species belong to species Coscinodiscus sp. and Oscillatoria sp. The index of evenness index and species diversity of benthic water phytoplankton were 0.76 and 2.17, respectively. The observed indices related to benthic water phytoplankton exhibited significant positive correlations with that dissolved oxygen, TKN, orthophosphate  and hydrogen sulfide (p<0.05), whilst they showed significant negative correlations with that salinity of the water (p<0.05).


P.128-137

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Comparisons of Sericin Protein Extraction Methods from Thai silk and their Protein Patterns

การเปรียบเทียบวิธีการสกัดโปรตีนเซริซินจากไหมไทยและแบบแผนโปรตีน

สุพัตรา แคนสิงห์ บุษราคัม ป้อมทอง สุนทรต์ ชูลักษณ์ และ วิชุดา จันทร์ข้างแรม*

Water soluble sericin protein from waste silk thread of 3 subspecies of Bombyx mori L.; Nang-Tui, Nang-Noi Sri-Sa-Ket and Leung-Pairoj were extracted at 25 and 100 oC for 0 - 60 min. Yield, protein quantity and SDS-PAGE protein pattern were analyzed. Extraction at 25 oC for 60 min did not give neither protein yield not protein pattern. However, extraction at 100 oC for 30 and 60 min gave greater yield and protein than extraction for 0 min. Higher yield and protein were given from Nang-Noi Sri-Sa-Ket and Leung-Pairoj more than Nang-Tui. SDS-PAGE protein patterns of Nang-Tui, Nang-Noi Sri-Sa-Ket and Leung-Pairoj showed protein bands in range of 100 and 250 kDa.


P.138-150

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Effects of Drying Temperature on the Isoflavone Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Fermented Soybean (Thua Nao)

ผลของอุณหภูมิอบแห้งที่มีต่อปริมาณไอโซฟลาโวนและความสามารถ การต้านออกซิเดชันของถั่วเหลืองหมัก (ถั่วเน่า)

เกตุการ ดาจันทา* และ หทัยทิพย์ ร้องคำ

Soybeans and soy products are recognized as health food. In the present study, the effect of drying temperature on the content of isoflavones and capacity of antioxidant of Thai fermented soybean (Thua Nao) was studied. The fermented soybean was prepared by inoculating autoclaved soybean with starter powder of the Bacillus subtilis at the ratio 0.1% (w/w), incubated at 42°C for 48 h, and then dried in a hot air oven at 60, 70, and 80°C. The contents of isoflavone b-glycosides (daidzin, genistin and glycitin), aglycosides (daidzein, genistein and glycitein) and total phenolic compounds were evaluated. Antioxidant activities in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were also investigated. Drying temperature significantly affected the retention of antioxidants. Although there was no significant difference in total phenolic compounds and isoflavone aglycosides at different drying temperature, Thua Nao dried at 70 and 80°C had higher contents of b-glycosides (11 and 11%) and total isoflavones (17 and 20%) than those of dried product at 60°C. In addition, the product dried at 80°C had superior activities of both DPPH and FRAP compared with those at below drying temperature. Genistin was found the most in all dried products, followed by daidzin and daidzein, respectively.


P.151-162

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Preparation of Porous TiO2 Hollow Spheres and Photodegradation of Methyl Orange

การเตรียมอนุภาคไทเทเนียมไดออกไซด์ทรงกลมกลวงพื้นผิวพรุน และการศึกษาอัตราการย่อยสลายเมทิลออเรนจ์โดยใช้แสง

ณัฐกานต์ กาญจนะ และ ปวีณา เหลากูล*

Porous TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres, synthesized by hydrothermal method, as a template. The obtained carbon spheres coated with TiO2 (C@TiO2) was investigated by the TG-DTG technique to determine the thermal decomposition and subsequently was calcined at 500 and 550 oC. The prepared TiO2 particles were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. The results from XRD showed that the porous TiO2 hollow spheres calcined at 500 and 550 oC were polycrystalline with crystallite sizes of 13.6 and 18.7 nm, respectively. Optical absorption of the samples was studied under UV-visible light irradiation (from 200-800 nm). Energy band gap (Eg) of the porous TiO2 hollow spheres calcined at 500 and 550 oC could be evaluated using absorption spectra, giving 3.09 and 3.12 eV, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of the calcined samples were studied using methyl orange solution under UVA irradiation (wavelength 320-400 nm). The results showed that the porous TiO2 hollow spheres calcined at 550 oC exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than the sample calcined at 500 oC.


P.163-174

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Rice Husk Gasifier Stove-Energy for Thai Agriculturalist

เตาชีวมวลแกลบพลังงานเพื่อเกษตรกรไทย

วิรัตน์ เจริญบุญ

A prototype of an inverted downdraft rice husk gasifier strove are designed and invented. The agricultural wastes such as rice husk have been used as the energy source. The thermal efficiency and real usage test are investigated. The results show that the maximum fuel loading is about 1.659 kg and the thermal efficiency is about 10.36%. The maximum power output of the strove (about 1.28 kW) was obtained when the input power value of fuel is 12.50 kW feeding into the strove. The average value of the fuel startup time, operating time, flame temperature and fuel consumption rate (FCR) are 2.87 min, 27.59 min, 416 – 684 °C and 3.184 kg/hr, respectively. This type of gasifier strove can be generated heat for cooking in many kinds of menus for example Tom Yum Gai (chicken Tom Yum). This menu can be finished within 25 min. To boil 2.0 liters of water for making hot beverages such as hot-coffee or hot-milk can be achieved within 8 min.


P.175-182

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The Physical Properties of XY Leonis Binary Star System

คุณสมบัติทางกายภาพของระบบดาวคู่ XY Leonis

รณกฤต รัตนมาลา

The study of the physical properties of the XY Leonis binary star was conducted at Regional Observatory for the Public Nakhon Ratchasima, National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (Public Organization). The 0.5 m reflecting telescope that attached by B and V filters was employed to process for a photometry data collection. The light curves showed that the W UMa eclipsing binary type. The asymmetry of light curves analysis may be due to spot on the star. The result of mass ratio (q) and fill out factor (f) calculations were 2.802 and about 0%, respectively. It was shown that the XY Leonis is a contact binary system.


P.183-192

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Measurement of Ambient Gamma Dose rate in air in Phayao province

การตรวจวัดค่าระดับรังสีแกมมาในอากาศบริเวณจังหวัดพะเยา

สุพรรณษา จันทร์สุริยา* ปราณณิชา หงส์พิทักษ์พงศ์ และ ไมตรี ศรียา

In this research, the objective was to compare the ambient gamma dose rate in Phayao province with the standard level of the office of atoms for peace (OAP). The data were collected from the radiation monitoring station at School of Science, University of Phayao between 28 March 2011 to 15 May 2015. The proportional counter type (BERHOLD) gamma radiation detector and the display monitor of Micro Gamma LB111 were used to collect and evaluate the ambient gamma dose rate on daily basic. During 2011 to 2015, the values of ambient gamma dose rate were ranged 0.172-0.052, 0.164-0.043, 0.154-0.122, 0.156-0.114, and 0.149-0.140 mSv/hr and with the average 0.146, 0.154, 0.145, 0.146 and 0.143 mSv/hr respectively. The average values of ambient gamma dose rate were in normal levels compared to the OAP standard of 0.040-0.150 mSv/hr exception in year 2012, which the mean value was slightly higher than the background radiation in the environment. Moreover, the average data were compared with other radiation monitoring stations using the same detection system in Ubonratchathani, Trat and Ranong. It was found that the average values were different from each other due to the geographical location. However, the averages of all stations gamma dose rates were acceptable and safe.


P.193-199

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Lichens on Nature Trail in Plant Genetic Conservation Project, Rambhai Barni Rajabhat University, Chanthaburi Province

ไลเคนบริเวณเส้นทางศึกษาธรรมชาติในพื้นที่ปกปักพันธุกรรมพืชฯ มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏรำไพพรรณี จังหวัดจันทบุรี

ชวัลรัตน์ สมนึก* วสันต์ เพิงสูงเนิน ณมนรัก คำฉัตร และกอบกุล นงนุช

In order to classify the lichens on nature trail in Plant Genetic Protection Area, Rambhai Barni Rajabhat University, Chanthaburi province. Lichens were collected from bark of trees during January to May, 2015. A line transect of 480 meters long on the nature trail was used. Samples were collected every 20 meters on both sides of the line. Lichens from tree bark were collected in 2 x 2 m2 quadrate at each sampling station. The specimens were taxonomically classified based on morphological, anatomical and chemical constituent substances. The chemical compositions were analyzed by spot test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) in laboratory. The total of 110 lichen specimens were classified into 9 families, 15 genera and 31 species. The families with the highest number of samples were Graphidaceae (61 percent of the total specimens), followed by Malmideaceae, Pyrenulaceae, Coenogoniaceae, Arthoniaceae, Monoblastiaceae, Ramalinaceae, Trypetheliaceae and Physciaceae consisted of 15, 13, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 1 percent, respectively.


P.200-213

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Monte Carlo Simulation for Comparing The Parameters Inverse Gaussian Distributions Estimated by Bayesian Estimation Using Gamma And Weibull Prior Distribution

การจำลองสถานการณ์ด้วยวิธีมอนติคาร์โลในการเปรียบเทียบตัวประมาณค่าพารามิเตอร์แบบเบส์ของการแจกแจงอินเวอร์สเกาส์เซียนโดยใช้การแจกแจงไวบูลเป็นการแจกแจงก่อนกับใช้การแจกแจงแกมม่าเป็นการแจกแจงก่อน

กิตติศักดิ์ จังพานิช * และ สุชาดา กรเพชรปาณี

This aim of this study was to compare the absolute bias (|Bias|) and the Mean Square Error (MSE) of the parameters (μ, β) in Inverse Gaussian distributions estimated by Bayesian using Gamma and Weibull prior distributions. The simulation was computed by Monte Carlo where the shape parameter (μ) was equal to 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 the scale parameter (β) was equal to 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and the sample size (n) was equal to 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000 repeated for 10,000 times. The result showed that in the case of the sample sizes was 50 and 1000, shape parameter (μ) in Inverse Gaussian distributions using Weibull prior distribution was more efficient than using Gamma prior distribution. For the scale parameter in Inverse Gaussian distributions, using Weibull prior distribution was more efficient than using Gamma prior distribution in the case of these sample sizes; 100, 200, 400 and 1000.