Natthakaln Lomchoey, Audchara Saenkham, Santhana Nakapong and Sunit Suksamrarn*
–Glucosidase inhibitory activity of crude extracts of four Thai Ziziphus plants was investigated using the root bark and stem bark of Z. cambodiana, the root and stem bark of Z. mauritiana, the root of Z. oenoplia var. oenoplia and the stem bark of Z. oenoplia var. brunoniana. The results showed that the MeOH extracts displayed high potent–glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 range of 0.007±0.006 – 0.031±0.0018 mg/mL, about 79 – 350 folds more potent than standard drug acarbose. While the EtOAc extracts possessed IC50 ranges of 0.014±0.001 – 8.772±0.234 mg/mL in the same test. Column chromatographic isolation and TLC screening led to obtain betulinic acid (1) as major product from EtOAc extract and highest quantity of tannin was found in MeOH extracts. Compound 1 (IC50 of 0.031±0.0027 mg/mL) exhibited 79.2 times more potent –glucosidase inhibition than that of acarbose. This work is the first report of –glucosidase inhibitory property of Thai Ziziphus plants crude extracts.
The fungi from decomposing rice straw and rotten eucalyptus stumps inAmphoeMueang,NongkhaiProvincewere screened usingagar diffusion technique. There were 32isolates that could hydrolyze lignocelluloses.Thoseisolates hydrolyzed cellulose and hemicellulose, but lignin oxidationwas not found.Among the fungi isolatefrom rotten eucalyptus stumps, NKU1-5, NKU1-7and NKU2-9 showed highest ability to hydrolyze hemicelluloses. The optimal temperatures for those isolate were35, 35and 25 oC, respectively.In addition, their growth rates were similar at 25 oC. Thexylanase activity and hemicelluloses hydrolysis abilityof those isolate, rice straw as substrate, were compared at 25oC and 50% moisture content on the model of solid state fermentation. The NKU2-9 showed the highestxylanase activity (4.48 IU/ml)and hemicellulose degradation (8.29%).Those 3isolates were identified asAspergillussp. strain NKU1-5 (KY405016), Aspergillussp. strain NKU1-7 (KY405017) andCurvulariasp.NKU 2-9strain (KY405018) as assessed by partial 5.8S rDNA sequences. These lignocellulolytic fungi have the potential to degrade agricultural waste to produce valuable products and to handle the waste without environmental harmful.
Sunan Nonglek, Sasitorn Putjuso and ThaninPutjuso*
In this research, Cu1-xFexO (CFO) (x= 0, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles were prepared by a simple thermal decomposition method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD analysis confirms the formation of a single phase monoclinic structure in all CFO samples. The particle sizes estimated from the TEM bright field images are in the range of 90-400 nm. EDX results confirm the stoichiometric amount of Cu and Fe in all CFO samples. The determined optical band gaps (Eg) from UV-vis spectra are found to be 3.507eV for pure CuO sample andincrease to the maximum value of 3.605eV in Fe-doped sample of x = 0.07. The magnetic measurements at room temperature reveal the ferromagnetic behavior in all CFO samples. The saturate magnetization is increased with increasing Fe content tothe maximum value of 1.32 emu/g inthe CFO sample of x = 0.07.
Saowalak Saengplot, Sujittra Daengsakul*, Adulphan Pimsawat and Santi Maensiri
This research reports the studies of crystallographic structure, morphology and magnetic properties of a manganite compound which substitution of Gd and Sr ions at La (or A-site) in the perovskitestructure of La1-x-ySrxGdyMnO3 (LSGM).While the quantity of Gd and Sr given gives the average size of the cations occupying in A-site or ( ) is ﬁxed at ~1.24 Å for all samples, the significant parameters of Mn4+content and the size mismatch of A-site cations (s 2)changedfrom the substitution of Gd and Sr for La is focused. The LSGM nanopowders are prepared by using the thermal hydro-decomposition method at 900oC in air for 6 h. The influence of Gd and Sr substitution for La in the sample was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and VSM techniques. The XRD result shows that all the prepared samples indexed to a single rhombohedral phase. The morphological investigation of the powder samples from SEM and TEM images reveals the spherical nanoparticles shape with an agglomeration. The average particle sizes of prepared samples are in the range of 28 – 40 nm. The magnetic measurement shows soft ferromagnetic behavior of all samples. The increasing of Mn4+ contents and s2value (or Gd content) decreases particle size (D), magnetization (M) and Curie temperature (TC) strongly. A larges 2, and an introduction of magnetic layers result in a random arrangement of spin-ordering and also destroy the coupling of Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions in the long-range FM ordering into the short-range magnetically ordered clusters and form spin-cluster glass state.
สุจิตกัลยา มฤครัฐอินแปลง* และปาริฉัตร พิมพา
Fungi is the filamentous microorganism with eukaryotic cell. The fungi were found in environment and played role in the biodeterioration of historic ruins. The aim of this research was to study diversity and ability in producing substances affected to the pH of cultured broth of fungi which isolated from five historic ruins pagodas of Ayutthaya historical park including of WatMahathat, Wat Rat Cha burana, WatPhra Ram, WatPhra Sri Sanphet and Ancient Palace.The samples were studied using many methods consistingwith using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A standard method was employed to count all the amount of the total fungi. Pure fungi were isolated by using potato dextrose agar. Ability in producing substances that affect the pH of culture broth of the fungi was also studied, together with the diversity differentiated. The finding revealed the diversity of microorganism on the surface of five sample’s ruins when studied by usingSEM. The amount of total fungi in soil samples was higherthan those from the surface sample. The results of using potato dextrose agar could isolate the fungi 74 pure cultures. Representatives of 25 isolates were taken the ability in producing substance that affect the pH of cultured broth and analyzed morphological study. The result found that all isolates produced acidic substances excepted for RB07 could produce alkaline substances. Furthermore, they were many colors of spore production such as white, black, dark-brown, green and gray. Identification the fungi was carried out using morphological characteristics and spore arrangement. The results revealed that fungi belong to 3 genera includingPenicllium sp., Aspergillus sp., andCurvularia sp..
This research studied the starter culture and sugar concentrations needed for producing nata de coco from coconut juice and for processing a gac drink mixed with nata de coco and dehydratedsweetened nata de coco. The amount of Acetobacterxylinum starter culture, at 10, 15, and 20% and the sugar content using 6, 8, and 10% for producing nata de coco from coconut juice were studied. Results showed no correlation between the thickness of nata de coco produced and the amounts of starter culture and sugar used (p>0.05). Hence, for the rest of this study, Acetobacterxylinumstarter cultureand sugar content in coconut juice liquid medium was set to 10% and 6%, respectively. In producing gac drink mixed with nata de coco, the pulp to water ratio was set to 1:7, 1:9, and 1:11. Varying the gac juice concentration had no apparent effect on brightness (L) value, pH and the sensory qualities of the resulting (p>0.05) but showed statistically significant effects on redness (a) and yellowness (b) (p£0.05). Therefore, the ratio of gac pulp to water set to 1:11 for the cost reduction of production. Processing of dehydrated sweetened nata de coco produced by slow osmosis was studied using sucrose solution as an osmotic solution, with an initial concentration of 30°Brix, which was increased to final concentration of sucrose solution at 40, 50, and 60°Brix. The results showed statistically significant effects of sucrose concentration on physical and chemical properties and the sensory qualities of the resulting of sweetened nata de coco (p£0.05). The final concentration of sucrose solution was chosen at 60°Brix, which produced the minimum values of moisture content and the satisfaction score of all attributes were extremely satisfy.
สุนันทา ยาวาปี และ รัชดาภรณ์ เบญจวัฒนานนท์*
The aim ofstudy was to classify the shape and number of pores in fingertip for proving incomplete latent fingerprints identify using ninhydrin method. Fingerprints from 10 valunteens including 5 men and 5 women age between 20 to 35 years were printed on 4 different types of papers. They were print paper, newspaper, card printing paper and brown document envelope. The plain fingerprint technique was applied to test the suitable paper, shape and number of sweet pore under light microscope. The results revealed that print paper was the most suitable materials to study the shape and number of sweet pore. The shape found were parallelogram, square, rectangular, trapezoid, triangle, circle and oval. The parallelogram shape was the most found in men (39.27%) and women (49.96%) whilst the ovals shape was the fewest found in both men (0.88%) and women (0.53%). The average number of sweet pore in women (53.35%) had higher number than in men (46.63).The parallelogram, rectangular, triangle, circle and oval shapes and number of sweet pore between genders were significantly different (p< 0.05).
สุนิษา สุวรรณเจริญ อาภาพร บุญมี พัชรี อาษาขันธ์ พิศชนก พิชญ์ภูมิสกุล รุ่งอรุณ พลอาจ และธีรพิชญ์ เกษมสุข*
Phytochemical and larvicidal activity against Culex sp. of organic solvent extracts from the fresh flowers and leaves of Nerium oleander L. (Pink cultivar) were evaluated. Many substances such as phenolic compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides except anthraquinones and iridoid glycosides were found in these plant extracts. The result of larvicidal activities show that the methanolic extract from leaves of N.oleander exhibited highest activity with a LC50 value of 251.70±12.17 mg/l which this activity may related with phenolic compounds, alkaloids and saponins found in the extract.
วัชราภรณ์ ประภาสะโนบล* และพิชิต สุดตา
This research aims to study the antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts from dried stem of CappariskerriiCraib. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assays. The results showed that acetone extract (IC50 = 2.12±0.01 mg/ml) exhibited higher antioxidant potential than BHT standard (IC50 = 14.05±0.05 mg/ml) about 6.6 times. Total phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were investigated using Folin-Ciocalteu, colorimetric aluminium chloride assays and Bromocresol green method, respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference on the total phenolic contents (p> 0.05) in all extracts. The highest total flavonoid content found in hexane extract (p<0.05) was 140.0 ± 0.01 mg QE/g crude extract and the highest total alkaloid in extracts of acetone was 1,684.95 ± 0.02 mg AE/g crude extract. In addition, the positive correlation coefficients were observed between the antioxidant potential and total phenolic content (r = 0.991) and alkaloid content (r = 0.686), respectively. However, the negative correlation coefficients were found (r = 0.966) between the antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content.
ธนากรณ์ ดำสุด* ฐิติกร จันทร์วุ่น นมล ศรีเมฆ และสุธรรม ส่งแสง
In this research, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol crude extracts of young jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) were first evaluated for antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and a-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Investigation of antioxidant activities included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, total phenolic contents using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The methanol extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging (IC500.60±0.18 mg/mL) and total phenolic contents (144.76±2.30 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract). In addition, the methanol extract revealed highest a-glucosidase inhibitory activity against rat intestinal sucrase with an IC50 value of 25.32±8.36 mg/mL while the dichloromethane extract demonstrated inhibitory effect against yeast a-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 57.44±10.36 mg/mL. These results suggest that the young jackfruit has a potential to be used for diabetes therapy.
ศิวิลัย สิริมังครารัตน์*, วีระศักดิ์ ศักดิ์ศิริรัตน์, เดือนเพ็ญ วงค์สอน, ดวงรัตน์ ธงภักดิ์ และกรวิภา พงษ์อนันต์
Survey and collection of edible insects from community forests, Amphoe Ban Fang and Amphoe Munja Kiri, Khon Kaen Province, were conducted for the exploitation by walking observation and using light trap (May 2013 – April 2014). In Amphoe Ban Fang, result from walking observation showed 37 species in 7 Ordersof edible insects with the highest speciesnumbers from Coleoptera (45.95%) followed by Orthoptera (27.03%), Hemiptera (13.51%), Hymenoptera (5.41%), Homoptera (2.70%), Lepidoptera (2.70%) and Neuroptera (2.70%). For Amphope Munja Kiri, 25 species of edible insects from 5 Orders; Coleoptera (52%), Orthoptera (28%), Hemiptera (8%), Hymenoptera (8%) and Homoptera (4%) were recorded. Besides, the diversity index (Shannon–Wiener index) and Shannon evenness were studied. From Amphoe Ban Fang Coleoptera exhibited the highest diversity index of 1.7705. And Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Hymenoptera had indexs of 1.4019, 1.3529 and 0.1949, respectively. Whereas, Amphope Munja Kiri showed that Orthopteran insects had maximum diversity index of 1.1802, the latter values wereColeoptera (1.0884) and Hemiptera (0.5623), respectively. In addition, the total result of the diversity index together with Shannon evenness revealed that Ban Fang (2.4847 and 0.6831, respectively) were higher than of Munja Kiri (1.7590 and 0.5465, respectively). In the case of house cricket (Gryllustestaceus Walker), a representative of edible insects from both locations, was studied on growth and life cycle by rearing under nearly natural conditions (Ø= 30.57 °C, R.H. Ø 79.58%). The house cricket developed in 3 stages; egg, nymph and adult which lasted 92–111 days.
วีระยุทธ สุภิวงค์ ณัฎฐา นิธิกุลวรวงศ์ และวิไลลักษณ์ เครือเนตร*
Karyotype of eye-spotted barb (Hampala dispar Smith, 1934) at Kom Ko Pond, Nong Khai province, Thailand was investigated in this study. Mitotic chromosome was prepared directly from kidney of 5 male and 5 female specimens after in vivo colchicine treatment. The metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional staining technique was applied to stain the chromosomes with 20% Giemsa’s solution. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome of eye-spotted barbwas 2n = 50, fundamental number (NF) was 84in both male and female. The types of chromosomes were4 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 20 medium submetacentric, 4 large acrocentric, 10 medium acrocentric and 6 small telocentricchromosomes. The karyotypes are not different of sex chromosomes between male and female.The karyotype formula for the eye-spotted barbis as follows: 2n(50) =L4m + L6sm + M20sm + L4a + M10a + S6t
สุรพล แสนสุข1ปิยะพร แสนสุข2,*และณชยุต จันท์โชติกุล3
The objective of this study was to study diversity, ecology, conservation status and traditional uses. Three tribes, 11 genera, 52 species and one subspecies of Zingiberaceaewere identified during the botanical survey between January and December 2014 in Nong Khai province, Thailand. Curcuma is the most diverse genus with 9 species, followed by with 8species each. While the genus Hedychium and Etlingera are the least diverse genera with 1 specieseach. Scientific name, vernacular name, flowering and fruiting periods, ecological and distribution data, conservation status for each species, ecological and morphology-based key to species are provided. Eighteen species are rare plants. While Kaempferia albomaculata and Zingiber zerumbet subsp cochinchinense are rare and endemic plants.It was revealed that the traditional uses of Zingiberaceae species in Nong Khai province were most frequently used for medicines, foods (including spices), ornamental plants and in rituals. Rhizomes, roots, pseudostem, inflorescences, leaves and fruits are parts of plant used.
กนกอร เยาว์ดำ* ประภา ศรีพิจิตต์ ธานี ศรีวงศ์ชัย และสุภาพร จันทร์บัวทอง
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease is caused by bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Infection of this disease can occur at all stages of rice plants from seedling to heading. It can make yield loss up to 80%. The utilization of resistant varieties has been considered to be one of the most effective ways to control the disease. At present, there are few BLB resistant rice varieties and it cannot broad spectrum resistant to BLB strains.The resistant varieties having different BLB resistant genes are associated with the different strains of the pathogen.It is necessary to improve rice varieties for widely resistance to BLB stains. Rice improvement for BLB disease resistance was conducted by crossing between a line (RGDU07097-1-MAS-8-9-B-1) with BLB disease resistance used as donor parent and a variety (CH1) with good plant type used as recurrent parent to produce F1 hybrids. The F1 plants were backcrossed to recurrent parent for production of BC1F1 and BC2F1 progenies. Selection was done using DNA markers specific to xa5 and Xa21 genes controlling BLB disease resistance in each backcross generations. The highest percentage of recurrent parent, CH1, from BC2F1 progeny of the cross was selected with genetic background was 98%, 96.5% and 92.5%, respectively. The selected BC2F1 plants were self-pollinated to produce BC2F2 progenies. The BC2F2 progenies obtained were tested for disease resistance.The result showed 9of 408 BC2F2 plants resistant to BLB disease.These lines can provide yield same as CH1 and BLB disease resisitance.
ศรีสวัสดิ์ ขันทอง ธีรยุทธ ตู้จินดา และสุรีพร เกตุงาม*
Developing rice varieties for multi-stress tolerance traits can be accomplished by using marker-assisted selection (MAS). Those DNA markers underlying the target traits have to distinguish polymorphism between parental lines. This research was aimed to screen DNA markers which can distinguish polymorphism between the parental lines in order to use as a tool to select favorable alleles for developing aromatic glutinous rice lines resistance to blast and tolerance to submergence. The breeding work was performed using pedigree method. Jasmine IR57514, the aromatic Jasmine-liked cooking quality and tolerance to submergence rice line, was used as female parent whereas RD6-blast No.334, a glutinous rice line resistance to blast, was used as male parent. DNA markers underlying 5 target traits were used to select progenies carrying the favorable alleles of those traits of interest in each generation which consisted of submergence tolerance (Sub1), grain aroma (badh2) and low gelatinization temperature (SSIIa-TT) from female parent and blast resistance (qBl1 and qBl11) and glutinous (wx) traits from male parent.Parental polymorphism screening was carried out using 16 DNA markers. The results showed that 8 DNA markers clearly distinguished the parental lines which consisted of 4 genes specific markers including R10783 indel, AromarkerWx-Glu-23,and SNP2340-41 underlying submergence tolerance, grain aroma, glutinous and low gelatinization temperature traits, respectively and 4 rice microsatellite makers, RM212/RM319 and RM144/RM1233, flanking qBl1andqBl11 conferring blast resistance traits on chromosome 1 and 11 respectively. The chosen DNA markers were employed to select good plant type and agronomic characters of 105 F2 progenies and 9 F2 progenies were identified carrying the favorable alleles underlying those target traits. The selected F2 progenies were self-pollinated to produce F3 progenies. Then, marker-assisted selection will be performed to select the F3 progenies carrying the homozygous alleles of those traits of interest to develop aromatic glutinous rice lines resistance to blast and tolerance to submergence.
วิริยะ ทองคำอยู่ และวิฆเนศว์ ดำคง*
The wasted sand from Kaolinite ore processing plant in Hadsompaen deposit, Ranong province. Nowadays, Kaolinite-wasted sand used for general construction only. This research aimed to beneficiation to improving qualities for ceramics industries by studying mineralogy, grinding, sizing, bleaching, flotation and electromagnetic separation. The study found that, the sand dressed by magnetic separation with Frantz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator is the best way to process Kaolin-wasted sand in case of SiO2 from 79.83% to 98.8 % able to use instead of Silica sand in ceramics industries. However, size and distribution of sand are significant factor for Silica sand industries.
กฤษณ์ อภิญญาวิศิษฐ์* อดิศักดิ์ นาถกรณกุล และสมชาติ โสภณรณฤทธิ์
Electric field and temperature distribution of load are simulated by the COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS program to design dimensions of the prototype of combined microwave-hot air conveyorbelt dryer (MHBD). The width, length and height of the cube MHBD chamber for each 800W magnetron installed are varied in the range of 0.3-0.5 m in the simulation. The result showed that the changes in the width, length and height effect the electric field and temperature distribution of the load in the chamber. The uniform distribution for one magnetron installed is achieved at the dimension of the chamber of 0.3 m width, 0.3 m length and 0.5 m height. For double magnetrons installed, the uniform distribution is at the dimension of the chamber of 0.3 m width, 0.68 m length, 0.5 m height and at the level of conveyor belt from the base of the chamber of 0.09 m. The temperature of water in the manufactured prototype from the design shows uniform distribution and a microwave leakage from the prototype is in the microwave oven safety standard of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). This study can be used as a guide line for an industrial MHBD design.
The objective of Statistical Process Control (SPC) is to monitor the operation of in control process. One of efficient tools of SPC is the Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart which widely used in several of application such as pharmaceutics, engineering, economics and in the other area. For many processes of interest, observations which are closely spaced in time will be correlated. The measure of performance used is the average run length (ARL). The main goal of this paper is to derive explicitformulas for ARL of the CUSUM control chart for ARMAX(1,1) process and using exponential white noise. Checking the accuracy of results, the result obtained from explicit formulas with numerical integral equation by Gauss-Legendre rule were compared. An excellent agreement between the explicit solution and numerical solutions was found. This fact is an additional indication that the explicit formulas are sufficiently high accuracy.
Fractional calculus is the study of traditional calculus with operations of integration and differentiation of fractional order. The origin of this study came from the question from L’Hospital to Leibniz in 1695 about the meaning of the half-order derivative of functions.This question becomes the first study of fractional calculus and consequently attracted the interest of many well-known mathematicians such as Euler, Liouville, Laplace and Riemann.
This paper presents the brief history of fractional derivatives, the widely used definitions, the new definition and the applications in other fields, for examples, rheology, viscoelasticity and the immune effectors of cancer cells model.
Zinc oxide varistors are the devices used to protect the electric devices from voltage surges and voltage transients. Thesedevices can be found not only in the small appliances such as mobile phones, televisions, microwaves, etc but also at the power station. The highly nonlinear current-voltage (non ohmic) characteristics are the most important electrical property of this device. This property relates to the grain boundary. Furthermore, the dopants lead the various electrical properties such as aluminium improves the nonlinear behavior, silver improves the stability of materials, etc.
สุนทรต์ ชูลักษณ์* และ วิชุดา จันทร์ข้างแรม
Forensic science is the application of sciences to criminal and civil laws for justice process. It is based on scientific process that includes observing, questioning and proving of physical evidences in the crime scene and able to identify the culprit of the crime. History of forensic science is worth to pay attention. Apart from the connections of several branches and advances of sciences and technologies, forensic science must be linked to certain state of society and mindset of people at each era. This review article contributes history of application of sciences and technology at each era on forensic science, including distinguished cases. Finally, roles of forensic science in Thailand will be mentioned.