Nattawee Poomsuk, Amphawan Maitarad, Chittima Laohpongspaisan and Khatcharin Siriwong*
The property of Watson-Crick base pairs in pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) binding to DNA and RNA were studied using density functional theory calculation. The studied PNA backbones were (2¢R,4¢R)-prolyl-(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclobutane carboxylic acid (acbcPNA), (2¢R,4¢R)-prolyl-(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (acpcPNA) and (2¢R,4¢S)-prolyl-(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (epi-acpcPNA). The results revealed that the optimized base pair geometries of all system were insignificantly different, implying that the nucleic acid backbones did not affect the hydrogen bond geometry of base pairs. However, the backbones affected the hydrogen bond strength. The interaction between acbcPNA and DNA/RNA was higher than those of other PNAs. The effect of solvent on binding ability of base pairs was also studied and the result revealed that the interaction of base pairs was reduced by about 2 times compared to the gas phase interaction. This information may lead to the understanding of PNA-DNA or PNA-RNA duplex stability.
Natthakaln Lomchoey, Jannarin Nontakham, Parichat Suebsakwong and Sunit Suksamrarn*
The anti-alzheimer property against enzyme acetylcholinesterase of Thai medicinal plant Ventilago denticulata extracts and its chemical constituents was investigated. Isolation and purification of V. denticulata roots extracts afforded seven known quinone compounds: ventiloquinone I (1), 2–hydroxyislandicin (2), chrysophanol (3), physcion (4), emodin (5), questin (6) and ventilatone A (7) along with a large quantity of a mixture of common plant sterol, long chain fatty acids and tannin. The structures of quinones were assigned from combination of spectral data analysis especially 1D– and 2D NMR technique, and by comparison with the reported data. Compounds 2 and 4 were isolated for the first time from V. denticulata and from the genus Ventilago, respectively. The crude EtOAc extract (IC50 9.3±0.0001 µg/mL) revealed about 4 times more potent anti–AChE ability than that of the MeOH soluble fraction (IC50 36.3±0.0003 µg/mL), and only compound 7 exhibited effective inhibitory activity at IC50 value of 21.99±0.14 µM.
Jintae Ha, Jaursup Boonmak and Sujittra Youngme*
The cobalt(II)and copper(II) coordination polymers constructed fromazopyridine and phenylenediacetic acid as ligands, [Co2(ppda)2(azp)2]n (1), and [Cu(ppda)(azp)]n (2)when azp=4,4'-azobis(pyridine),ppda=1,4-phenylenediacetate,are successfully synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, IR, PXRD, TGA and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 exhibits a 3D framework with dinuclear [Co2(COO)2] secondary building unitswhile 2 is a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D coordination polymer with paddle-wheel dinuclear [Cu2(COO)4] secondary building units, both are different in structural architecture.
ปฏิพัทธ์ เทวาภวัต และ นฤมล แสงประดับ*
Community structures of benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in Thum Jon Aung, Sakaerat environmental research station, Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasrima Province during December 2014 to December 2015. Water samples, benthic macronvertebrates and adult stage of aquatic insects were collected monthly in order to observe changing of physicochemical characters of stream and benthic macroinvertebrates community within 13 months. It was found that Thum Jon Aung is an intermittent stream where dissolved oxygen was very low. It could be divided based on physical characteristics into 4 phases included filling, dry, re-filling and flow phases. A total of 7,592 individuals in 2 phyla, 11 orders, 39 families and 60 genera were identified. Diversity and evenness of benthic macroinvertebrates in the re-filling phase were higher than those of flow, dry and filling phases, respectively. Blackfly larvae were pioneer species at initial of flow phase and were succeeded by mayfly, stonefly and caddisfly larvae. Tolerant taxa such as gastropods, dipteran larvae, water beetles, water bugs and dragonfly nymphs were increase after the water ceased flow. Allochthounous were main energy source. We suspected that some benthic macroinvertebrates may refuge in crevice during the non-flow period and drift to downstream during the flow period. Drift of immature stages and aerial dispersal of adults were the main mechanism for colonization. Therefore, intermittent stream may play an important role as a refuge and genetic resources of aquatic organisms.
The study aimed to study species, number and diversity of benthos including the relationship between water quality and the number of benthic fauna in 6 reservoirs. Samples were collected every 3 months from January to December in 2009. The results showed that there were 3 Phylums of benthic fauna consisting of phylum mollusca, annelida and arthropoda that could be classified into 32 types, 32 families, 30 genus, and 15 orders. The relationship analysis between water quality and the number of benthic fauna showed that the factors positively related with statistically significant level at 0.05 level. The correlation coefficient of benthic fauna were nitrate (r =0.58), and ortho phosphate (r =0.432). When analyzing the factors affecting benthic fauna, it was found that the amount of nitrate and orthophosphate predation of benthic fauna was statistically significant at 0.05 level.
คมศร เลาห์ประเสริฐ และ นพคุณ ภักดีณรงค์*
Thirty four blunt-headed burrowing frog (Glyphoglossus molossus) and ten banded bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) were excavated and collected during a dry season (October 2015 and January 2016) at Din Chi Subdistrict, Kammaung District, Kalasin Province to study prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminthes in these frogs. The results showed that 26 of 34 G. molossus were infected by helminthes. The prevalence was 76.47% (26/34), including 2 nematodes, i.e., Aplectana sp. and Amphibiophilus sp. and 1 acanthocephalan, that is, Acanthocephalus sp. Almost helminths were found at intestine with the prevalence as 11.76 %, 70.59%, and 2.94%, respectively. 8 of 10 K. pulchra were infected by helminthes. The prevalence of K. pulchra was 80% (8/10), including 3 nematodes, i.e., Aplectana sp., Amphibiophilus sp., and Camallanus sp. Almost helminthes were found at intestine with the prevalence as 10.00%, 40.00% and 30.00%, respectively. The data of this research could be used as a prevention guideline and helminth infections control planning tool from bullfrogs to humans and animals.
เกรียงไกร สมคำ ชูตา บุญภักดี* และหยาดเพชร โอเจริญ
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which affects animal metabolism, especially in the reproductive system. Nowadays, there are plenty of biomarkers used to detect BPA contamination in the environment. In this study, DEAH box polypeptide 38 (DHX38) gene expression levels in the digestive gland (or hepatopancreas) of adult Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The animals exposed to BPA by injection at 10 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) compared to the control group (BPA at 0 ng g-1dw), for 0, 6 and 12 hours were examined. The results showed that the expression levels of DHX38 gene between male and female were not significantly different (p>0.05). Considering the expression level of DHX38 gene in both sexes of mussel exposed to BPA for 6 hours was 0.96±0.11, higher than in the control group (0.74±0.09), but no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). While both the control and BPA exposed groups at 12 hours had the lower expression levels of DHX38 gene than the control group at 0 and 6 hours (p<0.05), the expression levels of DHX38 gene of these two groups at 12 hours were not significantly different (p>0.05), however. Therefore, the BPA exposure time should be extended. This could be a crucial factor for studying the changes in DHX38 expression in Asian green mussel and could be useful as a sensitive biomarker of exposure for detecting BPA contamination in aquatic resources.
พรพิมล พิมลรัตน์* พัชราวลัย ศรียะศักดิ์ สถาพร ดิเรกบุษราคม สุวิทย์ วุฒิสุทธิเมธาวี และ ปิยะพงค์ โชติพันธุ์
The unicellular marine diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, has been commonly used as an important live food for crustacean larvae in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitable cold storage duration (chilled temperature at 4-5 degrees Celsius) on viability, growth rate when revived in fresh medium, bacterial variation and biochemical composition of C. gracilis. The results showed that C. gracilis cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during chilled storage. After 28 days, cell density and survival rate were shown at 2.29 x 106 cell/milliliter (initial cell 6.67 x 106 cells/milliliter) and 5.08 percentages respectively. The growth rate of C. gracilis, after they were revived in fresh medium, was significantly different (P<0.05) which the cells ,storage for more than three weeks, were unsuitable used for revived in fresh medium since this will affect the quality of samples. The total plate counts and green colony of Vibrio spp. of samples were in the range of 5.64×104 – 2.88×107 and 5.67×103–1.53×107 CFU/milliliter, respectively. Results from this study found that proteins and total lipid ofthe fresh and chilled storage for not more than 7 days of C. gracilis was significantly highest (P<0.05) from that the other groups while the amount of carbohydrate was continuously decreased during chilled storage. These results can be applied for microalgae live feed management for animal larvae cultures.
อามีนา สาแม อัษฎาวุธ หิรัญรัตน์ สมพงศ์ โอทอง พฤทฐิภร ศุภพล และนุกูล อินทระสังขา*
This research was conducted by isolating the endophytic fungi from 8 seaweeds collecting from coastal areas of 4 southern provinces, Thailand. There were 82 fungal isolates obtained. By using morphological and molecular approaches for identification, we found that the endophytic fungi belonged to 3 genera, 4 species and other 25 unidentified, namely, Penicillium spp. Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus rhizopodus, and Rhizopus spp. The primary screening with Agar plug diffusion technique, we found only 1 species, namely A. rhizopodus has showed the highest inhibition activities against some pathogens bacteria. Therefore, only A. rhizopodus isolate was then selected for further study solvent extraction with sequential solvent extract with ethyl acetate and methanol. The crude extracts were tested for the inhibitory effect against selected pathogenic bacteria. Only ethyl acetate extract has showed the inhibition activity against 9 pathogens bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria which were Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Stratford (ESBL), Salmonella Typhimurium (ESBL) and Salmonella Weltevreden (ESBL). This chemical has shown the highest inhibition activities against E. coli ATCC 25922 (Clear zone = 38.65±0.03 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (Clear zone = 37.25±0.00 mm), and S. Weltevreden (ESBL) (Clear zone = 36.29±3.31 mm). These results were statistically significant difference at the confidence level of 99% (P< .01). These bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi could inhibit certain pathogens may be due to some components of these secondary metabolites which need to be studied in more details for their roles and structures.
A group of staphylococci is commensal of the skin and mucosal surfaces in human and animals. Moreover, members of this group are remarkable in their ability to resist to antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to search for antibacterial substances from plants as an alternative drug to control resistant bacteria. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-staphylococcal activity of 58 ethanolic plant extracts from 47 plants species using an agar disc diffusion method for preliminary screening and a broth microdilution to determine Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. Among 59 extracts tested, only 16 extracts gave antibacterial activity such as extracts from Limnophila aromatica and fruit of Casearia grewiifolia possessed an inhibitory zone more than the others. For the results of MIC/MBC values, three extracts from the rhizome of Boesenbergia rotunda, fruit of C. grewiifolia and leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were 0.156/0.156, 0.625/0.625 and 0.312/0.625 mg/ml respectively. Therefore, three of these herbs were classified for a good antibacterial activity with MIC value less than 1 mg /ml. There were 20 plant extracts for the moderate activity (1 < MIC values ≤ 2.5 mg/ml) along with 35 extracts presented the weak activity (MIC > 2.5 mg/ml). The present work indicates that B. rotunda, R. tomentosa, and C. grewiifolia may be the potential plant for further advance research on antibacterial activity.
สุภาพร พงศ์ธรพฤกษ์* และ เสวียน เปรมประสิทธิ์
The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from forest fires and biomass burning effects in several forms of land use. The study was conducted in 18 districts within the Chiang Mai-Lamphun Basin area in Northern Thailand. A randomised sampling were sampled in different land use areas of a 40 x 40 metres plot per area. The biomass fallen over grounds of various forest types and the agricultural biomass from farming activities were collected in three plots size 1 x 1 square metre in each area. Analysis of organic carbon was conducted in the laboratory, then was estimated to CO2 emissions by calculation. The results were found that CO2 amount from the biomass fallen over grounds were depending on the different types of land use which had different capability in CO2 emissions. The findings showed that the highest biomass was found in sugar cane areas (1.95 ton/rai) and the highest average carbon storage in biomass was 0.64 ton/rai. CO2 emissions from biomass burning was found that sugar cane released the highest levels (2.36 ton/rai). First result for other land use types were: Mixed Deciduous forest (1.35), Hill Evergreen forest (1.19), Mixed plantation forest (1.17), Dry Dipterocarp forest (1.07), Dry Evergreen forest (0.88), Savannah forest (0.87), Teak plantation forest (0.85), corn (0.81), pine forest (0.76), rice straw (0.66), soybean (0.60), upland rice straw (0.57) and abandoned area (0.44), respectively.
กษมา ศิริสมบูรณ์* จุฑามาศ ชูพรเจริญ และสิตา ทัศวา
This paper aims to evaluate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) to refuse derived fuel (RDF) gasification technology. For analysis, electricity production was categorized into 3 processes 1) MSW transportation; 2) refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and 3) gas generation, gas cleaning and electricity generation and the life cyclewas25 years. The LCA results showed that the electricity generation with this technology caused the environmental impact 9.10E+05 NETS or 2.23E-03 NETS/kWh from all of the activities. The process of gas generation, gas cleaning and electricity generation had the highest impact of 7.06E+05 NETS, while the impacts of MSW transportation and RDF production were 1.10E+05 NETS and 9.83E+04 NETS, respectively. Regarding to impact categories, the highest impact was air pollution, mainly due to the high emission rates of nitric oxide and sulphur dioxide, and it was followed by the impacts of natural resource depletion and global warming at 5.30E+04 NETS and3.91E+04 NETS, respectively. Comparing the impact of MSW-RDF gasification technology with the different technologies for power generation in Thailand in term of NETS/kwh, it was found that the environmental impact of MSW-RDF gasification power plant was less than those of diesel, gas turbine and coal fired power plants, respectively.
Edible cultivar of Curcuma sessilis Gageis in the same family with ginger which has antioxidant activities. The plant was divided into 3 parts: red flower, green flower, and rhizome. All samples were extracted with either water, methanol, or acetone. The objective of this study was to investigate antioxidant activities before and after simulated digestion of the samples compared to ginger and vitamin E. Results showed that the red flower extracted with water or methanol contained highest amount of phenolic compounds. The red and the green flower extracts were good sources of ABTS antioxidant activity. After in vitro simulated digestion, the red and the green flowers were good sources of antioxidants against hydroxyl radical and Fe2+–chelating agents. In summary, Curcuma sessilis Gage has antioxidant activities similar to that of ginger.
สุกัญญา นนทะลี สุรพล แสนสุข และ ปิยะพร แสนสุข*
Globba annamensis Gagnep. Has an ornamental potential. It was rarely found in natural habitat. The status of this plant is rare species. In vitro propagation of G. annamensis by tissue culture technique was investigated. Microshoots of G. annamensis (1 cm in length) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mg/l) of cytokinin hormone (BA, TDZ and Kinetin), different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) of auxin hormone (IBA, IAA and NAA), and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/l of BA and TDZ in combination with 1 mg/l of NAA for eight weeks to induce shoot and root formation. The microshoots of G. annamensis cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l TDZ produced the maximum number of shoots (5.33 shoots per explant) and the maximum number of root was observed in the MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA (21.50 roots per explant).
ขนิษฐา สมตระกูล* และวราภรณ์ ฉุยฉาย
This study was investigated the cropping of ridge gourd to remove phenanthrene, pyrene and chromium from phenanthrene/pyrene/chromium trivalent-contaminated soil. The presence of phenanthrene, pyrene and chromium trivalent in soil did not affect on some growth parameters of ridge gourd such as root length, root weight, shoot length, shoot weight, number of shoots per plant, leaves high and leaves weight. Only leaves wide, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content of ridge gourd grown in soil contaminated by phenanthrene/pyrene/
chromium trivalent-contaminated soil were lower than those of ridge gourd grown in phenanthrene/pyrene-contaminated soil or non-contaminated soil. However, growth of ridge gourd did not increase phenanthrene and pyrene removal from chromium trivalent-contaminated soil. Percentage of phenanthrene and pyrene remaining in soil either planting with ridge gourd or unplanted control was raging from 18.3 – 43.2 and 22.3 – 40.9 on the 50 day of transplantation, respectively. Moreover, accumulation of phenanthrene, pyrene and chromium trivalent by ridge gourd was negligible. Thus, ridge gourd was not appropriate for use in phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with PAH and chromium. The main mechanism of phenanthrene and pyrene removal in this study may result from the activity of indigenous PAH-degraders that already presence in soil.
วรางคณา เขาดี* รติกร วงศ์กิติ และสุพัตรา มาแดง
This study focused on the qualitative and quantitative necked-eye detection of metal ion in water sample using reagent extracted from plants. Betacyanin could be extracted from white dragon fruit peel using ethanol as a solvent, and the interaction between betacyanin and metal ion was then examinated along with the effect of pH. Pb2+ was found to be able to clearly change the color of betacyanin under buffer solution pH 6. The optimum condition for the detection of Pb2+ was observed by adding 10 µL of reagent in the mixture of 500 µL of 0.01 M buffer pH 6 and 200 µL of water sample. The detection limit of naked-eye detection was 3x10-4 M without interference from other ions, except sulphate ion. This developed method also showed correlated results comparing with AAS technique.
Drying of palm oil fruits in laboratory were performed at temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 oC for 8 hours with initial moisture contents decreasing from 46.25%, 36.73%, 41.06%, 45.94%, and 42.50% dry basis to 20.08%, 14.51%, 13.30%, 10.35% and 8.59% dry basis respectively. At 100 oC moisture content and drying were lowest suitable for crude palm oil extraction. The moisture ratios of the higher temperature decreased rapidly than the lower ones. Moisture diffusivity coefficients for palm fruits drying were ranged between (1.04 – 1.82) × 10-9 m2/s depending on drying temperature. Specific moisture extraction rate and specific energy consumption were ranged of (5.04 – 7.97) × 10-4 kg/kJ and 12,542.66 – 19,825.53 kJ/kg, respectively. The drying of palm fruits at 90 oC consumed minimum energy.
เขมนิจจารีย์ สาริพันธ์* และ อุไรลักษณ์ พงษ์เกษ
This research aims to study the effects of pretreatment methods of cassava residue on fermentable sugar production. The studied pretreatment methods included enzyme, acid, alkaline, acid and enzyme, alkaline and enzyme pretreatment methods. The results showed that alkaline and enzyme pretreatment method yielded the maximum fermentable sugar production of 49.50 g/L. Pretreating cassava residue with 2% w/v NaOH for 24h at 500C improved enzymatic sacharification about 3-fold when compared to sample pretreated with alkaline. In addition, the reducing sugar increased in 16.3-fold from samples treated with alkaline when using alkaline couple enzyme pretreatment. Because its abundance, low cost and high sugar conversion, cassava residue is a suitable feedstock for sugar production.
พัชรินทร์ ภักดีฉนวน* ประกายแก้ว ศุภอักษร ใบศรี สร้อยสน และชุมพร หนูเมือง
Sous vide (SV) is a technique that food is sealed in a vacuum condition and then pasteurized. This research compared SV technique and addition of sodium nitrite 4 treatments as follow: T1) Control, T2) non SV/0.02 % of NaNO2, T3) SV 70°C for 2 min/NaNO2 and T4) SV 70°C for 2 min/NaNO2 on changes of microorganisms, pH, shearforce value, microstructure of meat fiber and sensory qualities during 60 days of storaging at 4°C. The experiments found that golek chicken product without SV (T1 and T2) detected yeast and mold by the end of storaging and had higher oxidation than the SV treatments (T3 and T4). In addition, the product in T4 had higher sensory liking scoring than others. Therefore, it can be concluded that using of Sous vide at 80°C for 2 min with 0.02% of NaNO2 lead the product had longer shelf life than 60 days at 4°C. The product had qualities under the regulation of Thai community product standard of seasoned chicken (TCPS 755/2548) and proper to apply in commercial.
ธนกฤษ ถิ่นถาน และ วีระชัย สาระคร*
In this research, we compare the efficiency and accuracy of the finite difference and finite element methods for two-dimensional magnetotelluricmodelling. The five-points finite difference method and finite element with triangular and quadrilateral meshes are derived and their computer codes are developed. To present the comparison of these methods, the half-space and COMMEMI2D-1model are used as the examples. The efficiency in term of CPU time and accuracy in term of numerical errors of three methods are presented and investigated. The obtained results indicate that the finite difference method takes the shortest CPU times to complete the task whereas the finite element method with quadrilateral mesh takes the longest CPU times. However, theapproximated solutions and their errorsobtaining by three methods are closed when the tested models are not too complicated.
By the theorem there exists a UMP test for testing hypotheses about the parameter q of the generalized Poisson distribution. Neyman – Pearson lemma can be applied to find a test statistics for both a simple and a composite hypothesis. In addition, monotone likelihood ratio distribution as well as the properties of an exponential family will be taken into account in order to find a suitable test function for composite hypothesis.
Statistical Process Control (SPC) can be defined as the use of statistical methods and technicals to improve process productivity and product quality. One of efficient tools of SPC are the control charts. The Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart are widely used in several applications such as economic, engineering and industries. For many processes of interest, observations are closely space in time which will be correlated. The measurement of performance used in the average run length. The main goal of this paper is to derive analytical solutions for average run length of the Cumulative Sum and Exponential Weighted Moving Average control charts for ARX(p) processes with exponential white noise. The comparing of control charts found that EWMA control chart is better when mean shift is small.