โฉมศรี ศิริวงศ์* และ สุธาสินี บุญเชียงมา
Vulcanization is a process of transforming a thermoplastic rubber compound into a highly elastic product by forming a three-dimensional cross-linked network structure by chemical reaction in the rubber matrix. Many systems have been developed to vulcanize rubber compounds, among which sulfur and peroxide curing systems remain the most desirable. The application of sulfur system leads to the forming of sulfidic cross-links between elastomer chains.The present work aims to provide an overview on sulfur vulcanization system; its composition, possibilities of its applications, reaction mechanisms, structure of the crosslinks formed and the main feature of the final crosslinked vulcanizates.
Nuttapon Apiratikul*, Saowanee Kumpun and Boon-ek Yingyongnarongkul
A library of diarylheptanoid amide derivatives were synthesized by solid-phase synthesis technique using reusable linker. Diarylheptanoid amide derivatives obtained were screened for cytotoxicity activity against cancer and normal cell lines. 4-Chlorobenzoyl analogues exhibited moderate activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 values of 38.61 and 40.15 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, 4-chlorobenzoyl analogues showed no cytotoxic activity against the normal cell (HEK293) with IC50 value of 747.20 µg/ml. The selectivity index value of 4-chlorobenzoyl analogues was greater than that of doxorubicin and curcumin.
Jakkrit Tammachote and Anchalee Sirikulkajorn*
A colorimetric sensor based on carbazole and nitro-azobenzene (1) was successfully synthesized and was able to selectively detect the strong basic anions which are F- and CN- by a “naked-eye” color change from light yellow to red in acetone media. This change in color corresponded to a red shift observation of the sensor absorption band after F- and CN- addition. Result from 1H-NMR titration revealed a deprotonation of sensor 1 at NH-amide binding unit. A host-guest complex formation of 1:2 stoichiometry was calculated. A preliminary study in a detection limit of 1 for anion sensing using the naked eye observation was obtained the values of 4x10-4 and 2x10-4mol/L for F- and CN-, respectively.
สุพัตรา รักษาพรต* สุนิษา สุวรรณเจริญ เรืองวิทย์ สว่างแก้ว เกศสุดา สามารถ และ จิตรลดา บุญเฒ่า
This research is aimed at the quantitative analysis of caffeine in the spent coffee ground in order to investigate the simple process to add the value of the spent coffee ground. Arabica and Robusta spent coffee from the coffee shop in Muang district, Chantaburi province were extracted by Soxhlet extraction using four different solvents including water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane at the boiling point of each solvent for 6 hours. The amount of the extracted caffeine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that dichloromethane gave the maximum extraction efficiency followed by ethyl acetate, ethanol and water, respectively. The maximum yields obtained from dichloromethane for both Arabica and Robusta are 0.27 and 0.21, respectively. As the extracted caffeine in the spent coffee ground is trace concentration, therefore it is not economical worth to extract the caffeine. Then the researchers produced caffeinated soap from the spent coffee ground. After the caffeinated soaps were stored for 15 days, the pH and the amount of foam were not significant different from the control soap. This study shows that the production of caffeinated soaps can not only added value to the spent coffee ground but also provide an alternative way for waste management.
วภากร ศิริวงศ์* เบญจมาศ อุ่นศรี และ สุทธิชัย อินทปนาม
Mobility of metal as Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr were studied to determine effect of spiked concentration on metals fractions using sequential extraction procudure to identify metal in five forms, i.e.,water soluble, exchangeable fraction, carbonate bound, oxide bound, organic bound and crystal lattice or interlayer and their relationship to metal uptake of Chinese mustard. Experiment had performed with sandy loam texture, high OM and slightly acid soil. Pot soils were spiked with single element metals at 3 concentrations; 1) no spiked 2) low level with regard to allowable level and 3) high level with regard to the severe contaminated land. The result showed that the response of metals on spiked concentration related to their affinity to soil components such as cadmium and zinc in oxide fraction, copper in organic fraction, lead and chromium in crystal lattice and organic fraction. Effect of spiked concentration of cadmium, zinc and copper clearly explicited on exchangeable and carbonate fraction but not significant in lead and chromium. Concentration releationship of cadmium and zince exhibited L-curve, while, copper exhibited S-curve. The releationships between the exchangeable fraction in soil and concentration in plant was significant correlated in cadmium, zinc and copper case, but carbonate fraction was significant correlated in cadmium and zinc case. The study provide the evident supported the applicable of exchangeable fraction on mobility and bioavailability of five metals in soil and conclude that metal fraction provide a better indicator for metal mobility and bioavailability than total metal content.
พันธวัศ สัมพันธ์พานิช* พรรณวดี สุวัฒิกะ และ กรองแก้ว ทิพยศักดิ์
The phytoremediation and removal efficiency of dicotyledon cultivated in Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn) contaminated area were focused in this study. Three kinds of dicotyledon, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, were selected and used as remediated species. All plants were cultivated in the Tailing Storage Facility area (TSF) at the Gold Mine for 6 months. Their toxicity symptoms, uptake and accumulations of As and Mn in root, stem and leaves were also observed. In addition, contaminated soil was analyzed for background As and Mn. The result showed that TSF soil have been contaminated with As and Mn at 51.03+0.74 and 1,670+0.18 mg/kg of dried soil, respectively. At the 6th month of cultivation, both soil and plant samples were collected then analyzed for As and Mn accumulation. Results showed that As and Mn had been accumulated in the whole parts of A. mangium at7.03±0.80 and 166.00±22.16 mg/kg, respectively. A. auriculiformis accumulations were 6.56±1.14 and 172.75±29.37 mg/kg for As and Mn, respectively. Meanwhile, L. leucocephala was the lowest accumulated specie (As =0.60±0.08 and Mn =16.10±2.29 mg/kg). Moreover, the highest accumulation of As and Mn were found in both leaves and stem rather than in root. For As accumulation in dicotyledon species, A. mangium had become the highest As accumulated specie followed by A. auriculiformis and L. leucocephala, respectively. For Mn accumulation, A. auriculiformis was the highest Mn accumulated specie followed by L. leucocephala and A. mangium, respectively. As considered growth rate of dicotyledon, biomass of A. mangium dried was greater than A. auriculiformis and L. leucocephala (1,365.24, 1,267.88 and 122.16 g/plant, respectively) and toxic sign showed at 4.81, 5.27 and 34.25% respectively. Overall, it was obvious that both, A. mangium and A. auriculiformis had showed their tolerance on As and Mn accumulation and also suitable to be used for TSF site remediation.
มานิตา โนนสูง ธนภรณ์ พิบูลย์วัฒนวงษ์ และ นันทวัน ฤทธิ์เดช*
Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are the soil microbes that directly stimulated growth of a plant by assisting on recycling of nutrients (nitrogen fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization) and indirect mechanisms by being as bacterial antagonist to fungal pathogens for controlling plant diseases. The aim of this study was to screen PGPB from seven improving soil brands. 23 isolates which had plant growth promoting properties were found in the direct screening mechanism of PGPB by testing on Ashby’s agar, Pikovskaya's agar and Aleksandrov’s agar. Then indirect screening mechanism of PGPB by dual culture method was made two isolates (B-2 and B-9), they had shown the antagonistic activity to inhibit Sclerotium sp. that cause root rot disease. These two antagonist isolates were screened from improving soil B brand. Moreover, microbiological, chemical and physical property studies of improving soil B brand was found. pH was 7.77. Temperature was 26.03 °C. Moisture content was 14-31%. Electrical conductivity (EC) was 2.47 dS/m. Bacterial population was 7.49 logCFU/g. The texture was black loamy soils. These data were from the preliminary work and two isolates had the great plant growth promoting properties and were able to use for biofertilizer production.
ธนุสรา เหล่าเจริญสุข* และ จรรยา ท้าวเชื้อลาว
Microorganisms in Roti Payae were investigated. Main ingredients of Roti Payae are wheat flour (5 kilograms), sugar (1.5 cups), sweetened condensed milk (200 grams), salt (5 teaspoons), baker yeast (5-6 teaspoons), butter (1 tablespoon) and water (2 litres). Samples of Roti Payae were collected after preparation from 3 production sources in Amphur Muang, Pattani Province. Microorganisms and chemical analyses were performed during 9 hour fermentation. The results showed that total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria and yeast were 6.13 - 6.96, 4.60 - 5.47 and 7.56 - 8.32 log CFU/g, respectively. Spore forming bacteria and mold were <1log CFU/g. From sixteen isolates of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc sp. were identified in 15 isolates (94%) and Lactobacillus sp. was found in 1 isolate (6%). As for chemical analysis of Roti Payae, it was found that pH, total acidity and moisture content were 4.94 - 5.27,0.35 - 0.38 % and 42.13 – 45.20%, respectively.
อรวรรณ์ บุตรดี* วิไลรัตน์ ฉ่ำสิงห์ ณัฐวุฒิ รัตนวณิชย์โรจน์ อลงกต บุญสูงเนิน พิชัย จิรวัฒนาพงศ์ ปริวรรต พูลเพิ่ม และ วรวิทย์ วัชชวัลคุ
An Indirect ELISA PEDV KU1 was developed to detect the antibodies of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in colostrum sample from pigs. The viral antigen was prepared from PEDV of TRUNG 1/38 strain outbreak in Thailand. The optimal antigen concentrations were tested with standard antibodies specific for Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin A by checkerboard titration, selected at 1:320 and 1:40 dilution. A total of 200 colostrum samples from non-infected farm (n=100) and 2-3 weeks of post infected farm (n=100) were tested for set a cut-off point by a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis, the result showed of broth antibodies provided a cut-off point at ≥ 0.4 = positive. This assay was validated by comparison with an indirect Immunofluorescence assay, the result of IgG antibodies showed that sensitivity = 90.56, specificity = 100% and kappa value at 0.905 and IgA antibodies provided sensitivity at 87.96%, specificity = 100% and kappa value at 0.879. These results indicated that the PEDV ELISA KU1 may be useful for detecting of both antibodies replaced on IFA. It is an alternative to be used to assess the disease situation.
Vegetable by-product are considered as a good source of dietary fiber and other biologically important compounds. Especially, by product of carrot after juice extraction represent promising sources of beta-carotene, phenolic and fiber that could be explored in the development of food ingredients and dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to determine the drying method and condition of carrot pomace by sun drying and tray drying at 50 and 60 ºC. The effects of carrot pomace powder levels on the quality and sensory characteristic of the bread were also investigated. Optimal drying was observed at 50 ºC for 240 min as it provided the dried product with high fiber (18.51 %) and protein (8.25 %)content as well as low fat (1.12 %)content. The best bread product from physical properties and sensory evaluation point of view was 5% addition of carrot pomace. The results show that bread supplement with carrot pomace not only increases nutrition value of products but also have significance on the quality and sensory acceptability of the bread.
The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of phytoplankton and its relationships with some water qualities in 6 reservoirs. Sampling was collected in February, May, August, andNovember 2009. The results showed that there were 120 species of phytoplankton classified into 77 genera, 8 class and 3 divisions. Chlorophyta was found the highest number with 77 species, followed byChromophytaand Cyanophyta with 27 and 16 species, respectively. Species diversity index, evenness index, and richness index ranged between 3.0876-3.584, 0.7556-0.8656 and 6.9835-10.2630, respectively. The relationship on transparency between the amount of phytoplankton and environmental factor was found significantly positively correlated. On the other hand, significant negative correlation was found between phytoplankton and other factors, namely, suspended solids, pH, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate contents. Factors regarding transparency and pH were found statistically significant at 68.60 per cent (R2 = .688) in forecasting the amount of phytoplankton.
ณัฐพงศ์ วงษ์ชุ่ม* อนัญญา เดชะคำภู และ ลัดดาวัลย์ สาระภัย
The relationship of infection factors of lung fluke in rice field crabs, Esanthelphusa sp. is still not clear. Therefore this study aims to investigate the influence of genders, sizes and habitats on prevalence of fluke metacercaria in rice field crabs which were collected from rice field located at Khamcharoen Village, Detudom District, Ubonratchathani Province. All samples were collected during July 2013 to June 2014. All detected metacercariae were classified as Paragonimus sp. 116 from total 270 crabs were infected with a total prevalence of 42.96% and with an intensity of 4.95. The infection was higher in male than in female with prevalence of 45.26 and 40.60% and with intensity of 4.47 and 5.43, respectively. The infection was associated to crab size, the prevalence of metacercariae in crab size of 2.00-3.00, 3.01-4.00 and 4.01-6.00 cm. were 8.82, 42.86 and 33.6%, respectively, and with intensity of 2.76, 4.53 and 4.97, respectively. The dissimilarity of infection was found in crabs collected from different habitats. The prevalence of metacercariae in crab that collected from habitat with surface water, groundwater but no surface water and no water in both surface and ground were 34.44, 45.56 and 48.89%, with intensity of 7.27, 5.93 and 1.66, respectively. No statically significant difference of finding metacercaria in crabs with different sex, size and habitat by using Chi-square test. The data from this study can be applied to design experiments for studying factors that influence parasite infection in the second intermediate host of lung fluke.
อนันต์ เคนท้าว และ พรพิมล เจียระนัยปรีเปรม*
A morphological study of skull and hair was carried out in attempt to use in identification the two subspecies of variable squirrels found in Khon Kaen University campus, i.e. Callosciurus finlaysonii bocourti (Milne-Edwards, 1867) and C. Finlaysonii boonsongi (Moore and Tate, 1965). Skull samples were simply prepared by boiling and getting rid of soft tissue parts. Hair samples from both subspecies were taken from dorsal, ventral, lateral, and tail areas, and processed for impression and whole mount techniques before examining under light microscope. The two subspecies showed similar characters of skull including short-expanded skull form, short-curved rostrum, well develop postorbital process, long jugal bone, short-broaden palatine, and big tympanic bulla with tiny bulb shape. Hair morphology appeared with elongate imbricated form with smooth margin and irregular arrangement, not only in the same subspecies but also in between subspecies. Serial ladder medulla was prominently observed along the entire shaft in C. Finlaysonii bocourti, whereas appeared only half beginning of the shaft and continued with lattice pattern along the half end shaft in C. Finlaysonii boonsongi. Similar appearance of skull morphology in both subspecies is unable to use in identification. In contrary with hair structure that showed some differences regarding medulla structure that give some indications in identification of the two subspecies.
กสานติ์ หาญชนะ และปิยะพร แสนสุข*
Studies were conducted on the effects of media, type of medium, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), malt extract and size of fruit for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis from embryo culture of Citrus japonica Thunb. The embryos were cultured on solid or liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) or Murashige and Tucker (MT) (1969) media supplemented with and without 500 mg/l malt extract in combination with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mg/l 2,4-D for eight weeks. The highest percentages of callus induction and somatic embryogenesis were 100% in embryos from fruits with diameter of 0.4-1.4 cm. that were cultured on solid MT medium with 500 mg/l malt extract added in combination with 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D.
รณชัย สำลีว่อง พรจักร ศรีพัชราวุธ และวีระชัย สาระคร*
This research deals with software development based on the Ab Initio Random Structure Searching technique in order to generate crystal structures of arbitrary compounds. By using this developed code, we randomized various crystal structures of 14 different simple compounds and found that 500 random crystal structures are large enough to cover the stable structure of these simple compounds. Moreover, we used this software to investigate the stable structure of RbCl at various pressures. Our results revealed that the crystal structure of RbCl is the faced centered cubic structure at the pressure less than 1.906 GPa. The RbCl changes its structure from the faced centered cubic to body centered cubic when the pressure is larger than 1.906 GPa. Based on our calculation, there is no further structural phase transition from the pressure of 1.906 GPa to 60 GPa. According to the calculated electronic density of states, we found that both body centered cubic and face centered cubic phases behave as insulator.
ปิยภัทร บุษบาบดินทร์ และ นิภาดา พาภักดี*
Attempts to use the Generalize Extreme Value distribution and Generalize Pareto distribution with the maximum likelihood estimates on the extreme rainfall data at 99 weather stations over Thailand. The rainfall data gathered from January 1984 to December 2014. The research area occupied on 5 regions as the North, Northeast, Central, Eastern and South and estimate return level in the period of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The discussion indicates the return level by pluvial maps. The result display the modeling of GEV, Gumbel distribution was a fitting propose for annual extreme rainfall either 5 regions in Thailand. However, some of station in the North and Central region founded Fréchet Distribution and Weibull Distribution. Morover, in the Northest region lay down on the Weibull Distribution while in the South Fréchet Distribution was approximately model. In addition, the modeling of GPD with daily rainfall data in 5 regions had fitting on Exponential distribution. However, some stations in area study had suitable with Pareto Distribution and Gamma Distribution. Certainly, the return level indicated Trat weather station in the South had return level highest than other station.