นิลาวัลย์ สุระป้อง* และ ประไพรัตน์ สีพลไกร
Cordyceps is an insect pathogenic fungus which more than 80 species have been found in Thailand. The most well-known species of the genus Cordyceps is Ophiocordyceps sinensis (formery known as Cordyceps sinensis) which has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicines for the belief to promote wellbeing and health maintenance. There are numbers of report on the study of bioactive compounds isolated from the Cordyceps fungi and the discovery of new compounds has been documented continuously, especially when the fungi cultivation technology has been well developed. This literature review aims to report the study of bioactive compounds from the Cordyceps fungi collected in Thailand which could be useful information for utilization of local natural resources and applications in the future.
อโนดาษ์ รัชเวทย์* ฐิตินันท์ รัตนพรหม และ ขวัญดาริน จันทร์วงศ์
The main objective of this research is to study the development of natural rubber (NR) film which mixed with perlite, the odor - reduction substances. Perlite was used in ratio 5, 10, 20 and 30 phr respectively. All of composite films were performed the sensory method to test the level of offensive odor according to standard method ASTM STP775, by semi-well trained persons. Mechanical testing, in terms of tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness, were investigated. Moreover, morphology was studied by the scanning electron microscope. The results from the odor evaluation showed that NR film mixed with 30 phr of perlite had the lowest level of offensive odor. In the other hand, the NR film mixed with 5 phr of perlite yielded the highest of tensile testing value. The NR film mixed with 10 phr of perlite gave the lowest elongation at break. From scanning electron micrographs, it is revealed the well dispersion of 5 phr and 10 phr of in the NR phase. The NR film mixed with 10 phr of perlite had the highest hardness; 44.0 for rubber side and 44.7 for perlite side.
ธีรพร กทิศาสตร์* และ สุรพงศ์ รัตนะ
The present study was aimed to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicities of 95% ethanolic root extracts from Tiliacora triandra Diels in rats. The extract at dose of 2,000 mg/kg was orally administered once to male Wistar rats to investigate an acute toxicity, and dead rat was not found within the first 24 hours and for further 14 days. A sub-acute toxicity study using doses (2,000 mg/kg) was performed by daily and orally administration to the rats for 14 days. The extract did not produce any sign or symptom of sub-acute toxicities and the dead rat. The body weight increased in comparison to the controls. However, the relative organ weight between the treated rats and control rats was not different. Interestingly, the liver function parameters including AST, ALT and ALP significantly increased (p<0.05) among treated rats suggesting the impairments of liver function. These results were corresponded to the histology study that there was fatty liver incidence in the rats treated with 2,000 mg/kg root extract. However, the extract did not alter the kidney function parameters and histology. The results demonstrated that root extract from Tiliacora triandra at dose of 2,000 mg/kg caused hepato-toxicity in male Wistar rats. Therefore, the dose less than 2,000 mg/kg was recommended for consumption.
วิริยา นิตย์ธีรานนท์* และจตุพร อรุณกมลศรี
The objectives of this study were to investigate total phenolic compounds and antioxidative activities of crude extract of Dimocarpus longan var. obtusus Leenh. (longan) seeds. Development of longan jam supplemented with longan seeds, their proximate composition, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics were also evaluated. The longan seeds were extracted using 95% ethanol and water. Total phenolic content and antioxidative activities were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and Ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) methods, respectively. The results of total phenolic contents of longan seed ethanol and water extracts were 93.12±58.88 และ 554.16±42.83 mg GAE/g dry weight of longan seed. Longan seed water extract showed the highest antioxidative activities (p≤0.05). Longan jam (control) and longan jam supplemented with 1%, 3% and 5% longan seed powder were prepared. Proximate analysis indicated that the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% longan seed powder could increase protein, fat and fiber in longan jam, when compared to control. The quantification of total phenolic content and antioxidant using Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods in longan jam samples were performed. The results found that longan jam supplemented with 5% longan seed powder showed the noticeable source of antioxidant and phenolic compounds (p≤0.05). Consumer acceptability using 9-point hedonic scale indicated that 90% of consumers accepted longan jam supplemented with 1% longan seed powder. Therefore, there is some potential in longan seeds to use as food fortification and dietary supplements.
อำภา คนซื่อ* ขวัญยืน เลี่ยมสำโรง สุภาวดี ตรีรัตนถวัลย์ ศรีอรุณ โพธิ์เกตุ
This study was aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of extracts from Abutilon indicum Sweet mix with Mimosa pudica L. an equal amount extracted by using different solvents include aqueous (AMA), 50% ethanol (AMHE) and 80% ethanol (AME). By The total flavonoid contents (TFC), total phenolic (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power by Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ABTS+ radical scavenging assay respectively. The results revealed that the AME had the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 0.061±0.002 mgGE g-1Ext and 1.235±0.001 mgQE g-1Ext and the highest antioxidant capacity than aqueous extract (AMA) and hydro-ethanolic extract (AMHE) by DPPH and ABTS assay with IC50 of 1.099±0.020 and 0.230±0.018 mg mL-1 respectively. AMA had the highest antioxidant capacity than AMHE and AME by FRAP assay FRAP values was 4.269±0.120 mgTE g-1Ext. The results suggest that the Thai medicinal plant extracts had showed antioxidative effect; therefore, chemical compound, mechanism of action, and toxicity for new drug development should be further evaluated.
พรหทัย พุทธวัน* สัมฤทธิ์ รักพนาลี และ อานันท์ ณ หนองคาย
The aim of this research was to study phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of 10 local herbal plants in the North of Thailand, including Croton persimilis, Croton stellatopilosus, Baliospermum solanifolium, Colocasia gigantea, Bambusa nutans, Boehmeria nivea, Cassia fistula, Musa X paradisiaca, Imperata cylindrica and Leersia hexandra for development to ready-to-drink herbal tea. All plants were extracted by distilled water. After that, a preliminary phytochemical screening such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and saponins was performed using standard protocols. Polyphenol content using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant acitivities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. As a result, major bioactive compounds in the plant extracts was terpenoids with trace amount of saponin. Plant extracts at 2000 µg/ml concentration were used for polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. The result found that, Croton persimilis extract showed the highest polyphenol content (747.08 µgGAE/ml) leading to the highest for inhibition lipid peroxidation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was 58.25% while C. persimilis, C. stellatopilosus, B. solanifolium, I. cylindrical, and B. nutans showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (p >0.05) were 75.95, 78.42, 80.29, 79.94 and 76.91 % respectively. Afterward, 10 herbs were prepared of 4 formulations for analysis of sensory characteristics by using hedonic 9 points scale. It was found that, formulation 2 and 4 were not significantly different (p >0.05). When considering the antioxidant activities, formulation 2 was higher than another formula. Therefore, formulation 2 was selected to find optimum condition for polyphenol extraction from tea by using response surface methodology (RSM). The result shown that optimum condition was 100oC for 20 min. Because this condition gave the highest polyphenol content was 130.88 µgGAE/ml.
รัฐพล ศรประเสริฐ* และ กิตติพล กสิภาร์
The culture of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link on 70 ml per bottle of the egg with six culture media formulas (the raw hen eggs, hard-boiled hen eggs, raw hen quail eggs, hard-boiled quail eggs, raw duck eggs and hard-boiled ducked eggs) were mixed with 4.00 ml of supplementary foods per bottle (KH2PO4 1.00, glucose 15.00, MgSO4 0.50, peptone 10.00, thiamine 0.50 and yeast Extract 10.00 g per 1,000 ml of the distillated water), then cultivated the cultures for 60 days. The results found the mycelia were growth in every culture media formulas, especially the hard-boiled ducked egg formula found the fastest time for the mycelia fully covered on the culture medium with 4.80 days. The mycelia were change the color from white to yellow-orange and found the exudates, the mycelia were dense in 30 days and the time for the mycelia were develop to the primordium in 22.60 days. The develop time from the primordium to the stroma was 26.40 days. At 60 days, the storma were found orange color with clavate shape with the average 39.20, the average length of 4.62 cm, the average fresh weight of 18.14 g and cordycepin 2,857.11 mg/100 g dry weight.
วีระศักดิ์ ศักดิ์ศิริรัตน์ ศิวิลัย สิริมังครารัตน์* สุวิตา แสไพศาล และ สุเมธ มาสขาว
Eri silkworm was reared with Kasetsart 50 (KU50), the well-known cassava variety, in laboratory (25±2°C, 80±5% R.H.). The completely randomized design was used with 3 replications and 300 lavae/replication. The average intake of larva stages 1st-5th was 18.28 g/larva. Its life cycle was between 45-59 days. The survival periods of larva (1st-5th instar) and larva (1st-5th instar) – adult were 93.33% and 86.67%, respectively. Whereas, the average larva weight (5th instar, date 5) was 4.4779 g/larva. For pupa weight, which was applied to mix in cultured media for Cordyceps militaris, was gained as 441.98 g. Besides, the average essential egg yield for continuously rearing of eri silkworm was the total hatching eggs (4,930.50 eggs). In the case of using this ground pupa to mix with
C. militaris growing media (riceberry grains), the selected isolate at 60 day-old gave the average stroma yields: 31.67 stromata/bottle with the height of 3.97 cm, stroma fresh weight of 27.46 g/bottle and dry weight of 1.87 g/bottle. Whereas, substrate had 28.02 and 12.43 g/bottle for fresh and dry weight, respectively. Besides, the proximate analysis of C. militaris expressed protein (35.37%), carbohydrate (45.60%), fat (2.46%), crude fiber (5.99%), ash (4.93%) and moisture (5.65%), while cordycepin contents were 457 mg/100 g in stroma and 921 mg/100 g in substrate.
อนันต์ เคนท้าว และ พรพิมล เจียระนัยปรีเปรม*
The study of functional morphology and the species identification were carried out in three fish species in the genus Channa Scopoli, 1777 namely Channa striata (Bloach, 1793), Channa gachua (Hamilton, 1822) and Channa lucius (Cuvier, 1791). Two morphometric methods including truss network system (TNS) and thin-plate spline analysis (TPS) were employed. The results showed that both techniques could demonstrate the different characters among those three species appearing in head, body and tail. The variations on head part related in snout, maxillary, and the length and depth of head whereas the body part involved with body depth and the length of fin-lacked abdomen and anal fin base. The tail part showed variations within the length and depth of caudal peduncle. These inter-specific variations correlated with their feeding behavior, swimming maneuverability, and habitat preferences. The discrimination of morphological differences by using TPS method was more effective than that of TNS method which the global accuracy rates of 100% and 98.24%, respectively. This study has been obviously shown that the morphometric methods can be used for the analysis of morphological differences in the species levels and for the taxonomic classification of Channid fish.
ละม้าย ทองบุญ, ศิลปชัย เสนารัตน์* พิสิษฐ์ พูลประเสริฐ เจษฏ์ เกษตระทัต** วรรณีย์ จิรอังกูรสกุล พหล โกสิยะจินดา ธีรกมล เพ็งสกุล และกรอร วงศ์กำแหง
Development of oocyte and follicular complex during breeding season of Wrestling halfbeak fish, Dermogenys pusillus was examined in 20 fish individuals with a total length of more than 16 cm from Paknam Pranburi Estuary, Thailand. The histological techniques were carried out with H&E, Periodic-Acid Schiff and Masson’s trichrome staining. The results revealed that the development of oocyte divided into two major stages including primary oogenesis and secondary oogenesis. The primary oogenesis consisted of three stages including one nucleolus, perinucleolar, and oil droplets and cortical alveoli stages. The secondary oogenesis divided into three stages including early secondary growth, late secondary growth, and full-grown oocyte steps. For the development of follicle, an appearance of follicles was firstly observed in the perinucleolar stage characterizing with simple squamous epithelium. The completed structure of the follicular complex was detected in oil droplets and cortical alveoli stage with comprising of thin zona radiata and follicular cells. This research provides a basis for further studies on the ultrastructure and reproductive cycle of this fish species.
Elysia siamensis Swennen, 1997 is the small Elysiidae which has been found on seagrass in Pattani Bay, Gulf of Thailand. The digestive and reproductive systems of these species were described from the dissected specimens whereas the radular teeth, pharynx and penis were reported earlier. Striking details was the inserted and expanded of the flat branches of the digestive glands in between the hermaphrodite glands. Moreover, the gametolytic vesicle (bursa copulatrix) had a great in size, a bursa copulatrix and ampulla attached to the hermaphrodite duct before separating to the male and female duct.
จงกล พรมยะ* ชนกันต์ จิตมนัส และบัญชา ทองมี
The aim of this research was to compare growth, nutrition value, pigments, production cost and water quality of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis cultured from various Thai strains. The CRD were applied; the experiment was set up in raceway ponds. There were three treatments, with 3 replication each: T1Aspi.CMU1, T2Aspi.MJU1 and T3Aspi.MJU2. The data was collected every 3 days over a 15-day culture period. The results showed that: specific growth rate of T1Aspi.CMU1 and carotenoid which was higher than other treatments. The dry weight protein was highest in strain T3 Aspi.MJU2, 46.91±0.81% while T2 Aspi.MJU1 had greater dry weight product, 0.35±0.05 g/l and product cost (309.69±38.36 baht/Kg). The water quality of A. platensis cultured in all experiments was not significant difference. It can be concluded that: T2 Aspi.MJU1 strain is suitable for culture due to the most dry weight and the lowest cost of production.
ปรารถนา สำริดเปี่ยม และ อังคณา อินตา*
The study of medicinal plants and traditional herbal formulas of Tai Yong conducted between October 2015 - June 2016 in Mae Raeng subdistrict, Pa Sang district, Lamphun province to investigate the local knowledge and source of medicinal plants used of Tai Yong. The three experienced local healers were interviewed using semi-structured interview method with the main questions such as formula name, herbal ingredients, vernacular names, material parts used, methods of preparation, routes of administration, properties and treatment techniques. The results, showed that the five single herbal medicines and fourteen traditional herbal formulas were collected which internal application was the most favorite type. The seventy medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families and 62 genera were used for the Tai Yong traditional herbal formulas. The largest family was Apiaceae. The root was the most of used part, the powdered was the most of preparation, and oral administration was the most used. As the results of in-depth interview, we found an interested formula which was named “Ma-Hok-Luead”. It was effective for hemorrhoid treatment. Moreover, the knowledge about this formula was transferred from the ancient local healers for over 200 years. So it was accepted and favored from people in Tai Yong communities and communities nearby.
This research aims to survey the quantity and valuation of Pra at Buddha Cave. The results showed that there were 62 Pra harvesting villagers. They harvested about 12,268 kg/year, or 197 kg/ person/year. Pra at the local price was between 20-50 Baht/kg, or average at 28.95 Baht/kg. The total value of Pra was 350,335.20 Baht/year, or 5,650.62 Baht/person/year.
This research focused on mitigation plan to reduce damage cost from hydroelectricity Generator project. The objective of this study was analysing Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the Mekong River’s Flooding Alert System (MRFAS) affecting from hydroelectricity Generator project by elicitation 648 households in 8 provinces located alongside of the river including Chiang Rai, Nong Khai, Loei, Bueng Kan, Nakhon phanom, Mukdahan, Ubon Ratchathani and Amnart Charoen, Thailand. The data was analysed by using single bounded closed- ended CVM question, Non-parametric Model and Logistic Regression Model. The result showed that the WTP by means of the Non-Parametric Model was 219.14 Bath per household per year (6.10 US$/hh/y) and its total value was 8,429,230.80 Bath per year (234,539.46 US$/y). This finding also revealed that the negative correlation of household’s willingness to pay include the occupation (Beta = -0.884, sig = 0.001) and the distance between home to Mekong River (Beta = -0.329, sig = 0.003).
รมย์ยุพา หนูน้ำคำ* และรุ่งเรือง เลิศศิริวรกุล
The liner is an important component of landfill facility. The liner can also prevent the leachate leaking to contaminate in the soil layer and subsurface water reservoir. Construction of compacted clay liner, according to the standard requirement the layer should have hydraulic conductivity less than 1×10-7 cm/s. Three mixtures were employed, ie. The silty sand obtained from Khon Kaen municipal landfill was mixed with bentonite at 3%, 5% and 7% by weight. Then, the mixtures were determined for values of hydraulic conductivity by Permeameter with Falling Head method. Bentonite is a clay mineral, which is mostly used in compacted clay liner construction because it performs high plasticity and high swelling. The experimental results showed that the required hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-7 cm/s could be achieved when the silty sand mixed with bentonite 5% and 7% by weight. The hydraulic conductivity values are 3.75×10-8 and 2.55×10-8 cm/s, respectively. However, in order to reduce the construction cost, natural clays can be used as well.
ปิยนันท์ พิพัฒน์ศิถี* พัชร ประเสริฐกุล นววิทย์ พงศ์อนันต์ กัญญารัตน์ ท้าวทา สุเมธ คงภักดี กำพล สกุลลีรุ่งโรจน์ อภิสิทธิ์ เอี่ยมหน่อ และปรีสาร รักวาทิน
Plant water stress is the impact factor in the development of storage root stage of cassava and directly effects to the cassava yield. The application of remote sensing technology can be determined the plant water stress for rapid method and non-destructive plant. The objective of this study was detected the feasibility of the cassava water stress measurement using spectral reflectance under field scale. The field experiment was conducted in Khonkaen province, in a dry season period, October and November 2015, cassava Rayong 9, under irrigation and rainfed. Spectral reflectance and physiology measurement were collected at 3 to 5 months after planting and divided to 2 datasets for calibration and validation dataset. Then, the data correlation analysis was analyzed for the calibration model, including regression equation and the coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, validation was determined the accuracy between measured and estimated value. The result showed the reflectance at wavelength 680 nanometer and SAVI were related to the average of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance (R2 > 0.70). The validation was determined, less data discrepancy and r-square valued greater than 0.80. Therefore, the reflectance at wavelength 680 nanometer and SAVI could be detected the cassava water stress, using the average of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. This research was preliminary studied for the advanced study to conduct in several field condition using unmanned aerial vehicle and/or spaceborne hyperspectral sensors for the existing water management to be more efficient.
อุไรวรรณ์ รักผกาวงศ์* และ พงษ์เทพ รักผกาวงศ์
Structure Query Language (SQL) Command is a basic outstanding statement for developing application program. In a class room, variety of quiz examples is necessary for practice creating command and searching answer. Students can use the product of Database Management System (DBMS) as self-learn tutorial. However, they put incorrect command and cannot edit by themselves because DBMS shows only the first error. Thus, this research aims to develop 2 systems, 1) quiz generating system for SQL Command from quiz master as examples for practice, and then 2) answer checking system for searching each part (SELECT, FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY, ORDER BY) and show each error in order to let student know the correct command. The eight quiz masters were tried out with 43 students with 2 times per a student and 11 quizzes per time as well as create individual 946 quizzes. Average creating a quiz time was 2.56 seconds and checking answer time was 12.85 seconds.
This research study with volume capacitance data about 30 lots of Capacitor Output Process from a manufacturer during January – August 2016 by sampling one lot per week to complete the entire products. The random data was used to investigate in Process Capability Indices. It was found that the volume capacitance data in these manufactured Capacitors was shown in negatively skewed curve with no features of a normal distribution. Analysis on Process Capability Indices applied by the normal distribution formula against the non-normal distribution formula resulted in higher values of than when compared to all values of u and v. The non-normal distribution formula reflects on both the indices and the manufacturing process capability lower than the reality. Seeing that, the similar values of such indices were resulted from a use of normal and non-normal distribution formula when the collective data are relatively symmetric. In consequence, it is advisable that the non-normal distribution formula is required when the production process data shows no features of normal distribution. This finding is greatly useful for the production analyst in factories who would be fully convinced how to select the appropriate process capability index formulas in order that its benefit gained would dramatically improve Thailand- based industry as a whole.
We define the box product for matrices over an arbitrary commutative semiring, including the concepts of usual matrix product and Hadamard product. The box product possess the associativity, the identity, the distributivity over the addition, and the compatibility with the scalar multiplication and the transposition of a matrix. We investigate relationship between the box product and a block vector-operator. Moreover, we can transform the box product into the usual product via Johnson-Nylen transformation.