ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ ดร. ขาว เหมือนวงศ์
For more than two thousand years, mushrooms have been used for food, medicine or health promotion in many countries such as China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Nepal, India, Tibet, Siberia, Canada, Russia and Thailand. Recently, many immunomodulators have been extracted from diverse medicinal mushrooms, which are bioactive compounds used for immunotherapy. Medicinal mushroom immunomodulators are classified into four categories including lectins, terpenoids, proteins and polysaccharides. These bioactive compounds are produced by mushrooms cultivated in greenhouse conditions to reduce the utilization of natural resources. However, the yield is low compared to mushrooms in the wild. Extraction methods have been developed for the industrial production of the bioactive compounds but the cost is still high.
Planktons are biological indicators which are utilized to screen the health of the natural ecosystem in the environment by assessing the quantitative dominant genus to monitor the seasonal variation of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. Green algae in division Chlorophyta including Cosmarium sp., Micrasterias sp. and Staurastrum sp., and division Chrysophyta such as Cyclotella sp., Cymbella sp. and Eunotia sp. can be used as indicators for good quality of water. However, blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria in division Cyanophyta such as Cylindrospermopsis sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis aeruginosa are used to determine polluted water and warning signal of eutrophication. Furthermore, the assessment of water quality by using dominant phytoplankton species with AARL-PP Score (Applied Algal Research Laboratory-Phytoplankton) which is not required chemical reagents or apparatus can used with more than 95% of accuracy compared with physical and chemical water quality tests.
A static perfect fluid sphere is one of the exact solutions to the Einstein’s equation. To solve for perfect fluid solutions, a spherical symmetry has to be added to matters in order to reduce the complexity of the Einstein’s equation and an equation of state, which is one relating the pressure to the density of a perfect fluid sphere, has to be chosen. Selecting new equations of state, a number of perfect fluid solutions have been discovered. When several perfect fluid solutions have been found, it is more difficult to obtain new exact solutions by directly solving the Einstein’s equation than before. In this paper, we make use of the property of the Riccati equation to generate new exact static perfect fluid solutions from known ones without directly solving the Einstein’s equation. The result shows that if we start with the Minkowski solution, the new exact solution is the Tolman V (n = 2) which has physical meaning. This means that a pressure and density of a perfect fluid sphere are always positive. Furthermore, the pressure decreases from a central value to zero at the boundary of the perfect fluid sphere and the density also decreases from a central value to a positive value at the boundary of the perfect fluid sphere.
ขวัญจิตต์ อนุกูลวัฒนา* และ ธนาวรรณ สุขเกษม
The objective of this research was to develop snack product from black glutinous rice strain of Leum Phua. The appropriate proportion of white glutinous and black glutinous strain of Leum Phua for produce snack was 80:20 because the panelists gave the significantly higher hedonic scores of color, crispness, hardness, adhesiveness and overall liking. The study on the types and amount of seasoning showed that snack seasoned with 8% cheese flavor had the significantly higher score of overall liking. The snack made from 80:20 white glutinous and black glutinous strain of Leum Phua seasoned with 8% cheese flavor contained moisture, fat, protein, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate contents were 3.22, 2.02, 6.56, 0.21, 2.85 and 85.14% respectively, 1.77 expansion ratio and 0.35 aw . Studies of the changes in the color and texture every two weeks for eight weeks were analyzed after storage in aluminium foil bag in room temperature. The results showed that storage time was not significantly affected on color quality (L* a* b*) and were not affected on hardness and fracturability of product (p>0.05).
พรทิพย์ ศิริสุนทราลักษณ์* ชนิตว์นันท์ ภูมิพันธ์ ทัศนีย์ วันดี และนันทรัตน์ ณ นครพนม
The study of development of resistant milled rice aimed to evaluate effects of cooking method, degree of cooking and storing at chilling temperature on qualities and resistant starch content of high amylose rice (variety RD 31). Milled rice was boiled and cooked using rice cooker until 30% and 90% degree of cooking, storing at chilling temperature (4±2 oC) for 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days and dried at 50 oC using hot air tray dryer. Resistant rice grain had bulk density of 0.74-0.84 g/cm3, which was close to milled rice. Cooking time and whiteness index were less than those of milled rice. Whereas water absorption and cooked rice hardness were more than those of milled rice. Reduction of paste viscosity was observed. Changes of viscosity were comparable to those of pre-gelatinized flours except resistant rice grain cooking with rice cooker at 30% degree of cooking. Cooking and drying processes decreased resistant starch content (RS) of milled rice from 15.40 g/100g to 5.61-7.08 g/100g. However, storing cooked rice at chilling temperature for 21 days before drying enhanced RS to 21.32 and 21.67 g/100 g for resistant rice grain prepared by boiling and cooking with rice cooker, respectively. Cooking at 30% contributed higher RS than those of 90%.
ปาริชาติ ศงสนันทน์* และ ศิริลักษณ์ เจริญรัตน์
This research aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 and Pediococcus acidilactici TISTR 051 as starter cultures on physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of soft pork ribs Nham. The experiment was performed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Two treatments included formula of Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 and that of Pediococcus acidilactici TISTR 051, and a control without starter. Each treatment was incubated at 30°C for 48 hours. The results showed that usage of starter cultures affected L* value, pH, total acidity and number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Soft pork ribs Nham inoculated with starter cultures had higher L* value and total acidity (P≤0.05), but lower pH than control formula (P≤0.05). During fermentation, Nham inoculated with starter cultures had higher LAB. At the end of fermentation period, Nham inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 had the lowest pH, but the highest total acidity (P≤0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that soft pork ribs Nham inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 had the highest mean score in color, sour and overall liking (P≤0.05). Therefore, soft pork ribs Nham inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 543 was analyzed. The color of product in term of L* a* b* were 54.80±2.87, 2.14±1.13 and 9.19±1.92, respectively. The pH was 4.42±0.01 and total acidity was 0.910±0.021 (as lactic acid). Microbiological analysis of baked soft pork ribs Nham was indicated that Salmonella spp. (in 25g), Clostridium perfringens (in 0.1g) and Staphylococcus aureus (in 0.1g) were not detected. Escherichia coli and yeast and mold count were <3 MPN/g and <10 CFU/g, respectively.
ศิวิลัย สิริมังครารัตน์ วีระศักดิ์ ศักดิ์ศิริรัตน์* และ ดวงรัตน์ ธงภักดิ์
Eri silkworm production as textile and raw material for consumption (pupa) was principally focused on cocoon production. The major 4 important types of eri silkworm food plants, castor TCO101, castor CaKKU1, cassava Rayong 72 and Kesseru (Thai Line) were tested on feeding of eri silkworm IPKKU1 ecorace. Feeding food plant to eri silkworm composed of 8 treatments, castor TCO101, castor CaKKU1, cassava Rayong 72, Kesseru, castor TCO101 alternated with Rayong 72 every other day, castor TCO101 + Rayong 72, castor TCO101 (1st-4th instar) + Kesseru (5th instar) and cassava Rayong 72 (1st-4th instar) + Kesseru (5th instar). The result showed that feeding with only cassava Rayong 72 led to the highest average cocoon yields of all components: fresh cocoon weight, pupa weight, shell weight, % shell and total cocoon shell weight with values of 2.4447 g, 2.1092 g, 0.3157 g, 12.97% and 31.26 g, respectively. In addition, to select the suitable treatments (each main food plant / combined food plants), it could be evaluated from important average cocoon yields (fresh cocoon weight, pupa weight and total cocoon shell weight). However, this study suggests that the cassava Rayong 72 is one of the suitable main food plants of eri silkworm especially in the northeast of Thailand.
พนิดา พึ่งเถื่อน ศิลปชัย เสนารัตน์ พิสิษฐ์ พูลประเสริฐ ทัศพร กาญจนเรขา เจษฏ์ เกษตระทัต* และพหล โกสิยะจินดา
Preliminary study of the ovarian histology of Trypauchen vagina (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) during its breeding season was observed before entering to study the ultrastructure and reproductive cycle for further studies. All fish were collected from the Upper Gulf of Thailand, Samut Songkhram Province. The present study revealed that the ovarian structure of this fish was surrounded by tunica albuginea. Within the ovarian tissue, it consists of two parts: germinal and stromal compartments. The stromal compartments contained differential stage of oocytes, which were divided into two phases i.e. primary oocyte growth (chromatin nucleolus, perinucleolar and lipid droplet and cortical alveolar stages) and secondary oocyte growth (early and late vitellogenic stages).
สุมาลี พิมพันธุ์ อลงกลด แทนออมทอง กฤติยา แสงภักดี และวิวรรธน์ แสงภักดี*
This research is aimed to study the chromosomes of male migratory bird locust (Cyrtacanthacris tatarica) which reported for the first time for this species in Thailand. The specimens were collected in Khon Kaen and Udon Thani province. Chromosomal preparation was performed directly from their testes. Conventional and silver nor staining were applied on the metaphase chromosomes. The results demonstrate that migratory bird locust has diploid (2n) chromosome number of 23, with the fundamental number of 23. All of chromosomes have found to be telocentric chromosomes which including eight large, four medium, ten small telocentric and one medium X-telocentric chromosomes. The sex-system has been characterized to be X0. The NOR location have found closely in centromeric region of all chromosomes. Meiotic study have confirmed and identified the diploid number and sex chromosome, respectively. The karyotype formula of this species could be deduced as 2n (23) = Lt8+Mt4+St10+X-chromosome.
ณัฐธิดา หนูนาค และ ศรัณยา พีระเกียรติขจร*
Zinc is an essential element for physiological functions of organisms (e.g., growth and reproduction). However, the excess of zinc uptake causes toxic to the organisms and affects their physiological systems. In this study, we clarified the acute toxicity of ZnSO4 in different ages of D. magna. The results showed that the LC50s at 48 h of 1, 3, and 5-day-old D. magna were 1.46 ± 0.05, 1.52 ± 0.06 and 2.29 ± 0.02 mg/l, respectively. This significantly higher LC50 of the 5-day-old D. magna might be a result of its lower surface area to volume ratio when compared to other experimental conditions.
ณัชชา ไชยสูง บุญสม บุษบรรณ์ อัมพร ปานมงคล เมธี วงศ์หนัก ประทีป ปัญญาดี และอังคณา อินตา*
The study of environmental factors affecting mortality rate of Sapria himalayana Griff. in Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden (Huai Phihlok), Mae Rim district, Chiangmai, Doi Suthep-Pui National Park (Doi Suthep) and Huai Khok Ma (Huai Khok Ma), Muang, Chiangmai were conducted between August 2015 – July 2016. Three plots of 100 x 100 square meters were located for data collections. Then, random five host plants in each plots of 5 x 5 square meters were randomly sampled to collect ten environment factors. S. himalayana Griff. population were measured every two weeks all year round. The results showed that the highest mortality rate found in March at Huai Khok Ma and December at Doi Suthep and Huai Phi Hlok as 74%, 80% and 75%, respectively. Furthermore, the result of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the S. himalayana Griff. population of three sites had the negative correlation with the soil temperature, air temperature and light intensity inside the plots. The result shows that the temperature affects the mortality rate. On account of the increased mortality rate, the temperature was decreased.
Chonnipa Puratane and Sittipong Amnuaypanich *
Diol-functionalized natural rubber (ENR50-diol) and Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were used as dual templates for the synthesis of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) through the modified StÖber method. The MSPs were synthesized using ENR50-diol/CTAB dual templates with 22% and 32% degree of diol, compared using only ENR50-diol (without CTAB) and using only CTAB. ENR50-dio/CTAB dual template provided MSPs with two different mesopore structures, i.e., large mesopores with pore size ~50 nm obtained from ENR50-diol and the small mesopores 2 - 4 nm generated from CTAB. The specific surface area of MSPs particles with using ENR50/CTAB dual templates were obtained in order of magnitude from ~20 to 268.50 m2/g and the pore volume from 0.04 to 0.25 cm3/g.
จอมจันทร์ นทีวัฒนา* ศิริเพ็ญ ตรัยไชยาพร จินตพัฒน์ นทีวัฒนา มะลิวัลย์ แซ่อุ้ย ประศักดิ์ ถาวรยุติการณ์ และ สมพร ชุนห์ลือชานนท์
This study aimed to study total arsenic accumulation of Arsenite [As(III)] and Arsenate [As(V)] forms by T. angustifolia in submerged soil and to compare accumulation efficiency by various organs of T. angustifolia with 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Experimental design is factorial 3 × 4 in CRD plan. According to analysis of variance (Two way ANOVA) found that the factors affected significantly total arsenic accumulation of T. angustifolia were growing period, arsenic speciation, and co-influence of these two factors (P-value < 0.01). The result of multiple comparison by Dunnett's T3 showed that As (III)> As (V)> Control and 45> 60> 30> 15 days, respectively. The accumulation in various organs of T.angustifolia by factorial 3 × 3 × 4 in CRD plan (Three way ANOVA) found that the factors were significant differences (P - value < 0.01) as follow growing period, arsenic speciation, and various organs, as well as co-influence of these two factors including arsenic speciation * growing period, arsenic speciation * various organs, growing period * various organs, and the other had co-influence of these three factors. Multiple comparison result by Dunnett's T3 showed that As (III) > As (V) > control, 45 > 60 > 30 > 15, and rhizome > root > leaf. Arsenic accumulation translocation factors (AFT) of As (III) treatment were 0.14 - 0.28 and As (V) treatment were 0.43 - 0.55, and Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of As(III) treatment were 0.93 - 1.15. Therefore T.angustifolia was a hyperaccumulation plant for As(III), whereas BCF of As(V) treatment was 0.57 - 0.85.
อรทัย เชื้อวงษ์* ไพบูลย์ ประพฤติธรรม และอรอนงค์ ผิวนิล
The study of role of Active Fe(III) on landfill leachate organic carbon treatment efficiency, (LFLOCTE), in 4 replications, has been carried out a split plot experiment having 2 Main plots; Landfill leachate (LFL, W1) and Tap water (Blank, W2) and 4 Subplots. The 4 subplots were; Ratchaburi soil series (S1) and 3 artificial soils by coarse sand dilution at the ratio soil: sand; 3: 1 (S2), 2: 2 (S3) and 1: 3 (S4) so that the 4 soils would have 5,200 ppm Fe (S1), 3,900 ppm Fe (S2), 2,600 ppm Fe (S3) and 1,300 ppm Fe (S4) Active Fe(III) respectively. This was a saturation system of the water and soils incubated at room temperature for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The results of this study found that: (a) The 4 Active Fe(III) could efficiency treated the LFL in this saturation system having 192 ppm OC (S1), 153.6 ppm OC (S2), 115.2 ppm OC (S3) and 76.8 ppm OC (S4) which were 82.5%, 78.8%, 72.5% and 60.0% since the first week at in average increase rate 0.743 ± 0.158 %/wk in the normal treatment efficiency technique ; (b) Treatment efficiency (TE) evaluated by Blank Subtraction Technique the LFLOCTE rapidly increased to 100% within 4 weeks aging, with exception in the least Active Fe(III) soil (S4) and (c) The increase in soil Active Fe(III) increased LFLOCTE (%) highly significantly in all periods of saturation time. It could be recommended that the 1st week TE relationship was worth information for future LFL treatment system development because of its highest r value (0.965**) and the highest slope value which was 5.7 x 10-3 TE (%)/ppm Fe Active Fe(III).
ปฐม์พงศ์ พันธ์พิบูลย์* รณชัย หล้าคอม และ วิจิตร เชาว์วันกลาง
In this research, we study the photometric and physical parameters of a contact eclipsing binary system V1799 Orionis. This work used the 0.5 meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system in blue, visual and infrared bands. The photometric data were obtained in December 28-29, 2015 and January 8, 2016 at the Thai National Observatory, Chiang Mai. The light curves and physical parameters were analyzed simultaneously using PHOEBE. The results show that the effective temperature of the primary and secondary star, the inclination and the mass ratio were 5000.00 K, 4849.58 K, 89.696o and 1.377, respectively. The degree of contact was calculated to be 5.146%. The mass transfer rate was 4.9x10-8 solar masses per year, and the period increased to 1.9 x 10-8 day per year. The evolutionary status of the primary and secondary components is that they are moving away from the center of mass of the binary system, in accord with the Thermal Relaxation Oscillation Theory.
จันทร์เพ็ญ โทมัส Ian Thomas และ เอกพรรณ สวัสดิ์ซิตัง*
In the first year of the solar furnace project, we modified the old solar furnace built at the Department of Physics by replacing the support for the 4m x 3m flat mirror (heliostat) used to track the sun. The support consisted of three main parts: the hinge attached to the mirror to allow the mirror to move in the up-down direction, the vertical axle to allow the mirror to move in the left-right direction, and the base. Since the previous support used a small diameter (about 3.8cm) vertical axle with a length of only about 30cm, and galvanized steel pipe for the base which was not heavy, the old support was unstable, wobbly and not tall enough. When the mirror was lowered to a small altitude, the mirror hit the floor. Rotation in the left-right direction was by rotating the axle with the help of angular contact ball bearings (7004-B-TVR: d = 20 mm). The new support was designed to be taller, with an axle of 1.5m attached to a non-rotating base. The rotating part was the outer cover of the axle. The angular contact ball bearings were improved to be tapered bearings for the top and bottom bearings for freer motion. Boots made from Superlene Nylon6 were used around the axle to ensure the axle remained central in the outer cover. The base was made from thicker steel plate and a concrete slab added to make the mirror more stable. The axle attached to the back of the mirror, to allow it to rotate in the up-down direction, was also improved. The new support for the mirror was much stronger and stable. In addition, the motor used to rotate the mirror in the left-right direction was changed to one that was more powerful than the previous one. Testing showed that the mirror moved more easily in both the up-down and left-right directions and was more stable.
Teuanchay Phongkhamphanh*, Soontorn Khamyong and Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang
The tree height-stem diameter (H-D) allometric equations and tree biomass carbon estimation of two dry dipterocarp forests (DDF) in northern Thailand, were compared. Study areas included two sites, the Huai Hong Khrai Royal Development Study Center (Site 1) and the Mae Tha sub-district community forest (Site 2). Twelve sampling plots, each of size 40 x 40 m, were used for tree survey at Site 1 and fifteen plots for Site 2, and the plots were arranged in the both study area by a random sampling method. Tree data were obtained by measuring stem diameters at breast height (DBH) 1.3 m above ground in all sample plots, and total heights of all trees that height over 1.5 m were measured in 11 plots for Site 1 and 5 plots for Site 2 using a Measuring Pole Height Stick and Haga hypsometer. The stem diameter and tree heights of 9 dominants tree species were used for making H-D allometric equations of each site, and apply it for calculate tree biomass within the plots. Some different biomass amounts were obtained from the equations of same species and the two-site of DDF. These species included Shorea obtusa, Shorea siamensis, Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Dipterocarp tuberculatus, Pterocapus macrocarpus, Dalbergia assamica-Dalbergia oliveri, Canarium subulatum, Aporosa villosa, and Gluta usitata. The H-D allometric equations of these species in the two sites indicated some differences of biomass and carbon stock in the forests. The heights of most mature dominant tree species in Site 1 were lower than Site 2, except for Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Canarium subulatum and Gluta usitata. Application of the H-D allometric equations of one site to another caused the different estimation of biomass and carbon stock found in the forest. average carbon stock in tree biomass of Site 1 calculated using the equations of Site 2 showed overestimation, 44.77±5.39 to be 48.73±5.88 (+3.96 Mg ha-1) while turnover biomass of Site 2 obtained by using the equations of Site 1 presented lower estimation, 61.97±26.61 to be 59.57±25.05 (-2.70 Mg ha-1). However, these differences were not significant statistic.
โศภิษฐพร ศิลปภิรมย์สุข* และรุ่งเรือง จันทา
NO2 is an important air pollutant because of its adverse effects on human health and welfare, especially its contribution to environmental acidification. NO2 was collected by passive sampling in Lampang city for both road sites and community sites, which located near the road sides. The results revealed that average NO2 concentrations in road sites were ranged from 25.6-36.2 ppb, while those in community sites were ranged from 7.4-9.1 ppb. Average NO2 concentrations in road sites and community sites collected during summer were significantly differences (p < 0.05) from those during rainy season. However, most of NO2 concentrations in both areas were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.860). It can be concluded that NO2 emitted from motor vehicle exhaust can affect to NO2 concentrations in community sites. Moreover, the significant correlation between NO2, PM10 (r = 0.733-0.909) and ozone (r = 0.589-0.734) distinguished that those pollutants in Lampang city were emitted from similar source. However, NO2 concentration in the ambient air was decreased from washing of rainfall (r = -0.586 to -0.727).
นัท กุลวานิช* และ อัครินทร์ ไพบูลย์พานิช
The aim of the study was to compare the tradition lecture method and applying “Sue-hirokari Sukoroko” board game learning method in relation to students’ learning achievement and satisfaction in studying Binomial distribution. The study used quasi-experimental method with non-equivalent group pretest-posttest design. Two intact classes were used with a total of 96 first year undergraduate students in BBA program at Chulalongkorn University. One group of student was taught through lecture while the other group through using board game method. Research instruments were achievement test and satisfaction questionnaire. The statistics used are mean, standard deviation, Paired t–test, Independent t-test, and two-proportion z-test. The results showed that
1) there was no significant between-group difference in term of learning achievement at 0.05 level of significance; 2) the students revealed higher level of satisfaction toward the use of board game learning approach in some issues at 0.05 level of significance.
This study is aim to propose the modified dual to product estimator for population mean by adapting Bandyopadhyay’s (1980) estimator for simple random sampling without replacement. We will compare bias and mean square error (MSE) equations obtained with this proposed estimator with Bandyopadhyay’s (1980) estimator, Sharma and Tailor’s (2010) estimator, Choudhury and Singh’s (2012a) estimator, Choudhury and Singh’s (2012b) and Adebola and Adegoke’s (2015). It is found that the proposed estimator is more efficient than these estimators under some conditions. In addition our results are supported by a numerical illustration.
ณัฐติยา โนนกอง และ บรรทม สุระพร*
The aim of this research is to study the estimation of binomial distribution. In which case n is large (n→∞) and p is small (p→0), causes that computation is difficult. So this research suggested in approximate binomial probability distribution with Poisson distribution, generalized Poisson distribution, and normal distribution. Moreover, we compare efficiency of each estimators and error of estimated. The result, we found that an approximation of probability of binomial distribution with generalized Poisson distribution is lowest error of estimated.
กาญจนา แสงทองพัฒนา และ นวลวรรณ สุนทรภิษัช*
Wikipedia articles are widely used as references sources in documents and other medias. Since the framework of Wikipedia allows user to create and edit articles, therefore the quality is the main concern. We found that there is small number of good quality in Thai articles, therefore this research proposes a method to classify Thai Wikipedia articles into high and low quality. The hypothesis is that the high quality articles should contain content that covers most concepts in the domain and should be reliable. We investigated ontology with various machine learning methods and found that using ontology and decision tree with reference features provides promising result measured in term of F-Measure which is 0.73 in biography domain, 0.89 in animal domain, and 0.72 in place domain.
ณัฐพล เคียนขัน นิกร สุวรรณการณ์ โกมล ใจสว่าง สุรศักดิ์ ลิ้มสุวรรณ จรัญ มากน้อย และ เกศริน มณีนูน*
The study of species diversity and microscopic structures of Zingiberaceae in Banthad range were conducted in Phatthalung, Trang, Satun and Songkhla provinces from June 2015 to December 2016. The aims of this research were to study species diversity, construct dichotomous key and observe rhizome microscopic structures. The result showed that 37 species have been found. They belong to 3 tribes, 11 genera. The highest representative tribes were Alpinieae (5 genera, 19 species), followed by Zingibereae (5 genera, 15 species) and Globbeae (1 genera, 3 species), respectively. The result from rhizome microscopic structures observation revealed that informative characters are trichomes, epidermal tissue, cork, parenchyma cell, vascular bundles, including oleoresins, oil droplets, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Anyway, rhizome microscopic characters are not sufficient for species identification. But they provide supportive information, especially for the case of rhizome in traditional Thai prescriptions.