ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 40 No.3 July - September 2012



In Vitro Flowering of Orchid


สมพร ประเสริฐส่งสกุล

In vitro flowering is benefit for plant with a long juvenile period. Orchid is one of the popular flower that takes a long time to flowering after seed germination and in vitro regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review is to show the in vitro conditions for shortening the juvenile period and induction of orchid flowering. Plant growth regulator, growth retardant, phosphorus and nitrogen contents, root excision, temperature and day length affect to the in vitro flowering of orchid.



Hydropsychidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) as Bio-indicators of Water Quality

แมลงน้ำวงศ์ไฮดรอบไซคิดี้ (อันดับไทรคอบเทอร่า) เพื่อเป็นตัวบ่งชี้ทางชีวภาพของคุณภาพน้ำ

แตงอ่อน พรหมมิ

Assessment on rivers and streams water quality should incorporate aspects of chemical, physical, and biological. Of all the potential groups of freshwater organisms that have been considered for use in biological monitoring in rivers and streams, benthic macroinvertebrates are most often recommended, especially caddisflies or Trichoptera, comprise the most diverse order of insects whose members are exclusively aquatic. Caddisfly larvae contribute significantly to zoobenthic biomass and the processing of organic resources. Larvae, which are particularly responsive to in-stream environmental gradients, are restricted to the permanently wetted stream perimeter. Adults are terrestrial insects that fly mostly at dusk not far from the water. In regions like Europe and North America, where their taxonomy and biology are well known in both the adult and larval stages, hydropsychids are used as the most accurate and cost effective indicators of water quality because the immature stages are the ones that are exposed to pollution.



The Significance of Clostridium perfringens in Food Safety

ความสำคัญของ Clostridium perfringens ต่อความปลอดภัยในอาหาร

อรรณพ ทัศนอุดม ยศยา ทุริสุทธิ์ และ วราภา มหากาญจนกุล

Clostridium perfringens has been recognized as one of the most important bacteria causing a broad spectrum of human and foodborne diseases in many countries. Illness results when a large number of bacteria are consumed (> 105 cells), particularly in association with spore contaminated food. Spores survive extremely harsh conditions, including food processing such as boiling for over 1 hour and long term persistence in foods. Sporulation occurs when bacteria grow in the intestines of both human and animals. C. perfringens cells release an enterotoxin (CPE) when cell lysis resulting in diarrhea symptoms. Both cells and spores are widely distributed in the environment such as soil, dust and vegetation. Soil is regarded as a major habitat and a direct source of contamination into foods. Previous research reported C. perfringens spores have been detected in food samples (103-104 spores/g) especially in spices, milk powders or flours. Moreover, food processing facilities (equipments, machines and wash water) are also reported as the habitat of this organism, which lead to many problems in food industries. Therefore, it is very importance and challenge to reduce or inactivate C. perfringens cells and spores contaminated in foods and agricultural products. Oxidizing agents as the sanitizers in washing step may be the alternative way to assist the control measure of C. perfringens illnesses. However, the food safety strategies such as GMP and HACCP are the food safety management system to prevent the contamination of C. perfringens in foods.



Antimicrobial Peptides and Recent Advance in Structural Modifications


สาวิณี นาสมภักดิ์ และ รินา ภัทรมานนท์

Antibiotics resistance has increasingly been a concern as more antibiotics are prescribed for infectious diseases. Alternatives to classical antibiotics are in needed and peptide antibiotics are promising as one of the choices. Generally, modifying peptides like changing amino acid sequence or alternating the order within the sequence could increase antimicrobial activity. However, other peptide modifications are interesting as well. Those are cyclization, linking with sugar, lipids, or nucleic acids. Some of these modifications could yield more than 100 folds of activity and reduce cytotoxicity comparing with the parent peptides. In order to design or choose parent peptide for modification, peptide structure and activity have to be in concern. Suitable structure depends on some factors like amphipathicity and toxicity of peptides.



Mitochondrial DNA: The Tracking Tool to Investigate Population Genetic Hist

ดีเอ็นเอไมโทคอนเดรีย: เครื่องมือติดตามประวัติการสืบเชื้อสายประชากร

วิภู กุตะนันท์

As a result of several unique properties of human mitochondrial DNA, including maternal inheritance, lack of recombination and high mutation rate, mtDNA had become widely utilized for studying human evolution, migration and population history. Here this article reviews the approaches of studying mtDNA variation as well as earlier reports of mtDNA studies which answered the questions about genetic structure and human population history in Thailand. In the past decade, almost previous mtDNA studies in Thai populations had been pivoted in Northern Thailand, however, mtDNA examination should be extended to populations from the other regions of Thailand particularly in the Northeast which harbors cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. Moreover, other studies of population genetics using genetic markers with different modes of inheritance, like autosomal DNA and Y-chromosome, are needed to gain a deeper understanding genetic ancestry of various populations in Thailand.



Cloud-Point Extraction: Theory and Applications of Surfactants in Analytical Chemistry

การสกัดแบบจุดขุ่น: ทฤษฎีและการประยุกต์ใช้สารลดแรงตึงผิวในทางเคมีวิเคราะห์

ญาณวรรธน์ แสนตลาดชัยกิตติ์

Cloud-point extraction is the extraction and preconcentration of target analytes using surfactants as extractant such as non-ionic and anionic surfactants etc. Under the optimum conditions including temperature, pressure, concentration of surfactant and salt, the aqueous surfactant solution becomes clouding and separating into two phases (i.e., aqueous and surfactant-rich phases). The target analytes are extracted and concentrated into surfactant-rich phase. The cloud-point extraction is simple, rapid, high extraction efficiency and environmentally friendly. This review includes theory and principle of cloud-point extraction as well as its application for the analysis of various analytes.



Cloud Point Extraction: Application to Heavy Metals Analysis

การสกัดแบบคลาวด์พอยท์: การประยุกต์ในการวิเคราะห์โลหะหนัก

วิภารัตน์ เชื้อชวด ชัยสิทธิ์

The applications of extraction method based on cloud point extraction for the analysis of heavy metals in environmental and various types of sample matrices have been receiving more attention at present. The main advantages of cloud point extraction as compared to the liquid-liquid extraction are that it can improve the limit of detection, the enrichment factor and the sensitivity of the analysis. The sample preparation provides low cost, simple and rapid procedures, and avoids using large amount of toxic organic solvents. The extraction procedure consists of three steps: 1) the solubilization of interested analytes in the micelle aggregates of surfactant, 2) clouding stage of surfactant at cloud point temperature and 3) the phase separation of surfactant from the solution phase prior to analysis. In this article, the principle of cloud point extraction using surfactants is presented. Factors affecting cloud point extraction and applications for trace heavy metal analysis in various types of sample matrices e.g. environmental and clinical samples, including the speciation of some heavy metals are reviewed.



The Lotus Effect: Theory and Application to Artificial Self-Cleaning Surfaces

ปรากฏการณ์น้ำกลิ้งบนใบบัว: ทฤษฎีและการประยุกต์ใช้เพื่อสร้างพื้นผิวที่ทำความสะอาดตัวเองได้

เพ็ญวิสาข์ พิสิฏฐศักดิ์

Scientists have learned to apply the concept of the “lotus effect” to develop surfaces
with special properties, i.e. those capable of cleaning themselves. The self-cleaning surfaces can be cleaned more easily, and will remain unsoiled longer than simple surfaces. To mimic a surface of a lotus leaf, the surface of interest must be rough and hydrophobic. Dirt particles with an extremely reduced contact area are picked up by water droplets and are thus easily washed away, leaving the surface clean. All lotus-like surfaces are superhydrophobic having a static contact angle greater than 150° and a water roll-off angle less than 10°. Two fundamental models that describe the contact angle of liquid with a rough surface are: first, the Cassie-Baxter’s model for a rough surface with air pockets present between the solid and the liquid; and the Wenzel’s model for a rough surface without air pockets. Comparing between these two models, the water droplet in a Cassie-Baxter state can roll-off more easily. However, the transitions from a Wenzel state to a Cassie–Baxter state have been reported. Currently, the research on self-cleaning surfaces based on the lotus effect becomes more significant to both academic fields and industrial applications.



Saline Soil Detection Using Satellite Remote Sensing


ภูวดล โกมณเฑียร

Nowadays, the soil salinity is becoming a more serious environmental problem, especially in the irrigation areas. The situation must be closely followed-up to provide the
supporting data for urgent decision making, restoration, and improve the soil and land. The effectiveness of saline soil detection is depending on the proper application of imagery with different spectrum and also to transform and classify before interpretation. Besides, the detection and assessment of the changes at present and the past is capable to figure out the change of nature as well as the scale of change. This analysis pattern is conducted through the up-to-date equipment and relied on the specialist. The best saline soil detection results can be obtain after the merging of satellite remote sensing data, field study data and the laboratory data. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable for data manipulation in terms of detecting the scale, time, source and structure of the data. It is very challenging for researcher to properly analyze the specific indicator of Saline Soil. Hence, the satellite remote sensing technique and the ground survey have been applied to effectively detect the salinity it is low cost and accurate.



Immunoinformatics: A New Tool for Vaccine Research

Immunoinformatics ศาสตร์ใหม่เพื่อการวิจัยวัคซีน

อุมาพร ทาไธสง และ ทรงศักดิ์ ทองชูศักดิ์

Immunoinformatics is a new filed in immunology which demonstrates the use of bioinformatics for studying the interaction between antigens and host immune system. The
method can be used to organize immunological data, analysis of antibody cross reaction, analysis of antigenic diversity and simulate the antigen processing and presentation. Currently, immunoinformatics become an important part of immunological research especially study of cell mediated immunity for infectious disease, autoimmune and cancer. This article will be focused on the use of computational strategies to predict T-cell epitopes from amino acid sequence of antigens derived from pathogens or tumors.



Linear Discrete Dynamical System


พิกุล ภูผาสุข

This article presents an introductory study on Mathematical models by using the linear discrete dynamical systems. The basic principles, definitions and some problems modeled by the linear discrete dynamical systems of one and two variables are introduced, along with the illustrations of their dynamical behaviors by graph plotting of the variable points. The convergence, divergence and the periodic behaviors are discussed, including the analysis of conditions for convergence and how to calculate the limit points of the convergence systems. From this study, it is found that the linear discrete dynamical systems of one and two variables can give the model behaviors and lead to various interesting analytical properties.



Effect of Spin on the Stability of Matter


ชัยพจน์ มุทาพร

It was already expected as early as the beginning of the 20th century that the Pauli exclusion principle, involved with spin ½ statistics, was necessary to prevent matter from making a high density phase transition and ensure its stability. The actual theoretical demonstration that matter would be unstable if the exclusion principle is abolished came much later through the rigorous study of Freeman Dyson in 1967. In this article, we review the elegant work of Dyson as well as subsequent mathematically rigorous studies carried out of such “bosonic matter” and, in the process, pin point the physical meaning of stability of matter. In particular, we investigate the enormous energy already released by bringing into contact two bosonic systems each containing a number of particles comparable to those found in a test tube, thus providing a clear cut explanation of the instability of matter without the exclusion principle.



Sine and Cosine Functions on Human Breath


สุพัชระ คงนวน

This article aims to show the important roles of sine and cosine functions on simulation of the airflow in human breath. The important roles are shown by a mathematical modelling construction and a method of analytical solution. The effective of the constructed mathematical modelling and the obtained solution is investigated by the comparison with the fact of human airflow and the results obtained by an efficient numerical method.



Query Optimization with Indexing Table


ชาญชัย ศุภอรรถกร

Query optimization is the component of a database management system that attempts to determine the most efficient way to execute a query. One of the techniques to optimize the query is to use an indexing table that is the primary mean of speeding up access to the database. The principle of indexing table is to select columns from a database table to create the index. Index table is created. This table contains a column that was selected as the index and ROWID column for storing the address of data. Instead of searching full table, we can use the index to quickly position to the first matching value and save a lot of time for searching. In addition, we present the principle of choosing indexes, for example candidate column, high cardinality, etc. Lastly, we tested the efficiency of the indexing table. There are 2 test examples to compare between index and non-index. The first test example result for using index, disk access time reduced by 95.07% and % CPU cost reduced by 97.96%. The second test example result for using index, disk access time reduced by 81.25% and % CPU cost reduced by 66.99%.



Evolution of Mobile Phone Network to the Third Generation

วิวัฒนาการของมาตรฐานโทรศัพท์เคลื่อนที่สู่ยุคที่ 3

วรากร ศรีเชวงทรัพย์

This article presents the evolution of mobile phone network, starting from first generation mobile phone networks (1G), which is based on analogue technology. The main purpose of 1G technology is for voice traffic only. After that, second generation mobile phone networks (2G) has been developed to provide better voice quality and support more concurrent users. 2G technology can not only support voice services but also ringtone, mobile graphic, SMS services, and low-speed Internet access. In order to support multimedia and high-speed data transmission, third generation mobile phone networks (3G) has been developed to meet these requirements. The last section of this article presents the trend in the technology development. The objectives of the future technology development are 1) to deliver modern broadband services to high mobility users, 2) to maximize spectral efficiency.



In Vitro Culture and Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Mediated Transformation of Precious Patumma (Curcuma sp.)

การเพาะเลี้ยงเนื้อเยื่อ และการส่งถ่ายยีนเข้าสู่ต้นปทุมรัตน์ (Curcuma sp.) โดยใช้ Agrobacterium tumefaciens

วารุต อยู่คง รัฐพร จันทร์เดช และ ภพเก้า พุทธรักษ์

Precious Patumma (Curcuma sp.) was a promising ornamental plant that could benefit from further development using modern biotechnology. In this study, In vitro retarded shoots culture of Precious Patumma was conducted on MS medium supplemented with cytokinin of TDZ at 0.0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/l and IMA at 0, 2 and 4 mg/l . The results indicated that the highest number of retarded shoots (12 retarded shoots per explant) could obtain when cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l TDZ combination with 4 mg/l IMA and developed the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol into Precious Patumma. The A. tumefaciens strain AGLO harboring the binary vector pBI121 containing the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) as a selectable marker and the α-glucuronidase (gus) gene as a reporter was cultured in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l TDZ combination 4 mg/l IMA . The bacteria were diluted incubated with in vitro propagated Precious Patumma retarded shoots in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l TDZ combination 4 mg/l IMA for 30 minutes. Treated retarded shoots were selected in MS medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin for 6 weeks. GUS bioassay was used to observe gus gene expression in leaves of transgenic plants. The results revealed that the highest percentage of transformed Precious Patumma (73.33%) was obtained when in vitro Precious Patumma retarded shoots were inoculated with A. tumefaciens at 30 minutes.



Drying of Karanda (Carissa carandas) Pomace and Its Tablet Product


วิชมณี ยืนยงพุทธกาล สุภาพรรณ คงสมเพ็ชร และ ปาริชาติ วีระแพทย์

This research was to study the Karanda pomace quality and the effect of drying condition on dried Karanda pomace quality, as well as developed the tablet product from dried Karanda pomace. Karanda pomace had the antioxidant property, the inhibition was 93.01% and IC50 was 118.70 mg/L. Effect of drying condition on Karanda pomace quality was studied. Drying temperatures at 40 50 60 and 70 °C to reach the final moisture content not more than 5% were conducted. It was found that drying conditions effect on antioxidant properties, total phenolic compounds content, total anthocyanin content, vitamin C content, total titratable acidity and color values (p<0.05). Optimum condition was drying of Karanda pomace at 60 °C for 200 min. These remained the highest antioxidant properties, total phenolic compounds content and total anthocyanin content in dried Karada pomace (p<0.05). The optimum ingredients content for tablet product was studied using the mixture design experiment under constrains as following: Karanda pomace powder 45-76%, icing sugar 4–60% and corn starch 2-10%. The result showed that the optimum ingredients content were Karanda pomace powder 45%, icing sugar 53% and corn starch 2%. It’s obtained the highest overall liking score as slightly like level.



Effects of Cultivars and Quantity of Black Glutinous Rice on the Quality Characteristics of Rice Cracker


สุริยาพร นิพรรัมย์ วรรณภา สระพินครบุรี และ อรรณพ ทัศนอุดม

The effects of different cultivars and quantity of black glutinous rice on the quality of rice cracker were investigated by comparing two black glutinous rice cultivars (Doisaket and Omkoi) and different percentage quantities of black glutinous rice ( 20, 30 and 40%). Protein and amylose contents of Omkoi were 5.40+0.23 and 9.00+0.01 % respectively which was significantly less than Doisaket (p < 0.05). But it had greater gel consistency than those of Doisaket (51.55+0.05 mm). Different cultivars and quantities of black glutinous rice had effects on hardness, color value L* and b* of rice cracker. Rice cracker of 20% (w/w) Omkoi cultivar performed the best quality its bulk density, volume expansion, hardness, color value L*, a* and b* were 0.320+0.01 g/cm3, 174.58+0.09 %, 1,677.42+22.35 g., 29.48+0.48, 3.40+0.20 and 3.65+0.06 respectively. Moreover, it had the highest sensory score for crispiness and over all attributes (p < 0.05).



Biopulping from Banana Pseudo - Stem of Num-Wa by Trichoderma viride

การผลิตเยื่อกระดาษจากกาบกล้วยน้ำว้าด้วยวิธีทางชีวภาพโดยใช้ Trichoderma viride

สุจยา ฤทธิศร

Study in the application of ligninolytic fungi for biopulping from banana pseudo-stem of Num-Wa was found that the incremental of T. viride had no effect to Kappa number and lignin degradation but depend on cultured time. The banana pseudo-stem of Num-Wa biopulping by T. viride with varied hydrogen peroxide bleaching (i.e. 0, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16%) had kappa number lower than the product which was made from the chemical process. Paper produced from banana pseudo-stem of Num-Wa biopulping by T. viride used less hydrogen peroxide for bleaching than the chemical-made paper but yield more brightness in all level of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Comparison the selective paper produced from T. viride bleaching with 12% hydrogen peroxide to the selective paper produced from chemistry bleaching with 14% hydrogen peroxide found that bursting strength had lower value by 3.3 and 3.9 kg/cm2, respectively. However, tearing strength of paper produced from T. viride had higher than the paper produced from chemistry bleaching by 24.33 and 19.23 mN.m2/g, respectively.



Production of Syrup from Cashew Apples


วิภา ประพิรอักษร นันทา เป็งเนตร์ ดรุณี มูลโรจน์ และ นคร สานิชวรรณ

The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate Pectinase enzyme quantity in extraction cashew apple juice of 5 levels: 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%, respectively. Incubation at 50 °C for 3 hours. The result showed that the increase in Pectinase enzyme could help the release of cashew apple juice at a significant level (p < 0.05). The 0.15 % of Pectinase enzyme was the most suitable amount in extracting juice from cashew apple fruits which gave 84.75% yield of juice and 11 °Brix of total soluble solids. When concentrated by vacuum evaporation at 3 different temperatures: 50, 60 and 70 °C, the juice treated at higher temperatures resulted in rich brown color. The most suitable temperature for evaporation was at 60 °C was the most acceptable for odor and overall acceptance at somewhat like. The syrup obtained had the yellowish-brown in color in which the value color L*, a* and b* were 23.45, 4.54 and 29.44 respectively. The viscosity value was 240.95 cPs, aw 0.77, total soluble solid 68°Brix, pH 3.65. The moisture content, ash, protein and citric acid were 31.50, 1.63, 2.74 and 1.49%, respectively. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were 29.82, 29.88 and less than 0.5%, respectively. The total plate count was 3.5 × 102 CFU/g. and yeast and molds were less than 10 CFU/g.



Influencing Factors on Lipase Production by Thermophilic Bacteria, Geobacillus stearothermophilus PTL38

ปัจจัยที่มีผลต่อการผลิตไลเปสโดยแบคทีเรียชอบอุณหภูมิสูง Geobacillus stearothermophilus PTL38

ปราณี พัฒนพิพิธไพศาล

Thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus PTL38 isolated from grease chamber of restaurant in Amphoe Moungubonratchathani, Ubon Ratchathani Province. This bacterium produces lipase with hydrolytic activities when cultures in enrichment medium B comprised with basal salt solution, 0.5 % w/v yeast extract, 1 % v/v olive oil. Factors affecting the lipase production were examined. It was observed that modified enrichment medium B with 7.0 initial pH of the medium, 36 hrs inoculums age, 5.0 % (v/v) inoculums volume, 36 hrs and 55 °C incubation with 180 rpm shaking. Under this optimized condition, the bacterium gave 36.50 U/ml of maximum lipase production. G. stearothermophilus PTL38 utilized several commercial vegetable oils as carbon source. Palm oil (2.5 %, new) and corn oil (1.0 %, reuse twice) were the best among all carbon sources tested, yielding 40.60 U/ml and 42.40 U/ml lipase, respectively.



Chemical Composition of Goat Milk and Effect of Spray Drying Conditions on Qualities of Goat Milk Powder


นุชเนตร ตาเย๊ะ ธรรมรัตน์ สัมมะวัฒนา และ พัชรินทร์ ภักดีฉนวน

This research studied on chemical composition content of raw goat milk and optimal condition of spray dried goat milk process; total solid content of raw milk and air outlet temperatures. The result indicated that the contents of fat, protein and total solid of raw goat milk from goat farm in Yala province were 3.45±0.04, 3.95±0.01 and 12.53±0.15%, respectively. It contained 114.93 mg calcium/100 g milk and 98.62 mg phosphorus/100 g milk, short and medium chain fatty acids were 25.20% of total fatty acid and had high content of β-casein 77.40% of total casein protein. Producing of spray dried goat milk conducted by using 2×3 Factorial in Complete Randomized Design studied on effects of two different total solid contents of raw milk (TS); 12 and 24% and three different air outlet temperatures (Tout) 80, 90 and 100OC with fixed air inlet temperatures at 180 OC. The results indicated that the Tout and TS had significant effect on some physical properties of goat milk powder. Increasing of Tout and TS resulted in decreased moisture content and surface free fat, reduced wetting time and increased dispersibility of goat milk powder. The optimal condition in this study has been obtained at Tout 100 OC with 24% TS. The goat milk powder from this condition had moisture content 2.69%, lowest wetting time at 22.33 s and highest dispersibility of 76.65%. Microstructure of goat milk powder determined by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that at 24% TS, size of milk powders were smaller and less uniform than those performed by using 12% TS.  Milk powders obtained at Tout 100 OC had less relatively uniform than those obtained at 80 OC and showed partially cracking and hole at the powder surface.



Improvement of the Crude Glycerol with Carbonized Rice Husk


ชญานิษฐ์ วิทยาภิรมย์ สายรุ้ง ชาวสุภา และ ภิเษก รุ่งโรจน์ชัยพร

In this research, we studied the purification and value-added of crude glycerol which was a by-product of the biodiesel production. The purification of glycerol was systematically studied by comparison between using activated carbon (AC) and carbonized rice husk (CRH). From the experimental results, the purity of the glycerol treated with weight ratios between glycerol:AC (5:2), and glycerol: CRH (5:3) was 98.69% and 96.27%, respectively. The clarity of glycerol treated with activated carbon and carbonized rice husk was 95.77% and 92.46%, respectively.



Anti-Oxidation Property in Plants of Nakhon Si Thammarat Bay


ปวีณา ปรวัฒน์กุล และ รุ่งนภา พิมเสน

The most of Nakhon Si Thammarat Bay have the mangrove forests areas, which important for the natural ecosystem, especially the habitat of juvenile aquatic and variety of plant species. Some mangrove plants have pharmacological properties, in particular free radical scavenging and medicinal activity. The anti-oxidation property with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical and total phenolic content of each 10 samples (Nypa Fruticans Wormb. (inflorescence), Nypa Fruticans Wormb. (fruit), Trianthema decandra L., Acrostichum aureum L., Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, Suaeda maritima Dum., Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl., Cissus carnosa Roxb., Sonneratia ovata Back and Flagellaria indica L. survey from Nakhon Si Thammarat Bay were studied in this research. It was found that, mangrove plants extracted in methanol, which exhibits the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 = 1.00 mg/l is Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl. This value was higher than standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 2.04 mg/l). Cissus carnosa Roxb. was negative. The total polyphenolic compound was highest in Nypa Fruticans Wormb. (inflorescence), at 168.50 mg gallic acid/100 g DW.



Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Organic Waste in Amphoe Muang Khon Kaen Province

การติดตามสารกำจัดศัตรูพืชตกค้างในขยะอินทรีย์ชนิดพืชผักในอำเภอเมือง จังหวัดขอนแก่น

จารุพงศ์ ประสพสุ และ ชุลีมาศ บุญไทย อิวาย

The objective of this study aims to monitor pesticide residues in organic waste in Northeast Thailand. A total of 22 pesticides from different chemical groups (organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid) in the different organic wastes collected from the markets in Khon Kaen province, were monitored in the rainy, winter and summer seasons during August 2010 to April 2011 by gas chromatography. The most frequently found pesticides were cypermethrin followed by chlorpyrifos, deltametrhrin, dicrotophos and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively (ranging from 0.044 to 2.608 mg/kg). It was found that some kinds of pesticides exceed the maximum residual limit (MRL) value. Pesticide residue in organic waste was found higher in winter season followed by summer and rainy season, respectively. The pesticide residues were mostly found in kale followed by cabbages, lettuce and corn peel.



Ethnobotany of Edible Plants from Mangrove and Beach Forest in Sating Phra Peninsula, Songkhla Province

พฤกษศาสตร์พื้นบ้านของพืชกินได้จากป่าชายเลนและป่าชายหาดบริเวณคาบสมุทรสทิงพระ จังหวัดสงขลา

อรทัย เนียมสุวรรณ นฤมล เส้งนนท์ กรกนก ยิ่งเจริญ และ พัชรินทร์ สิงห์ดำ

This study aimed to survey edible plants from mangrove and beach forest from 3 districts of Sating Phra peninsula, Songkhla Province including Singhanakhon, Sating Phra and Ranode. Semi-structure interviews were done with 5 old informants between July to November 2010. The main issues for consulting were plant species used, vernacular name, plant part used and how to consume each plant. Then, collected plants were identified. The results showed that 40 species were used. Among them, 32.5% were mangrove plants only, 50% were beach plants only and 17.5% were both mangrove and beach plants. The most species found were in family Myrtaceae (4 species), Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Rhamnaceae (3 species) and Asteraceae, Pteridaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae (2 species), respectively. The plant parts mostly used were leaves (40%), fruits (38%) and flowers/inflorescences and aerial part (10%), respectively. In conclusion, this result will be the basis information for promoting consumption of wild edible plants of Thai people to decrease expense in buying economic plant.



Utilization of Non–Timber Forest Products of People, Tha Sao Sub-district, Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province

การใช้ประโยชน์จากของป่าของราษฎร ตำบลท่าเสา อำเภอไทรโยค จังหวัดกาญจนบุรี

รุ่งรัตน์ เอียดแก้ว วุฒิพล หัวเมืองแก้ว และ อภิชาต ภัทรธรรม

The objectives of this study were to determine the socio-economic condition, people dependency on non–timber forest products of people residing in Tha Sao Sub-district, Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province. Questionnaire was used as a tool for data collecting; the sample size is 325 household or representatives. The results of this study revealed that the majority the respondents were female, with average age of 46.51 years old. Their educational level was primary school graduation. The average number of household member was 4.10 persons your are family. They are nuclear family. Major occupation was agriculture. Whereas minor occupation was casual labour. Average annual household income was 63,486.15 baht/year. Average size of land holding per household was 10.48 rais. Non – timber forest products could be classified into 8 types they were firewood, plants for handicraft, edibled plants, mushrooms, herbs spices, edibled insect, and wild animals. Edibled plants were mostly used with an average amount of42.06 kilogram/ household/year. Totally amount there in Tha Sao Sub-district were 109,176.60 kilogram/year.