ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 41 No.2 April - June 2013



Advances in Biosensor Technology: Innovation to the Future

ความก้าวล้ำของเทคโนโลยีไบโอเซนเซอร์: นวัตกรรมสู่โลกอนาคต

ปนัดนา อเนกเวียง และ รินา ภัทรมานนท์

Development of diagnostic technique called biosensor is currently of great interest for researchers and inventors for their many advantages. Using laboratory instruments like GC, HPLC, microsphere-based arrays, RIA, and ELISA for diagnostics has limitations in terms of time, cost, several steps, and hazardous chemicals. In addition, although current diagnostic test kits like pregnancy test kit are available and very easy to use, it is only a qualitative determination. Diagnosis of other biomarkers or chemicals sometimes requires a quantitative means to differentiate the quantity even in trace amount, or to indicate early stage of the diseases. For examples, fetoprotein is a biomarker of hepatocellular carcinomas in serum and carcinoembryonic antigen of carcinoembryonic. Research and development in biosensors or small diagnostic test kit with high sensitivity have been continually improved. Those consist of the invention of a portable analysis device for test strip quantities, electrochemical sensors, labon- a-chip, lab-on-a-paper and mobile application. It might in the future replace the traditional instruments due to reduced cost, easy-to-use, and knowing the result within minutes. In addition, the detectors for biosensor are usually small so it’s ideal for point-of-care or point-ofsite purpose. However, the current stat-of-the-art instruments are nevertheless essentials since they are able to detect wide-ranges of biomarkers. We believe that once biosensors are developed for more markers as comparable to the traditional tools, it will bring exceedingly advanced benefit in disease diagnostics.



Vitellogenesis: Yolk Synthesis Process in the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

ไวเทลโลเจเนซีส: กระบวนการสร้างไข่แดงของกุ้งกุลาดา (Penaeus monodon)

รชนิมุข หิรัญสัจจาเลิศ

In decapod crustaceans including the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the process of vitellogenesis, which yolk proteins are synthesized, transformed into smaller molecules, and taken into maturing oocytes, is a central feature of reproduction. An understanding of the vitellogenesis in the important aquatic species may leads to sustainable seed production control in the commercial scale. The recent advances in molecular biology and immunological techniques result in the update knowledge of vitellogenesis in decapod crustaceans. This article covers the current status of research on vitellogenin in Penaeus monodon and other decapod crustaceans, especially prawns and shrimp. The article will also review the mechanisms of vitellogenin synthetic controlled by endocrine regulator. Finally, the related aspects of oocytes development in female shrimp during vitellogenesis will be discussed.



Relationship of Tai Yai Livelihood and Biodiversity to Traditional Knowledge

ความสัมพันธ์ของวิถีชีวิตชาวไทใหญ่ กับความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพสู่ภูมิปัญญาท้องถิ่น

สุณี เขื่อนแก้ว ประสิทธ์ วังภคพัฒนวงศ์ และ อรุโณทัย จำปีทอง

Tai Yai is an ethnic group speaking the Tai-Kradi language. Most of Tai Yai lives in the Shan state in Burma. Furthermore, there are some who live at Doi Tai laeng, at the border between Thailand and Burma. Tai Yai people have special characteristics, including their language, dress and livelihood which rely on the natural surroundings. Knowledge about this has been passed on from generation to generation for a long time. Agriculture is a typical career of Tai Yai. They have to take advantage of a variety of plants, using them, for example, for buildings, fuel, food or herbal medicine. Moreover, some plants are used in connection with traditional ceremonies. It is expected that conservation of this knowledge might lead to economic development, in particular as some species may be used as economic plants in the future.



Bioplastics from Wheat Gluten


แก้วตา แก้วตาทิพย์

The accumulation of synthetic plastic wastes in nature has become a worldwide environmental problem. One partial solution to this problem is to produce and use bioplastics. Wheat gluten is an interesting raw material for the development of bioplastics, because of its low cost, availability in large quantities and biodegradability. In the presence of appropriate plasticizers, wheat gluten can be prepared using common thermoplastic processing. Wheat gluten is composed of many types of amino acids. However, cystine is the amino acid that plays an important role in bioplastics from wheat gluten. This is because SH groups can form disulfide (SS) bonds or crosslink between protein chains. The degree of crosslinking affects the quality of the final product. There are many factors that can influence the crosslinking such as the temperature during processing, the type of plasticizer and other additives. It is therefore necessary to control the extent of protein crosslinking because protein crosslinking plays a key role in the properties of the bioplastics from wheat gluten.



Liquid Crystal Semiconductors


สุวัตร นานันท์

The calamitic liquid crystals based on rod-like molecules have been recognised for over 100 years. Not only their phase are well studied but their application are also well established, widly recognised as liquid crystal displays (LCDs). On the contrary, the mesophase formed by disc-like molecules, called discotic liquid crystals (DLCs), have only known for a little over 30 years since the discovery of these liquid crystals in 1977 by Chandrasekhar. The simplest mesophase found in DLCs is the nematic phase and the higher order phases can be formed as well namely, columnar phase, helical phase, and columnar plastic crystal phase. The structure of DLCs consists of two parts: the central aromatic core, the conducting part, and the alkyl chain, the insulating part. In this work, the applications of DLCs as semiconductors in electronic devices such as Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Organic Field-Effect Transistor (OFET), and organic solar cell are summarised. The conductivity measurements of these materials from various methods namely chemical doping, current-voltage characterisation, PR-TRMC and ToF methods, have been reviewed.



The Number of Triangles with Integer Side Lengths


นิรุต มีเกิด

In this paper, we establish the formula for finding the number of triangles with integer side lengths and the longest side less than or equal to n.



Mathematical Models of Insulin-Glucose Regulation: an Important Tool for a Better Understanding of Diabetes

แบบจำลองทางคณิตศาสตร์ของระบบความสัมพันธ์ ของฮอร์โมนอินซูลินและน้ำตาลกลูโคส: เครื่องมือสำคัญสำหรับความรู้ความเข้าใจที่ดีขึ้นในเรื่องโรคเบาหวาน

Ratchada Viriyapong

A number of mathematical models relating to diabetes have grown in complexity during the last decade as new aspects of the disease are discovered and added into each model. Traditional models for diabetes contained only two main factors, being insulin and glucose. Newer models added other related hormones and components such as free fatty acids, glucagon, epinephrine,  -cell mass and insulin receptor. In the present article, the most influential mathematical models of insulin-glucose regulation in the form of ordinary differential equations are compared and discussed. The aim of the article is to bring together the key insights and to understand the relationship between models, in order to evaluate the big picture and to propose further areas of study for better knowledge of diabetes.



Wave Propagation in Biological Population Dynamics


ไวพจน์ งามสอาด

The growth and dispersal of populations are the fundamental biological problems. The Fisher equation is a model that has been widely used in this system. In this article, we present the solutions of the Fisher equation that indicate the wave propagation in populations.



Parameters Estimation when Random Variables are Generalized Poisson Distribution

การประมาณค่าพารามิเตอร์ เมื่อตัวแปรสุ่มมีการแจกแจงแบบปัวส์ซงวางนัยทั่วไป

บรรทม สุระพร

The nature of frequency data in a fixed period of time, it is known to use Poisson probability function to describe the given frequency data. The function was investigated, it found that mean and variance is equal . However, some characteristics of the data obtained were dispersion. It means that the average proportion compared with variance values was different from 1. A new function was discovered to describe for better result. The new function was called generalized Poisson distribution which consists of 2 parameters. The data is used as examples shown in Table 1. We will see that if the value of average and variance of the data is close, it can be described fitting with Poisson probability function and generalized Poisson distribution. The results will be similar (see from 2 ). When the two values are more different, Poisson probability function can not be described fitting data as well as generalized Poisson distribution does. Therefore, if the data is over dispersion, generalized Poisson distribution should be used for better result.



Relation of Morphology and Karyotype in Doritis spp. and Their Hybrid

ความสัมพันธ์ทางสัณฐานวิทยาและแคริโอไทป์ ในกล้วยไม้สกุลม้าวิ่งและสายพันธุ์ลูกผสม

กาญจนา รุ่งรัชกานนท์ แสงเดือน พลเยี่ยม และ ถาวร สุภาพรม

Doritis pulcherrima, Dor. pulcherrima var. chumpornensis, Dor. pulcherrima var. buyssoniana and a hybrid of Dor. pulcherrima var. buyssoniana x Dor. pulcherrima had the same morphology of leaves and stems but a difference in morphology of flowers. The karyotypes of Dor. pulcherrima and Dor. pulcherrima var. chumpornensis were similar with chromosome numbers of 2n = 2x = 38 with chromosome patterns of 6M + 24Sm + 8A and 8M + 22Sm + 8A, respectively. Dor. pulcherrima var. buyssoniana was a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 76) with a chromosome pattern of 12M + 48Sm + 16A. The hybrid Dor. pulcherrima var. buyssoniana x Dor. pulcherrima was a triploid (2n = 3x = 57) with a chromosome pattern of 9M + 36Sm + 12A. Normal bivalents in meiosis of Dor. pulcherrima var. buyssoniana showed that it was an allotetraploid species.



A Study on the Chromosomes of White-cheeked Gibbon, Nomascus leucogenys (Primate, Hylobatidae) by Conventional Staining Technique

การศึกษาโครโมโซมของชะนีแก้มขาว (Nomascus leucogenys) ด้วยวิธีการย้อมสีโครโมโซมแบบธรรมดา

Sarawut Kaewsri, Alongklod Tanomtong, Praween Supanuam, Sumpars Khunsook and La-orsri Sanoamuang

Standardized karyotype and idiogram of white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) at Nakhonratchasima Zoo, was study. Blood sample were taken from 1 female and 2 males gibbons. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 C for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional staining technique was applied to stain the chromosomes. The results show that diploid chromosome number is 2n = 52, and the fundamental number (NF) is 104 in both female and male. The autosomes consist of 22 large metacentric, 8 large submetacentric, 10 medium metacentric, 4 medium submetacentric and 6 small acrocentric chromosomes. The Xchromosome is the large acrocentric and the Y-chromosome is the smallest submetacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula for the white-cheeked gibbon is as follows: 2n (52) = Lm 22 Lsm 8+Mm 10+Msm 4+Sa 6 + sex-chromosomes



Screening and Identification of Bacteria Isolated from Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)

การคัดเลือกและการจาแนกชนิดแบคทีเรียที่แยกได้จาก ทางเดินอาหารของกุ้งก้ามกราม (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)

อรวรรณ์ บุตรดี พรพรรณ อู่สุวรรณ และ กัญญา สอนสนิท

In this study, the preliminary character of probiotic bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) from natural canel in Nakhon Pathom province Thailand were studied. Out of 442 isolates of gram positive bacteria detected were tested for growth inhibition activity against 4 pathogenic bacteria which were Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyicus by Agar Well Diffusion Assay method. The result showed that 8 isolates of Bacillus species were able to form clear zone. Five isolates grew rapidly and covered the pathogenic-bacterial colonies. The genetic analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequenceing identified that all bacterial isolates are B. pumilus TSN33, B. pumilus RBM499, B. subtilis TSM33, B. subtilis TSM262, B. subtilis LLBM241, B. subtilis TSN262, B. aryabhattai TSM362, B. amyloliquefaciens TSN63, B. amyloliquefaciens TSM499-4, B. cereus HMN142, B. cereus LLBM202, B. thuringiensis HMN151 and B. licheniformis HMN152. These bacteria can be selected as the probiotic agents for giant freshwater prawn.



Optimization of Polysaccharide Extraction from Gracilaria fisheri Using Response Surface Methodology

การหาสภาวะที่เหมาะสมในการสกัดพอลิแซ็กคาไรด์ จากสาหร่ายผมนาง โดยใช้วิธีพื้นผิวตอบสนอง

ดาริกา อวะภาค นพรัตน์ มะเห และ ดลฤดี พิชัยรัตน์

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine optimum condition for Gracilaria fisheri polysaccharides extraction. Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to optimized the ratio of water to algae, extraction time and number of extraction. The results showed that these three factors affected yield of polysaccharide extraction. The experimental data obtained were fitted to quadratic equation because it showed high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.915). The 3-D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: number of extraction 3, ratio of water to algae 1:35, and extraction time 60 minutes. Under the optimal condition, the polysaccharide extraction yield was 63.23 g /100 g algae.



Combine-Phytotoxic Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. var sacharata Bailey), Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and Squash (Cucurbita moschata)

ผลความเป็นพิษร่วมต่อพืชของพอลิไซคลิกอะโรมาติกไฮโดรคาร์บอนต่อ ข้าวโพดหวาน (Zea mays L. var sacharata Bailey) ถั่วพุ่ม (Vigna sinensis) และฟักทอง (Cucurbita moschata)

ขนิษฐา สมตระกูล จาปี ไชยเมืองคูณ ดวงอนงค์ ผลาผล และ วราภรณ์ ฉุยฉาย

The combine toxicity of fluorene and fluoranthene with phenanthrene or anthracene (1:1 ratio) to seedling growth of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var sacharata Bailey), cowpea (Vigna sinensis), and squash (Cucurbita moschata) were studied. The result shown that the most sensitive plant to PAH-combine toxicity was sweet corn, the moderate was cow pea, and the most tolerant species was squash. Root length and fresh weight of seedling was sensitive to PAH-combine toxicity. The combination of fluorene, fluoranthene and anthracene was toxic to plants more than the combination of fluorene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene.



Efficiency of Forage Crops for Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

ประสิทธิภาพของหญ้าอาหารสัตว์ในการบ้าบัดน้าเสียชุมชน ด้วยระบบบึงประดิษฐ์ประเภทน้าไหลใต้ผิวในแนวดิ่ง

พันธ์ทิพย์ กล่อมเจ๊ก

The objective of this study was to investigate application of forage crop for domestic wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW). Pangolar grass (Digitaria decumbens), Atratum grass (Paspalum atratum) and Buffalo grass (Brachiaria mutica) were planted in VSF CW. Efficiencies of these species for pollutant removal were evaluated. In addition, growth, nutrient accumulation rate and yield of each species were also examined at each harvest period. This work gave promising result that the VSF CW fed with domestic wastewater at 20 cm/day or 100.6 l/day of HLR had potential for domestic wastewater treatment. Average efficiencies of the VSF CW for removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH3-N, NOx-N and TP were 70.42, 32.31, 80.48, 24.54, -932.48 and 41.66 %, respectively. Atratum grass showed the highest efficiency for COD, TKN and NOx-N removal and Buffalo grass showed the highest efficiency for TSS, TP and NH3-N removal. However, statistical analysis showed that efficiency of each grass species for removal of all types of the pollutants was not significantly different at P0.05. Average nutrient accumulation rate of root of Pangolar grass, Atratum grass and Buffalo grass was 0.0061, 0.0142 and 0.0110 g N/m2/d and 0.0041, 0.0095 and 0.0048 g P/m2/d, respectively. The nutrient accumulation rate of root of each grass species was not significantly different at P0.05. For above ground part, average nutrient accumulation rate of Pangolar grass, Atratum grass and Buffalo grass at each harvest period was 0.0273-0.0285, 0.0410-0.0496 and 0.0238-0.0423 g N/m2/d, and 0.0146-0.0208, 0.0220-0.0326 and 0.0167-0.0216 g P/m2/d, respectively. There were significant differences between studied species at 1st and 2nd harvest for nitrogen accumulation rate, and 1st and 3rd harvest for phosphorus accumulation rate (P<0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences between harvest period for nitrogen accumulation rate of Buffalo grass and phosphorus accumulation rate of Pangolar grass (P<0.05). Average relative growth rate (RGR) of Pangolar grass, Atratum grass and Buffalo grass at each harvest period was 0.098-0.149, 0.107-0.171 and 0.109-0.160 per day, respectively. There were not significant differences between RGR of each studied species and RGR of each harvest period. Average dry yield of Pangolar grass, Atratum grass and Buffalo grass at 1st harvest was 372.2, 608.8 and 673.0 kg/rai, respectively. The average dry yield of those at 2nd and 3rd harvest was 388.9, 560.3 and 429.9 kg/rai, and 318.4, 965.5 and 602.0 kg/rai, respectively. It was found that average dry yield was not significantly different (P0.05) between studied species and also harvest period.



Decolorization of Methyl Red and Phenol Red By Bacillus subtilis strain BUU005

การกาจัดสีเมทิลเรดและฟีนอลเรด ด้วย Bacillus subtilis สายพันธุ์ BUU005

สุบัณฑิต นิ่มรัตน์ ภาพสุภา ชลศรานนท์ ตรีรัตน์ สุขสวัสดิ์ ไตรมาศ บุญไทย และ วีรพงศ์ วุฒิพันธุ์ชัย

Currently, synthetic dyes play an important role in industries. A variety of synthetic dyes have been used widely in many industries such as azo dye and triphenylmethane dye. Consequently, wastewaters contaminated with these dyes are discharged into environment leading to emergence of environmental problems and health concerns due to carcinogenic potentials of some synthetic dyes and their metabolites. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis strain BUU005 on decolorization of methyl red and phenol red under static condition. Result showed that B. subtilis strain BUU005 was able to decolorize methyl red at 0.1 mM within 35 days of the experiment for 93.38  2.29% of decolorization. However, this bacterium removed partial phenol red which showed percentage of decolorization for 50.62  2.25% at 60th day of the experiment. Indeed, B. subtilis strain BUU005 had probable potential to develop and apply for removal of wastewater containing azo dye.



Uptake of Zinc, Lead, and Copper by Sunflower Grown in Contaminated Soil

การดึงดูดโลหะหนักของทานตะวัน ที่ปลูกในดินปนเปื้อน สังกะสี ตะกั่ว และทองแดง

ดวงกมล คำสอน และ ชมพูนุท ไชยรักษ์

This research is a study of the metal-uptake of Pacific sunflower sp.77, grown in soil contaminated with lead, 550 mg/kg, 140 mg/kg zinc and 350 mg/kg copper and the influence of salt ((NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, and EDTA)to the uptake. The soil (sandy loam) used in this study came from the province of Nakhon-Ratchasima. The dominant feature of Pacific sp.77 sunflower is the condensed seed in the flower head and a high percentage of oil in the seed. The harvest time is about 90 days after seeding. The heavy metals were determined in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the sunflower. The sunflowers were seeded in pots and conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with three-time replication. The results showed that without the salt addition, lead, copper and zinc were absorbed by the sunflowers of 29.91, 45.50 and 100.70 mg /kg of the plant weight. Moreover, the addition of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4increased the uptake of all kind of metal, highest by the NH4NO3 addition.In addition, total amount of lead in all treated plants were beyond the food standard, but the amount of copper and zinc were in the standard.



Rapid and Simple Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediment by Gas Chromatography

การพัฒนาเทคนิคเฮชสเปซโซลิดเฟสไมโครเอ๊กแทรกซั่นให้รวดเร็วและง่ายเพื่อวิเคราะห์ปริมาณสารฆ่าแมลงกลุ่มออร์กาโนคลอรีนในตะกอนดิน โดยเทคนิคแก๊สโครมาโทกราฟี

Amornrat Wongklom

Rapid and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique with gas chromatography was developed for extraction and determination of 5-organochlorine pesticides (OPCs; heptachlor, aldrin, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT) in sediment. The parameters affecting the extraction process such as fiber type, extraction temperature and time, and the addition of hydrophilic solvents and salt were studied. For HS-SPME, the suspension of 0.5-g sediment in 1- mL of water was extracted in the headspace using 100-μm PDMS fiber with extraction temperature of 70oC for 60 min, stirred during extraction. The OCPs was determined by GC-ECD with the optimum condition. The addition of hydrophilic solvents and sodium chloride had different effects on the extraction of OCPs. Higher responses of OCPs (4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT) were obtained when hydrophilic solvent was added to the sediment while heptachlor and aldrin slightly decreased and the response for adding the salt was the lowest. Sediment samples were collected from November 2010 to September 2011 from 6 stations starting from Amphoe Tatoom, Surin province to Amphoe Khongchiam, Ubon Ratchathani province (about 350 km). OCPs were found in all stations and quantities were in the range of 2.20 to 521 pg/g-dw of sediment. The quantities found were not over the values established by the Pollution Control Department for the soil quality.



Development of Organic Fertilizer Granulator for Household Users


สมบัติย์ มงคลชัยชนะ

The research aims to construct organic fertilizer granulator for household use and also to find its productive efficiency. Satisfaction of users is also included, particularly in the crusher and the separator units. The crusher unit has an average capacity of 40.62 kg/h. Users’ satisfaction is at high level (3.51). The granulator unit has an average capacity of 66.22 kg/h. About 65.97% of fertilizer granules are 3-6 mm. in size; about 9.24% is larger than 6 mm. in size; about 26.30% is smaller than 3-1 mm in size; and about 0.49% is smaller than 1 mm in size. Amount of water used is 72.52 cm2/kg. Users’ satisfaction is at high level (3.72). And the separator unit has an average capacity of the unit is 147.66 kg/h, with 2.47% of residue. Its efficiency in separating fertilizer granules is more than 98% correct. Users’ satisfaction is at high level (3.67).



Equations Equivalent to the Painlevé Equations


โสภิตา ขารอด

The Painlevé equations are nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations which are studied and applied for analyzing physical phenomena in many fields of Physics including statistical mechanics, plasma physics, nonlinear waves and quantum field theory. This research is devoted to the equivalence problems of the Painlevé equations under a general point transformation. The necessary and sufficient conditions that an equation of the form (,,)yFxyy is to be equivalent to the Painlevé equations are found.