ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 42 No.4 October - December 2014



Acetogenins from the Annonaceae Family and their Biological Activity


Nutchanat Phonkerd

Acetogenins are a unique class of bioactive phytochemicals found only in the family of Annonaceae plants. Structurally, they consist of a terminal g-lactone ring bearing a hydrocarbon chain with various hydroxyls, acetoxyls, ketones, epoxides, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and tetrahydropyran (THP) rings together with double and triple bonds located within the chain. According to the searching of “acetogenin” as a keyword from SciFinder database 2014, it revealed that a great number of publications about acetogenin derivatives derived from the family have been reported. They displayed a broad biological property spectrum covering anticancer, antimalarial, antifungal, antituberculosis, and antioxidant effects together with the inhibition of electron transport chain in mitochondrial complex I and brine shrimp lethality activity. Therefore, this present article aimed to review the newly isolated acetogenins and their pharmacological activities published during the period from 2005 to 2014. From the systematically tabulated data, it is notable that most of them showed significantly biological activities towards selected human cancerous cell lines. Moreover, asimitrin (62), 4-hydroxytrilobin (68), and squamostanins A-D (78-81) demonstrated higher potency than adriamycin drug which is used to date. It is indicated that they should be considered as one of bioactive compounds for further development to be effective cancer drugs which are very useful in medicine.



Betalain: Extraction and Analysis

บีตาเลน: การสกัดและการวิเคราะห์

ทัตดาว ภาษีผล

Betalains are natural pigments found in certain plants. They can be divided into two major structural groups i.e. the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow-orange betaxanthins. The basic structure of betalain is immonium derivatives of betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa and amino acids or amines. Betalains can be extracted by various solvents such as water, acetone, methanol and ethanol mixture solution (20-80%). Extraction solvent in combination with acids has the potential to achieve complete extraction. Betalain purification has been carried out with solid phase extraction, ion-exchange and/or gel filtration chromatography. For the quantification and identification of unknown betalain, UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography are widely used in food industry and researches.




Arsenic Phytoremediation in Soil and Sediment: Mechanism and Management

การบำบัดสารหนูโดยวิธีพืชบำบัดในดินและตะกอนดิน: กลไกและการจัดการ

จอมจันทร์ นทีวัฒนา

Arsenic has been widely used for many human activities resulting in environmental contamination and health risk. Then there are many solutions for arsenic remediation in environment. Phytoremediation is especially effective and friendly method. It consisted of 5 methods being 1. phytoaccumulation or phytoextraction 2. phytodegradation or phytotransformation 3. phytovolatilization 4. Phytostabilization 5. plant–assisted bioremediation. Many kinds of plants are allowed to treat arsenic including aquatic and terrestrial plants. Mechanisms of accumulation depend on arsenic forms. Pathway of arsenate accumulation transfers by phosphate transporter and arsenite are accumulated by using aquaporins/ aquaglyceroporins channel. Factors of Arsenic accumulation and transportation depend on concentration and speciation arsenic as well as environmental conditions such as pH. Arsenic contaminated environment exhibit the decrease in their growth rate and reproduction. Moreover they change structure, physiology and function. Plants processes respond to arsenic include controlling oxidative stress by antioxidants, being hyperaccumulation and phytoextraction of arsenic, synthesizing phytochelatin, and changing in osmolytes content. Remediation methods of treated plants are compaction, energy production, and fermentation. In addition disposal strategy is secure landfill.



The Design of Chemosensors for Naked-Eye Detection of Mercury(II) Ion


วรวิทย์ จันทร์สุวรรณ

Development of chemosensors for high toxic heavy metals, especially Hg(II) ion has received considerable attention and sequentially developed by using analytical techniques, such as spectroscopy, separation and electroanalytical. The development of colorimetric sensor based on naked-eye detection is increasingly appreciated because it can evaluate both qualitative and quantitative information of Hg(II) without resort to any advance instrumentations. The advantages of chemosensor are simple, rapid, low cost and easily to apply in on-filed application. Chemosensor based on the chemical change between chromoionophores and Hg(II) through intermolecular charge transfer, coordination bonding and desulfurization. Chromoionophores consist of highly recognition moieties for Hg(II) and signaling unit which displays the physical change. Chromoionophores have been designed and synthesized coupling with selective recognition moieties at least one or more molecules and sensory unit. The color change of chromoionophores reacted with Hg(II) was divided into two effects, including red-shift and blue-shift. Due to the monitor of Hg(II) as low as ppm level using chemosensors, they can be also applied in the environmental samples.



Karyotype of Large Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus) in Thailand

คาริโอไทป์ของค้างคาวแม่ไก่ป่าฝน (Pteropus vampyrus) ในประเทศไทย

อิสสระ ปะทะวัง อลงกลด แทนออมทอง ยอดชาย ช่วยเงิน และ ประทีป ด้วงแค

This work was the description of a karyotype study of the large flying fox, Pteropus vampyrus (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae). Blood samples were taken from two males and two females were kept in Loung temple, Watloung sub-district, Panutnikom district, Chonburi province. The chromosome was prepared by lymphocyte cell culture technique. The cultured cells were harvested by colchicine-hypotonic-fixation-air drying. Conventional staining method was applied to stain the chromosome using Giemsa’s solution. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of large flying fox was 2n=38, the fundamental number (NF) was 72 both male and female. The types of autosomes were 8 large metacentric, 8 large submetacentric, 2 medium submetacentric, 14 small submetacentric and 4 small acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was the large metacentric chromosome and the Y chromosome was the smallest telocentric chromosome. These results will be useful for future studies of conservation, chromosome evolution and basic genetics information in these bats. The karyotype formula for the large flying fox is as follows:

2n (38) = Lm8+Lsm8+Msm2+Ssm14+Sa4 + sex chromosomes (XX/XY)



In vitro Control of Fungal Contamination in Stored Garlic by Herbal Extracts and Microbial Antagonists

การควบคุมเชื้อราปนเปื้อนในกระเทียม ด้วยสารสกัดจากพืชและจุลินทรีย์ปฏิปักษ์ในสภาพห้องทดลอง

หฤทัย ไทยสุชาติ และ พรอนันต์ บุญก่อน

Biological control is an attractive alternative to synthetic chemicals, which may enter the food supply and cause serious environmental problems. Biological control, in particular the application of microbial antagonists and natural extracts, has thus been investigated as a means of controlling various phytopathogenic fungi. In vitro studies were carried out to evaluate the antifungal activity of three herbal extracts (clove, betel leaf and turmeric) against Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp., which are connected with diseases appearing post-harvest. These three phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from stored garlic in Lampang. The antagonistic potential agent of 13 isolates of Trichoderma spp. and of Bacillus subtilis against the same three fungi was also investigated using dual culture techniques. The results revealed that all herbal extracts showed strong antifungal activity. Clove extract at a concentration of 5 and 10 mg/ml was the most effective, completely inhibiting the growth of all tested fungi. Most of the Trichoderma isolates showed moderate to high antagonistic activity with regard to Fusarium sp., with a 35-76 % reduction in colony growth, while they exhibited lower potential when applied to Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The efficacy of B. subtilis in inhibiting fungal growth on Aspergillus sp. is higher than on Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp.



Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination in Thanaka Products Distributed in Republic of the Union of Myanmar

การประเมินการปนเปื้อนแบคทีเรียในผลิตภัณฑ์ทานาคา ที่จำหน่ายในสาธารณรัฐแห่งสหภาพเมียนมาร์

สุบัณฑิต นิ่มรัตน์ ตรีรัตน์ สุขสวัสดิ์ และ วีรพงศ์ วุฒิพันธุ์ชัย

Until now, many plants have been used in disease therapy and skin care purposes. For example, Thanaka stem bark have been used to skin care by Burmese for more than thousands years as a. Nowadays, Thanaka have been transformed into many type of products such as loosed powder, compressed powder and lotion. The popularity and increase of Thanaka products distributed in Republic of the Union of Myanmar and Thailand border, therefore the concerned about microbial safety of products for the consumer. In this study, evaluation of contaminated of bacteria in 7 samples of Thanaka products distributed in Myanmar were assayed. The result of this study demonstrated the contaminated with total heterotrophic bacteria in all of samples (S1-S7) of Thanaka products. The value of total aerobic bacteria ranged from (3.30±0.40)×106 to (1.09±0.09)×108 CFU/g, which these value exceeded the standard of microbial quality (<103 CFU/g) for cosmetic product in Thailand (Notification of the Ministry of Public Health No.40 A.D. 2005). The isolated bacteria from Thanaka products were identified in genus Bacillus, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus circulans. The most contaminated bacteria found in all samples were B. thuringiensis and B. circulans. Consequently, prevention of bacterial contamination into Thanaka products is necessary to control in all steps of production process.



Species Diversity and Above Ground Carbon Stock of Trees in Forest Patches at Khon Kaen University, Nong Khai Campus

ความหลากชนิดและการสะสมคาร์บอนเหนือพื้นดินของไม้ต้นในหย่อมป่า ที่มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น วิทยาเขตหนองคาย

Ratchata Phochayavanich

The aims of this study were to determine and compare the species diversity and above ground carbon stock of trees among forest patches in Khon Kaen University, Nong Khai Campus which is the importance data for land management of the campus. At present, there are only 3 major forest patches in the campus. Therefore, these 3 forest patches, named forest patch A-C, were selected as the study site. Three of 25×15 m2 were designated in each forest patch. All trees with the diameter at breast height (DBH) larger than 4.5 cm in each plot were identified to species and DBH and number of trees were also recorded. The results showed that although rarefaction curve indicated that tree diversities were not significantly different among 3 forest patches, the total number of species, Jackknite 1 richness estimator and Shannon index indicated that species diversity in forest patch A trend to be higher than in patch B and C. Moreover, cluster analysis indicated that species composition of forest patch A was covered most of species found in all 3 forest patches. Average above ground biomass from allometric equation and carbon stock indicated that the above ground biomass and carbon stock of forest patch A (101.39 ton/ha; 47.65 ton C/ha) were higher than forest patch B (80.88 ton/ha; 38.01 ton C/ha) and C (81.33 ton/ha; 38.22 ton C/ha). Therefore, based on the results from species diversity and carbon stock, the forest patch A should be the first priority to be conserved.



Anti-Streptococcus mutans activity of lupinifolin from ethanol extract of Albizia myriophylla Benth.

ฤทธิ์ต้านเชื้อ Streptococcus mutans ของสารลูปินิโฟลินในสารสกัดหยาบ เอทานอลของชะเอม

Nantiya Joycharat, Chancheera Boonma, Saranya Muangnua, Phakjira Poorisakpaisal, Chidhathai Suwannawong and Surasak Limsuwan

Albizia myriophylla Benth. is a medicinal plant composition in herbal formula used for remedy of toothache caused by dental caries. Previous research has revealed that such formula has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, the principal causative pathogen of tooth decay. Some substances belonging to flavonoids are shown to be the active ingredients in this plant species of which lupinifolin in particular has very good anti-S. mutans activity. In this study, anti-S. mutans activity of lupinifolin from ethanol extracts of three different collections of A. myriophylla cultivated in Thailand including those from herb shop in Songkhla (JB01), Hat Yai district of Songkhla (JB02), and Wang Nam Yen district of Sakaeo was carried out using broth microdilution. The quantitative test of lupinifolin from ethanol extracts of these 3 collections of A. myriophylla was performed herein by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The result showed that each of the samples tested had the difference of lupinifolin content. The ethanolic wood extracts from 3 collections of A. myriophylla including JB01, JB02, and JB03 have 93.85, 57.81, and 0.04 mg/g of lupinifolin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of JB01 JB02 and JB03 against S. mutans were 3.9, 31.25, and 500 µg/ml, respectively. JB01 containing the maximum quantity of lupinifolin showed the best activity while JB03 containing the minimum quantity of lupinifolin exhibited the lowest activity. Lupinifolin may be used as a marker compound of A. myriophylla for quality control of its raw materials as well as its herbal medicinal products in the future.



Calcium Oxalate Crystals and Oxalate Content in some Vegetables from Nong Khai Province

ผลึกแคลเซียมออกซาเลตและปริมาณออกซาเลต ในพืชผักบางชนิดในจังหวัดหนองคาย

นฤมล ผิวเผื่อน

The presence of calcium oxalate crystals in twenty vegetables from Nong Khai Province was studied through transverse sections of fresh leaves followed by observation under light microscope. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in twelve plant species. Of these, five types of calcium oxalate crystals were observed; druses, raphides, prisms, styloid and crystal sands. Crystals density (number/mm2) in leaves from the first to the fifth leaves of three selected species; Amaranthus gracilis Desf., Corchorus olitorius L. and Sarcostemma secamone (L.) Bennet., was evaluated by clearing technique. The result showed that the density of crystals decreased in older leaves. Total oxalate in edible parts of sixteen species was analyzed. Most of plants species contained total oxalate more than 100 mg/100 g, except in peppermint (Mentha cordifolia) which contained total oxalate only 26.40 mg/100g. Moreover, some species without crystals found contained higher total oxalate content than the species in which crystals observed.



The Integration of Local Wisdom with Scientific Process for the Development of Cotton Dyeing Process Using Colours Extracted from Marsdenia tinctoria

การบูรณาการภูมิปัญญาด้วยกระบวนการทางวิทยาศาสตร์ เพื่อพัฒนาการย้อมผ้าฝ้ายด้วยสีจากเบือก

ปานฤทัย พุทธทองศรี

The objectives of this research were 1) to investigate local wisdom of Kokbok organic-cotton-producing group in Loei province on cotton dyeing using natural dye extracted from Marsdenia tinctoria 2) to integrate local wisdom and a scientific process to develop a technique for cotton dyeing using natural dye extracted from Marsdenia tinctoria in laboratory, and 3) to apply the developed dyeing technique for cotton weaving groups. Qualitative research method and laboratory work were used. Questionnaires, workshops, and analytical chemistry experiments were employed. Target group included Kokbok organic-cotton-producing group, Phuluang district, Loei province. The investigation on local wisdom on cotton dyeing using natural dye extracted from Marsdenia tinctoria revealed that cotton was prepared by boiling in alkali ash-water. Cumin was used as a mordant in dyeing step. Dye extraction by immersed in warm water at 60oC for 3-4 hours. To prepare an appropriate dyeing solution, calcium oxide (CaO) and tamarind were added. The solution was then aerated by recirculation using a water container to take and pour the solution until blue bubbles were observed. The laboratory results showed that the highest colour extraction yield was obtained from extracting ground leaves with water at 60oC for 3 hours. The colour was tested in buffer solutions with pHs 3-12. It was found that at all pHs values tested, the spectra of the dye had a range of wavelengths between 224-685 nm. The highest absorbance of the dye in acidic (pH 3-6) and neutral (pH 7) conditions were at 267-302 nm and 224-267 nm, respectively. The highest absorbance of the dye in alkali (pH 8-12) condition was at 224-365 nm. Three dyeing conditions were tested, including acidic condition using tamarind paste, neutral condition using distilled water, and alkali condition using ash water. It was found that the highest L* values were obtained from all dyeing conditions when no calcium oxide was added. Dyeing with an addition of calcium oxide and aeration in both acidic and neutral conditions gave the lowest L* value. Alkali dyeing with calcium oxide and without aeration had the lowest L* value. With regards to colour tone, blue-green colour was obtained from acidic dyeing; green colour was obtained from neutral and alkali dyeing. Acidic dyeing with calcium oxide and aeration provided the most intense blue colour (b* value = -4.24). Alkali dyeing with calcium oxide and without aeration provided the most intense green colour (a* value = -8.60). Stability of colour upon washing and light exposure was tested. It was found that colour of the cotton dyed in acidic condition with calcium oxide and aeration was the most stable. The findings and knowledge were transferred to the target group by means of training session and workshop. It was found that the target group satisfied with the developed process and applied the process into a real practice.



Effect of Al2O3 and SiO2 Ratio and Temperature Profile on Willemite Crystal Glaze

อิทธิพลของสัดส่วน Al2O3 กับ SiO2 และรูปแบบการเผาต่อเคลือบผลึกวิลลิไมท์

นงลักษณ์ มีทอง ประภาวดี ไกรวุฒิอนันต์ อภิสรา สกุลอำนวยชัย สุมาลี จันระวังยศ ศุภสุตา ภู่ผ่าน กุสุมาลย์ ทองขุนด่าน และ สุธรรม ศรีหล่มสัก

Crystal glaze makes beautiful ceramic surfaces. However, it is difficult to fire crystal glaze so that it has the same beautiful look every time. This is because there are many factors which affect its appearance. The SiO2 and Al2O3 ratio in glaze compositions, firing profiles and the thickness of glazes were varied in this research in order to investigate effects of these factors on crystal glazes. Results showed that glazes with high SiO2 and Al2O3 ratios had small crystals and matt surfaces. Large and dispersed crystals could be obtained in crystal glazes which were fired without T2 firing profile. Finally, crystal glazes which were coated by immersing twice for 3 and 5 seconds were almost identical.



Satisfaction of Undergraduate Students on Management of Thaksin University’s Dormitory at Phatthalung Campus

ความพึงพอใจของนิสิตต่อการจัดการของหอพัก มหาวิทยาลัยทักษิณ วิทยาเขตพัทลุง

วรางคณา กีรติวิบูลย์

This research was aimed to study and compare the satisfaction of undergraduate students on management of Thaksin University’s dormitory at Phatthalung campus. For the methods of studying, the satisfaction was classified by sex, year of study, faculty, zone of dormitory, occupation of parents, and incomes of parents. All data were collected by the satisfaction questionnaire with the reliability at 0.941 from the representative undergraduate students who stay in the sample rooms for a total of 252 rooms, which samples are derived by the method of stratified systematic sampling. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data are frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics were used to test the hypothesis of the differences in satisfaction classified by sex and incomes of parents are t test. While, the satisfaction classified by year of study, faculty, zone of dormitory, and occupation of parents are F test from analysis of variance. When the significant difference in satisfaction was found, we test the multiple comparison of mean by the method of Duncan’s multiple range test. The results of this research were as follows. The overall of satisfactions and each aspect, undergraduate students were satisfied on management of Thaksin University’s dormitory at Phatthalung campus at the moderate level. There was significant difference at 0.05 level in satisfaction when classified by year of study and faculty but there was no significant difference in satisfaction when classified by sex, zone of dormitory, occupation of parents, and incomes of parents.