ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 45 No.2 April-June 2017



Actuator based on Conducting Polymers


วิจิตรา เจนวิริยะกุล

Researchers seek to develop machines that mimic systems that are wildly seen in nature. In the case of developing “muscle like” actuators, there is a significant lack of actuator technologies that behave as real muscle.  However, conducting polymers such as polypyrole and polyaniline are studied as a novel biologically inspired actuator. The actuation mechanism of these materials depends upon the motion of ions in and out of the bulk polymer film during electromechanical cycling.  The diffusion of ions into the film causes the dynamic mechanical and electrical properties of materials change during oxidation and reduction reaction. The physical properties of the polymer such as electrical conductivity, modulus and porosity have significant influence on the overall strain and strain rate that can be achieved.  In addition, the chemical environment such as the ion type, concentration and electrolyte can influence the strains and lifetime of the actuator.



Nanoporous Gold for Organic Synthesis and Other Applications

Nanoporous gold กับการนำไปใช้ทางด้านเคมีอินทรีย์สังเคราะห์ และการประยุกต์ใช้ด้านอื่นๆ

อารดา ชัยยานุรักษ์กุล

In the past few years, organic synthesis using gold catalyst has gained much attention from organic chemists due to its unique properties. Reactions catalyzed by gold catalyst occur rapidly with high yields of products and with high chemo- and stereo-selectivity. In some cases, the results are better than those of using other metal based catalysts for example; Pd or Ni. However, there are some drawbacks of using gold catalysts or gold nanoparticles in that they require metal support and separation of catalysts from reaction medium is cumbersome in some cases.

Recently, new generation of gold catalysts was synthesized and its ability as catalyst in many organic reactions was studied. This new type of gold catalyst is called “nanoporous gold” (AuNPore) which does not require any metal support and can be prepared easily from dealloy of gold-silver alloy. This catalyst is porous with 3D metal framework so it has high surface to volume ratio. Reactions using nanoporous gold catalysts can occur in high yields and high selectivity. In addition, after the reaction, catalyst can be easily separated from products and be reused many times without losing its catalytic ability and leaching of gold.



The Electronic Structure of N-doped ZnO Calculated by First Principle Calculation

การคำนวณและการศึกษาโครงสร้างทางอิเล็กทรอนิกส์ของ ZnO ที่ถูกเจือด้วยอะตอมของไนโตรเจน

Pornsawan Sikam and Pairot Moontragoon*

To improve photocatalytic performance of any element or compound, its electronic structure will be modified. In this work, ZnO structure is modified by N doping. Because there are experimental researches reported that N-doped ZnO shows higher photocatalytic activity than pure ZnO. Zinc oxide and nitrogen-doped zinc oxide were calculated and investigated electronic structure via density of states (DOS) and band structures. The calculation was carried out by density functional theory (DFT) using Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) code. GGA+U is employed to describe exchange-correlation potential of the simulation. The calculated electronic structure of nitrogen doping in zinc oxide shows appreciate electronic structure, occurring new states at the top of valence band and being narrower of Eg from 2.24 eV of direct band gap to 1.92 eV. Also, p-type characteristic of dopant system is observed from shifting of Fermi level to lower energy near valence states. Being narrower of band gap suggests that ZnO can photocatalytic degrade under visible range. It suggests that N-doped ZnO can improve photocatalytic performance of ZnO. Also, nitrogen doping could turn n-type zinc oxide into p-type material for more applications.



Cytotoxic activity against B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells of Artocarpus lakoocha root


Umalee Namdaung, Kitiya Rassamee, Pongpun Siripong and Sunit Suksamrarn*

Artocarpus lakoocha is a popular Thai medicinal plant for health benefit, in particular the herbal cosmetic ability for nourishing and whitening skin. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic screening against the B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells showed that the root bark extract of this plant species was 8-fold more potent than that of the heart root. Further phytochemical investigation of the more active EtOAc soluble fraction led to isolate and identify the two major types of compounds, artolakoochol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2), based on their spectroscopic data analyses. The isolates 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory property on B16F10 cells with respective IC50 values of 5.96±0.068 and 41.48±5.14 mg/mL. This is the first report on inhibitory effect against B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells of the root extracts and their major constituents provides additional valuable information towards the herbal property of A. lakoocha.



Cholic Acid Based Anion Receptor Containing NH-Carbamosulfonamide Binding Units.

รีเซพเตอร์สำหรับไอออนลบจากคอลิกเอซิดที่มี NH-คาร์บาโมซัลโฟนาไมด์เป็นหน่วยจับ

Anchalee Sirikulkajorn*, Krittasart Singhapha, Sasiwimol Khamoad, Wikorn Punyain and Boosayarat Tomapatanaget

A synthetic receptor (S2L) based on cholic acid and possessing two NH – carbamosulfonamide binding sites at C7 and C12 positions was designed and synthesized. The binding abilities toward various anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, BzO-, CN-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, ClO4- and NO3-) were investigated using 1H-NMR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and computer simulations. Changes in the 1H-NMR spectra revealed the binding with anions occurring at the
NH - carbamosulfonamide binding sites via a hydrogen bonding formation. Results from UV-Vis spectra, and optimized structures of the S2L-halide anion complexes exhibited a possibility to deprotonation at one of the NH-carbamolsulfonamide group in the case of the binding with strong basic anions (CN-, F-, AcO-, BzO- and H2PO4-). Job plot analysis indicated the formation of 1:1 host - guest complexation. The highest binding constant was obtained from CN- anion (log K = 6.08).



Efficiency of Herb Crude Extracts to Inhibit the Growth of Penicillium citrinum Aspergillus flavus var. flavus and Aspergillus tamarii Isolated from the Rubber Sheet

ประสิทธิภาพของสารสกัดหยาบจากพืชสมุนไพรในการยับยั้งการเจริญของเชื้อรา Penicillium citrinum Aspergillus flavus var. flavus และ Aspergillus tamarii ที่แยกได้จากยางพาราแผ่น

ธัญญ์วาริน ชูวัฒน์วรกูล สมจินตนา ทวีพานิชย์ พิชญาภรณ์ สุวรรณกูฏ และ สายสมร ลำลอง*

This research studied the efficiency of crude extracts from herbs to inhibit the growth of Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus flavus var. flavus and Aspergillus tamarii. These fungi were isolated from rubber sheet. Seven herbs including garlic, galangal, betel, clove, cinnamon, ringworm bush and lemon grass were extracted by hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The crude extracts were tested the efficiency for inhibiting fungal growth by paper disc diffusion method. It was found that the most effective crude herb extract to inhibit the growth of P. citrinum and A. flavus var. flavus at concentration 100,000 ppm was cinnamon which was extracted with ethyl acetate. The average diameters of the inhibition were of 41.50 and 25.93 mm, respectively. While the crude extract of galangal extraction with ethyl acetate was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of A. tamarii with the average diameter of the inhibition of 25.83 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, galangal extraction with methanol was effective in inhibiting the growth of P. citrinum by the MIC were 25,000, 12,500 and 25,000 ppm, respectively. In addition, cinnamon extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, galangal extraction with methanol was effective in inhibiting the growth of A. flavus var. flavus by the MIC was 50,000, 25,000 and 50,000 ppm, respectively. Galangal extract with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol was effective in inhibiting the growth of A. tamarii by the MIC was 781.25, 390.63 and 3,125 ppm, respectively.



Chemical Constituents from Clausena harmandiana Leaves


อัจฉรา รักสัตย์ ชลพิสุทธิ์ ตันตาปกุล วิษณุ มณีรัตน์ และ สุรัตน์ ละภูเขียว*

Phytochemical investigation of Clausena harmandiana leaves led to the isolation and identification of six known compounds; methyl carbazole-3-carboxylate (1), clausemine D (2), clausine F (3), heptaphylline (4), p-anethole (5) and p-methoxybenzoic acid (6). All structures were characterized by mainly 1H NMR spectral data as well as comparison with the reported known compounds. Crude extract and carbazole alkaloids 1-4 were also evaluated for antibacterial, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.



Waste Management by Transformation of Recovered Silver from Electronic and Laboratory Wastes into Silver Nitrate


มิกิ กัณณะ* และ สราวุฒิ สมนาม

This research has proposed waste management of electronic and laboratory wastes by recovering the silver mold using chemical process and turning it into silver nitrate reagent for use in laboratory. The studied electronic waste which was plastic circuit board inside a keyboard (KB) and compact disc (CD), while the laboratory wastes were the waste solution of silver ion (Ag+) and silver chloride (AgCl) precipitate.

From this study, the suitable conditions to recover silver element from KB and CD were the extraction with 1M HNO3 at 60oC for 6 hrs. (for KB) and 4 hrs. (for CD) the ratio between KB and CD to HNO3 at 1:20 and 1:5, respectively. The silver contents in KB and CD equal to 0.19% and 0.018%, respectively. Silver ion (Ag+) was recovered from AgCl precipitate by dissolving with conc.NH3. The Ag+ which was extracted from AgCl and the left over solution of Ag+ was reduced by the copper wire cemented to the metallic silver with the purity level over 91.0%. The recovered silver was need to prepare AgNO3 reagent for determination of chloride in the salt and water samples, and used as the Tollen’s reagent for qualitative analysis of organic substances.  It was found that the prepared AgNO3 had the same quality as the commercial products in the market. Moreover, cost of this reagent obtained from the proposed process is 90% lower than using the commercial products.  Hence, this research could be the guidelines of waste management for other Ag containing wastes in order to reduce the amount of chemical waste and expense in laboratory.



Mangrove and its utilization: Case study on quality of smoked shrimps by mangrove wood in Takuapa district, Phang Nga province

ป่าชายเลนและการใช้ประโยชน์: กรณีศึกษาคุณภาพกุ้งรมควัน ด้วยควันจากไม้ป่าชายเลน อำเภอตะกั่วป่า จังหวัดพังงา

ประถม รัสมี ดวงรัตน์ ปัทมเรขา สุภาพร อภิรัตนานุสรณ์* และ จิตเกษม หลำสะอาด

The objectives of this study were to investigate the context of mangrove forest and basic data of smoked shrimp production in Takuapa district, Phang Nga province by the process of data collection and open ended interview. The qualities of smoked shrimps by smoke wood of Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera cylindrical and Xylocarpus granatum were analyzed and compared. The study showed that in Takuapa district, Phang Nga province, there were approximately 50,296 Rai of fertile mangrove forest area with many kinds of valuable mangrove species, mostly in Genus Rhizophoraceae, Sonneratiaceae and Vervenaceae. The villagers utilized mangrove wood to produce smoked shrimps. It was found that there were 18 entrepreneurs who carried on smoked - dried shrimp production. Smoked shrimps using three species of mangrove wood; Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera cylindrical and Xylocarpus granatum, were composed of 21.66-27.05% moisture, 63.30-67.02% protein, 1.37-1.47% carbohydrate and 1.50-1.86% lipid. The highest phenolic compound content (3.59 mg per gram) was recorded in smoked shrimps using Bruguiera cylindrica wood, while the contents of 3.01 and 3.37 mg per gram were found in Xylocarpus granatum and Rhizophora apiculata, respectively. For sensory evaluation, there were high scores of color (7.93 and 7.70) for smoked shrimps using wood from Bruguiera cylindrica and Xylocarpus granatum, respectively, significantly higher (P<0.05) than that from Rhizophora apiculata (4.80). Smoked shrimps by Xylocarpus granatum wood received the highest scores of 7.50, 7.23, 7.90 and 7.03 for smoke odor, texture, crispness and luster, respectively. In addition, the overall sensory acceptability of the smoked shrimps showed that smoked shrimp using Xylocarpus granatum wood had the high score between the like moderately to like very much level (7.80), significantly higher (P<0.05) than those smoked by Rhizophora apiculata (5.40) and Bruguiera cylindrica (6.97). After 3 months of storage, TBA values were obviously increased from 0.04-0.06 to 0.10-0.16 mg per kg. Total microorganisms were found between 1.5 ´ 105 and 8.0 ´ 105 colonies per gram; yeast and mold less than 100 colonies per gram. The values of water activity were prone to increase. The findings suggested that smoked shrimps by Xylocarpus granatum wood were the most acceptable product.



Optimized Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE)

สภาวะที่เหมาะสมในการสกัดสารประกอบฟีนอลิกรวม จากดอกบัวหลวง โดยใช้เทคนิคสกัดด้วยไมโครเวฟ

กาญจนา นาคประสม จตุรภัทร วาฤทธิ์ อุมาพร อุประ หยาดฝน ทนงการกิจ และ นักรบ นาคประสม*

The objectives of this research was to study the conditions that optimize the extraction of total phenolic compounds from Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn petals using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and also investigated their antioxidant activities of the crude extracts. Variables used to study the optimal extraction conditions of total phenolic compounds include concentration of ethanol (10-50 %v/v), extraction time (10-20 min) and microwave power (200-400 watts). Furthermore, the optimal combination of these variables were determined using a response surface methodology (RSM) by Box Behnken design. The results showed that these three factors affected yield of extracted total phenolic. Moreover, the statistical analysis provided indications that the data obtained from the experiment should be fitted to polynomial equation because of its high coefficient of determination with R-square = 0.9314. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were used to determine the optimal conditions for extraction of total phenolic compounds from Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn petals using MAE. The highest yields of total phenolic compounds were obtain when the samples were dissolved in ethanol at 34%v/v, the extraction time was set at 15 min and the microwave power was set at 300 watts. Under these optimal conditions, the highest total phenolic compounds yield were 134.58±0.20 mgGAE/gDW from experimental values and 134.56 mgGAE/gDW from predicted values and the scavenging activity of percentage of inhibition in DPPH assay was 24.02%.



Local Wisdom and Biodiversity on Mushrooms Folk at the KhaoKra-dong Volcano Forest Park on Samed Sub District, Muang District, Buriram Province

ภูมิปัญญาท้องถิ่นและความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพของเห็ดที่พบในเขตพื้นที่วนอุทยานภูเขาไฟกระโดง ตำบลเสม็ด อำเภอเมือง จังหวัดบุรีรัมย์

เทพอัปสร แสนสุข

This research were survey on the diversity of macro-fungi at KhaoKra-dong Volcano Forest Park on Samed Sub District, Muang District, Buriram Province during May – September 2015. The macro-fungi were collected and morphologically identified by comparing of their macro-characteristics with manual of identification book. The results revealed that 25 species belongs to 10 families were obtained. Among fungal taxa, they were classified as 5 groups including 1) gilled fungi, 2) boletes fungi, 3) polypores fungi, 4) coral fungi, and 5) puffballs fungi. Subsequently, edible mushrooms was discriminated which mostly found in family Russulaceae, including Russula emetic, Russula alboareolata, Russulaceae cyanoxantha, Rusula viresceus Fr, Lactarius hygrophoroides, and Lactarius glaucescens, the second most was Pluteaceae such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus polychrous, Lentinus squarrosulas Mont., and Lentinus strigoeue (Schw) Fr. Additionally, inedible mushroom or poisonous mushroom was found to be Pluteaceae (Amanita sp.).

For study of local wisdom and utilization guideline in the villager of these mushroom, it was found local knowledge relationship between mushroom and the way of living several aspects. Most of villagers have been collecting these mushrooms for their trade and foods. By inherited the local wisdom to know the natural mushrooms source, to know the features of mushrooms, to know the method of collecting wild mushrooms, to know the method of classification wild mushrooms, to know how to pick mushrooms, edible and inedible mushrooms on a belief in collecting wild mushrooms. Include ways to exploit wild mushrooms in different ways by observing familiar experiences, watching adults, collecting mushrooms, and inquiring from the elders. The knowledge derived from indigenous knowledge can be passed on from generation to generation in the exploitation and gathering wild mushrooms.



Prevalence of Zoonotic Sarcocystis spp. Isolated from Cardiac Muscle of Cattle in Muang Chachoengsao District, Chachoengsao Province

ความชุกของเชื้อโรคสัตว์สู่คน Sarcocystis spp. ที่แยกได้จากกล้ามเนื้อหัวใจโค อำเภอเมืองฉะเชิงเทรา จังหวัดฉะเชิงเทรา

อมรรัตน์ ดอกไม้ขาว* พิสิษฐ์ สุนทราวิฑูร และ ชนะพล สิงห์ศุข

Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Sarcocystis. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat containing viable bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in cardiac muscle of cattle collected at fresh markets in Muang Chachoengsao District, Chachoengsao Province, from November, 2015, to March, 2016. The samples were examined by digestion method using pepsin and hydrochloric acid for detecting bradyzoites by light microscope. The overall prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infection in cardiac muscle of cattle was 43.33% (52/120). The result indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from cattle represents a risk for acquiring intestinal sarcocystosis in Chachoengsao Province.



Effects of TDZ and 2,4-D on Growth and Development of In Vitro Seedling Culture of Dendrobium formosum Roxb. ex Lindl.

ผลของ TDZ ร่วมกับ 2,4-D ต่อการเจริญเติบโตของต้นอ่อนเอื้องเงินหลวง (Dendrobium formosum Roxb. ex Lindl.) ในหลอดทดลอง

วุฒิชัย ฤทธิ* บุญสนอง ช่วยแก้ว กรนิกา นนทารักษ์ และ ฐิติพร กิจเจริญ

In vitro seedling culture of D. formosum on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium supplemented with combination of TDZ at 0.1 0.5 1.0 or 2.0 mg/L and 2,4-D at 0.1 0.5 1.0 or 2.0 mg/L compared with control for 12 weeks. The results showed that the highest percentage of shoot formation (57%), shoot numbers (1.68 shoots/plant), leaf numbers (5.70 leaves/plant) and shoots length (1.16 cm/plant) were obtained when cultured on the medium with 0.5 mg/L TDZ and 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D. However, seedlings cultured on semi-solid MS medium (control) could stimulated better shoot (2.32 shoots/plant) and leaves numbers (10.20 leaves/plant). The complete plantlets were successfully transplanted to the greenhouse and showed a satisfactory survival rate (58%) after 8 weeks when a chopped coconut husks were used as planting materials.



Microanatomy and Histochemistry of Esophagus and Gastrointestinal Organ of the Spotted Scat, Scatophagus argus during Juvenile Stage from Pranburi Estuary, Thailand

มิญชวิทยาและมิญชเคมีของหลอดอาหารและแกสโตรอินเทสทีนปลาตะกรับ Scatophagus argus ระยะวัยรุ่น จากปากแม่น้ำปราณบุรี ประเทศไทย

ศิลปชัย เสนารัตน์,* ปิยากร บุญยัง วรรณีย์ จิรอังกูรสกุล พิสิษฐ์ พูลประเสริฐ ศุภพงศ์ อิ่มสรรพางค์ และ เจษฏ์ เกษตระทัต

The purpose of this research was to study the histological structure and histochemistry of esophagus and gastrointestinal organ of the spotted scat, Scatophagus argus inhabiting the Pranburi estuary, Prachuap Khiri Khan province. All fish were caught by using a gill net. Ten fish (about 5.06 cm. in body length) were randomly chosen as samples for this study. Afterwards, the fish specimens were processed by the standard histological technique and examined under a light microscope. The results revealed that the digestive tract staring from esophagus, stomach and intestine of this fish species comprised of four layers; mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa, respectively. Herein, the character of mucosa in each organ was longitudinal fold protruding into the lumen and can be divided into three sub-layers including epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae. For the mucosal epithelium of esophagus, it was simple squamous epithelium. On the contrary, other regions were covered by simple columnar epithelia. Moreover, gastric gland was mainly found throughout its stomach in the lamina propria. Based on histochemical study, it was found that the gastric gland was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) (magenta) whereas was negatively stained with Alcian Blue (AB) pH 2.5. However, the goblet and mucous cells positively stained with both PAS (magenta) and AB pH 2.5 (blue). The current study provides the basic information about structural histology of different organs in alimentary canal but fine descriptive investigation has to be further required.



Effect of Cassava Varieties with Different Cyanide Contents on Food Consumption, Growth and Yields of Eri Silkworm in Cool Season

ผลของพันธุ์มันสำปะหลังที่มีปริมาณไซยาไนด์แตกต่างกันต่อปริมาณการกิน การเจริญเติบโต และผลผลิตไหมอีรี่ในฤดูหนาว

สุเมธ มาสขาว ศิวิลัย สิริมังครารัตน์* เดือนเพ็ญ วงค์สอน และ วีระศักดิ์ ศักดิ์ศิริรัตน์

Cassava is a principle food crop species important to the eri silkworm rearing of Thailand, in which the cyanide content in cassava in the form hydrocyanic acid (HCN) toxic to organism. This research aims to study the effects of cyanide in cassava leaves on leaf consumption, growth and yields of eri silkworm including the amount of residual cyanide in cassava leaves used to produce larva and pupa derived from rearing in cool season. The leaves of 5 representatives different cassava varieties containing different amount of cyanide, Five minutes, Huay Bong 80, Rayong 72, Rayong 9 and Kasetsart 50 were used as food plants of eri silkworm reared under  laboratory conditions at a temperature of 25 ± 2 ° C, relative humidity (R.H.) of 80 ± 5 %. The completely randomized design was used. Eri silkworm responded to different cassava cultivars tested. The average intake of eri silkworm of larva stages 1-5 with Kasetsart 50 were minimal (18.39 g / larva) with significance to other varieties (P<0.05). For life cycle, among cassava varieties, the eri silkworm had similar survival periods of larva (1-5 instar) between 43-62 days. The 5 minutes varity gave the maximum survival percentage of 92%. However, the survival from larva (1- 5 instar) - Adult, rearing with Rayong 72 was the highest value (82.67 %), whereas the highest average larva weight (5th instar date 5) was obtained when fed with Five minutes variety. The average eri cocoon yields cultured with the Rayong 9 expressed the highest all values, fresh cocoon weight (2.4097 g), pupa weight (2.0658 g), shell weight (0.3097 g) and fresh cocoon weight/10,000 larvae (21.48 kg). For average egg yields, feeding with the Five minutes variety showed almost highest percentages of all the egg yield values (hatching eggs 89.20 %), total eggs (6,355.87 eggs) and total hatching eggs (5,680.93 eggs). The result of the cyanide analysis revealed that the Five minutes variety contained lowest cyanide as 64.46 mg/kg and in the eri silkworm cultured with Huay Bong 80 was the lowest (0.12 mg/kg fresh weight). Pupa weight fed with Rayong 72 was the lowest 0.79/kg fresh weight. Considering on the cocoon yields, Rayong 9 was the most suitable variety, while the Five minutes was the best suited for use in the egg production. The detected cyanide content in eri silkworm larva and pupa reared with all cassava varieties were safe for human consumption and exploitation.



A Study of Fingerprint Patterns and Minutiae in Relation to Kinship in Udornthani Province


วัชราภรณ์ วายโศกา และ รัชดาภรณ์ เบญจวัฒนานนท์*

Fingerprint is an important evidence in forensic science. It has been used for person identification and the relation in their family. The aim of this study was to studied the fingerprint patterns and minutiae in relation to kinship.The material used in the study was obtained from the fingerprints of 50 families.Fingerprint patterns are analyzed of 10 fingers. Measurement data are then analyzed using a range of parametric statistical tests. The result of relation fingerprint patterns and minutiae. Between grandparents and father found father fingerprints and minutiae have formed relationships with grandmother more than grandfather. Between grandparents and mother found mother fingerprints and minutiae have formed relationships with grandfather more than grandmother. And the relationship between parents,daughter and son found son related to parent more than daughter significant at .05.



The Efficiency of filter media used in anaerobic filter in wastewater treatment.


ปริญญา ไกรวุฒินันท์* และ พีรพร คำใจดี

The objectives of the present study are to determine the efficiency of three filter media (filter matte, bioball, and gravel) used in anaerobic filter wastewater treatment and to compare the efficiency of wastewater treatment among three wastewater flow rates (2, 4 and 8 L/hr) into the system. The results revealed that filter matte higher efficiency than the bioball and gravel in wastewater treatment. The treatment efficiencies of filter matte for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reduction were 66.1% and 81.1%, respectively. However, bioball showed the treatment efficiencies for COD and BOD reduction were 57.7% and 61.1%, whereas gravel showed the treatment efficiencies for COD and BOD around 52.2% and 56.0%. Then, filter matte was applied into the system to compare the efficiency of wastewater treatment among three wastewater flow rates; low (2 L/hr), medium (4 L/hr), and high (8 L/hr). The results showed that a medium flow rate had the highest treatment efficiencies for COD and BOD reduction (66.1% and 81.1%, respectively). These results are under standard criteria for some building type and building size.



Content-Based Image Retrieval System for Silk Pattern Information on Mobile Phone


เจษฎา โพนแก้ว

In this research, we present a content-based image retrieval system on the mobile phone for searching silk pattern information in Sisaket province. The system comprises mobile application, web application and pattern recognition application. The mobile application is developed based on Apache Cordova framework and used for taking a suspicious silk pattern by built-in camera to be an image, sending the image to server and displaying search results. Next, the web application is developed by PHP language and applied for receiving and saving the image as a temporary file, calling pattern recognition application and returning search results as web service in the form of REST format. Finally, the pattern recognition application is developed by C# language cooperate with OpenCV framework and it comprises speed-up robust feature algorithm for searching interesting points and k-nearest neighbor algorithm for evaluating similarity distance with the sample. The performance for classification of the proposed system is evaluated through confusion matrix. The result shows that the average accuracy is 88.34 %



A Modification of the Hill Cipher Based on Doubly Periodic Encryption and Length Variation

การปรับปรุงรหัสลับฮิลล์โดยอาศัยการเข้ารหัสลับเป็นคาบสองชั้น และการแปรผันความยาว

Jirawat Jantarima and Thotsaphon Thongjunthug*

In this research, we propose a modification of the Hill cipher using doubly periodic encryption, which requires two types of keys with different periodicity when encrypting each block of plaintext. Length variation is also used for extending the ciphertext so that there are several extended ciphertexts available, which prevent any third-party to determine the true length of secret keys successfully. Our study shows that our modified Hill cipher is more resistant to known-plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack and frequency analysis, than the modified Hill cipher proposed by Adinarayana Reddy et al. (2012). Moreover, our modified Hill cipher requires less space for the secret keys than the classical Hill cipher.