ธนากร แสงสง่า* และ ธารทิพย์ รัตนะ
Heavy metal pollution in soil is a great environmental problem and must be resolved urgently. Phytoremediation technology is generally accepted and broadly applications are phytostabilization and phytoextraction that is either absorbtion by root or accumulation by leaves and stems, respectively. Unfortunately, limitation on phytoremediation is heavy metal toxicity to plant. Interaction between plant and microbe, especially phosphate solubilizing bacteria, which produce plant growth regulators and also secrete low molecular weight organic acid for desorption of heavy metals from soil, could enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. In this review, therefore, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and its role in enhancing the efficiency of heavy metal remediation were discussed; that is, guideline for sustainable and environmentally friendly application.
The chromosome evolution of 3 orders of amphibians in Thailand namely, Gymnophiona, Caudata and Anura were studied. The most primitive group is order Gymnophiona which has 2n (diploid) =42 including 20 microchromosomes and 22 macrochromosomes, whereas the other including only macrochromosomes. The Caudata karyotype is 2n=24 and only bi-armed chromosomes were found. The order Anura was divided into two suborders, Mesobratachia and Neobratachia. The suborder Mesobratachia still has quite primitive karyotype,
2n=24-26 which consisted of both bi-armed and mono-armed chromosomes. The suborder Neobratachia has advanced karyotypes, 2n=22-28 which consisted only of bi-armed chromosomes. The cytogenetic study can help to better understand the evolution of amphibians.
Fateemah Mahama, Chutima Hanjavanit and Narumon Sangpradub*
Diversity and life history of fishflies (Megaloptera: Corydalidae: Chauliodinae) were explored, which focusing on larval and adult stages at two headwater streams (Yakruae and Phromlaeng streams) during October 2013 to December 2014. Fifteen adults of Neochauliodes puntatolosus Liu and Yang, 2006 were found in October 2013 and during June to September 2014 which consisted of 12 males and a female at Yakruae stream and two males at Phromlaeng stream. Adult showed sexual dimorphism, the male had pectinated antenna and the female had sub-serrated antenna, body size of female was larger than male. It seemed that emergence of N. puntatolosus tend to be more males than females from these two headwater streams. Only one morphospecies of Neochauliodes larvae was found. Neochauliodes sp. larvae had more abundance at Yakruae stream (n=88) than those of Phromlaeng stream (n=6). Even though Yakruae stream had less dissolved oxygen and higher electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid than those of Phromlaeng stream (p<0.05). Neochauliodes sp. larvae have a pair of elongated respiratory tube which allowed them to utilize atmospheric oxygen while they remain submerged in low dissolved oxygen. Measurement of larval head capsule width showed Neochauliodes sp. has 11 larval size classes and a non-seasonal, univoltine life history pattern.
Chutima Kaewkrajay*, Patcharee Sinthunawa and Thanida Yongyuen
In order to isolate highly efficient lipase producing yeast, the present study aimed to investigate lipase production by using various carbon source as the substrates. Seventy-three yeast strains were isolated from mangrove forests, sea water and sea sediments by enrichment technique. These strains were screened for lipase production on agar medium containing tributyrin and Tween 80 by plate assay method. A clear zone on tributyrin solid medium was observed from 60 yeast strains, and 10 strains showed opaque zone on Tween 80 solid medium. The enzyme activity index (EAI) of strain SPA4-2 was sharply high value on tributyrin medium (EAI=3.38) whereas BP12 strain was effective highly value on Tween 80 medium (EAI=2.16). The lipase activity of the yeast strains SPA4-2 and BP12 were also estimated in media containing various carbon sources such as 20 g/L each of tributyrin, Tween 80, commercial palm oil and waste cooking oil. The results implied that extracellular lipase activity of SPA4-2 and BP12 after incubation at 120 h in medium supplemented with commercial palm oil were 1.53±0.11 and 0.75±0.06 units/mL, respectively. The yeast strain SPA4-2 that produced high lipase activity was identified as Cryptococcus liquefaciens with 99.83% sequence similarity to C. liquefaciens CBS 968T (AF181515). These results indicated the strain SPA4-2 was suitable for lipase production and will be utilized in the industries in the future.
Wilairat Chumsing*, Orawan Boodde, Pattra Moonjit, Benchapol Lorsunyaluck, Manakorn Sukmak, Panya Youngprapakorn, Kornvika Youngprapakorn and Worawidh Wajjwalku
Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a freshwater crocodile. Its wildly distributed habitat was Southeast Asia. It was commonly found in wild nature of Thailand in the past and presently declared as critically endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). In Thailand, crocodile farming is allowed in order to conserve pure bred and facilitate rational purpose. However, the purity of Siamese crocodiles' genetic has been decreased due to cross-breeding with saltwater crocodile in many farms. The objectives of this research were to study cell culture method by modifying the cell culturing methods and maintain Siamese crocodile genetic material as primary cell culture for further study on crocodiles’ chromosome, host specific disease and providing resource for other diagnosis tools. Eyelid and blood vessel were obtained from the newly dead Siamese crocodile suffering from fighting. The specimens were then excising into small pieces and cultured with two supplement formulas including i) Iscove's Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (IMDM) supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) and ii) IMDM supplemented with 10% crocodile plasma. The antibiotic and antifungal were added in both types of media for preventing contamination. Thereafter the cultured flasks were incubated at 28 °C and 37 °C with 5% CO2 supplied. The fibroblast-like cells were observed under the inverted microscope at 2 weeks later. The cells were subcultured until 10 passages and preserved at every single passage under -196 °C in liquid nitrogen. The result indicated that both supplement formulas were successfully applied for primary cell culture at the temperature of 28°C and 37°C. The supplementation by FBS is more applicable than crocodile plasma due to commercially available.
The anti de Sitter black holes have recently become a popular research topic due to the correspondence between the theory of general relativity in the anti de Sitter spacetime and the conformal field theory, which gives us an opportunity to study a quantum system through a corresponding anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime, containing black holes. In this work we study and analytically approximate the quasinormal modes of massless scalar wave in AdS spacetime, solutions to the wave equation, which satisfy the boundary conditions at the horizon and at distant region. The massless scalar wave at distant region exhibits some divergence. By choosing appropriate boundary conditions, not only the divergence is removed, but the qusinormal modes become polynomials their frequencies are discrete. Our analytical result is compared to the numerical result, which shows some similarity.
Buasroi Mala and Sureeporn Nontachaiyapoom*
Orchid seed germination is a propagation method used in the selection of hybrids and conservation programs. Even though asymbiotic germination is the most widely used approach, symbiotic germination is gaining popularity. Ex vitro symbiotic germination is a simple seed germination method that does not require axenic condition from seed sowing step onwards. The present study modified the previously reported ex vitro symbiotic germination method by optimizing components of germination substrate and using plastic food containers with lids vented with air-permeable film to reduce the problem of mite and fungal contamination. We also demonstrated successful seed germination of four orchid species [i.e., Spathoglottis affinis de Vriese, Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook.) Stein, Paphiopedilum gratrixianum Rolfe and Dendrobium parishii Rchb.f.] using the established method and effective isolates of an orchid mycorrhizal fungus, Tulasnella deliquescens (Juel) Juel. Although the established method resulted in less germination percentages and percentages of Stage 5 protocorms compared to asymbiotic medium (i.e., half strength of Murashige and Skoog medium) in three studied orchids, it supported more rapid growth of Paphiopedilum protocorms/seedlings. Other potentials and limitations of the established method are discussed in this article.
สุจินดา บังวรรณ* และ วนารักษ์ ไซพันธ์แก้ว
Lichens are organisms which are specific to environmental conditions. In different habitats, the composition of lichen appears different. This study aims to compare the composition of bole lichens communities in different forest types, consisting of dry deciduous forest (DDF), mixed deciduous forest, lower montane forest (LMF) and upper montane forest (UMF) in Doi Inthanon national park, and to select indicator lichen species or communities of each forest types. Permanent plots were established in representative areas in each forest types. Species, cover and frequency of number of lichens were collected on randomly selected 20 trees per plot. Lichens were investigated: 0 – 2 m above ground in the cardinal points by using a quadrat size of 20 cm × 20 cm. A total number of 89 species were found. DDF had the highest number of species (40) followed by LMF (35), MDF (19), and UMF (4). Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) indicated that lichens were specific to environmental conditions in each forest type. Indicator Species Analysis (ISA) provided 19 indicator species which indicated forest condition. In addition, subset of lichen communities was appropriated for using as indicator community. Both species and communities of lichens can be applied for long-term environmental change monitoring, for example, forest management and climate change.
สายชล สุขญาณกิจ* สิริวรรณ สมิทธิอาภรณ์ ธนภัทร ปลื้มพวก และธนวรรณ พาณิชพัฒน์
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of biochar and Fe-EDTA on the yield, nutrient uptake and iron translocation in lettuce. It was arranged in a 2x5 factorial in randomized complete block design with three replications. The first consist of no biochar (A1) and biochar with growing medium (A2) while the second factor comprised five rates of Fe-EDTA: 0 (B1), 25 (B2), 50 (B3), 75 (B4) and 100 (B5) mg Fe/kg. The results revealed that biochar could reduce iron toxicity observed at 100 mg Fe/kg. while no biochar treatment showed iron toxicity at 75 mg Fe/kg. The biochar was used in combination with Fe-EDTA at 0-75 mg Fe/kg. Lettuce width, fresh and dry weight were not significantly different. Furthermore, nitrogen uptake was significantly different (p≤0.05). Potassium and iron uptake were highly significant difference (p≤0.01) while phosphorus uptake was not significantly different. The treatments of A1B3, A2B1 and A1B5 gave the highest of nitrogen, potassium and iron uptake (0.78, 3.16 g/plant and 38.29 mg/plant, respectively). Biochar could reduce iron translocation from the growing medium to the shoot (BCF). The translocation of iron from the root to the shoot (TF) was highest when biochar was used in combination with Fe-EDTA at 100 mg Fe/kg. but it was not statistically different from that obtained when no biochar was applied along with Fe-EDTA at 0, 25, 75 and 100 mg Fe/kg.
ภาวิณี อารีศรีสม* นรินทร์ ท้าวแก่นจันทร์ วาริน สุทนต์ เทิดศักดิ์ โทณลักษณ์ และ กอบลาภ อารีศรีสม
This research was to study the effect of harvesting time (30, 60 and 90 days) on antioxidant activities and nutritive value of Artemisia lactiflora. The experiment was carried out based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The results showed that the harvesting time was given a significantly different on antioxidant activities when estimated by DPPH and ABTS methods. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities provided consistent results. Harvesting time at 30 and 60 days gave the highest of antioxidant activities. The percentage of DPPH inhibition were 11.91 ± 0.58 and 11.66 ± 0.52, respectively while the percentage of ABTS inhibition were 9.52 ± 0.43 and 9.64 ± 0.35, respectively. The results of the nutritive value of Artemisia lactiflora showed that moisture content, ash, fat, carbohydrate and energy were statistically different when harvested at different time. Harvesting time at 30 days provided the highest of moisture, fat and ash contents (10.93 ± 0.35, 0.67 ± 0.10 and 17.17 ± 0.30 g/100g DW, respectively). The value of carbohydrate and energy were highest at 90-day harvesting time which were 58.27 ± 1.79 g/100g DW and 309.15 ± 6.34 kcal/100g DW, respectively. Protein and crude fiber of Artemisia lactiflora were not significantly different at various harvesting time.
พิมลรัตน์ เทียนสวัสดิ์* พุทธิดา นิพพานนท์ เดีย พนิตนาถ แชนนอน และ สตีเฟ่น เอลเลียต
Herbaceous weeds often hinder forest restoration projects by reducing establishment of planted tree seedlings. The study, presented here, compared survival and health of tree seedlings in the presence and absence of weeds, from 1.5 to 2 years after planting, to restore montane evergreen forest (1,300 m above sea level) from abandoned agricultural land in Chiang Mai Province. The grass Panicum maximum Jacq. was the dominant weed species. In addition, root collar relative growth rates (RGR-RCD) of four target native species in weedy plots were compared with those in weed-removal plots: Bauhinia variegata L., Bischofia javanica Blume, Hovenia dulcis Thunb, and Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don. Ten 5-m-radius circular plots (78.5 m2 each) were established randomly across the site. Five plots were cleared of weeds every two months and five were not. Alive planted tree seedings were counted in the plots before the weeding treatment and at approximate six months after the start of the experiment. The root collar diameters (RCD) of all surviving seedlings were measured and each was assigned a health score. Over the study period, no significant differences in the survival, health and RGR-RCD of the planted seedlings were detected, between the weeded and non-weeded plots. Larger seedlings survived better than smaller ones. Consequently, planted seedlings, which had already survived for 1.5 years in the restoration site (i.e. to the end of the second rainy season after planting), had apparently grown robust enough to withstand the competition from surrounding weeds. RGR-RCD’s of the four intensively studied species were (in descending order) 83.1% per year (P. cerasoides), 40.4% per year (H. dulcis), 25.3% per year (B. javanica) and 15.5% per year (B. variegata).
ธวนนท์ เนียมโงน สุรพล แสนสุข* ปิยะพร แสนสุข
Survey species diversity and utilization of genus Tacca (Dioscoreaceae) in Thailand were studied between August 2016 and May 2017. Dried specimens in BK, BKF, CMU, KKU, PSU and QBG herbaria were studied. The specimens of five species in the genus Tacca were collected from all region of Thailand. One rare species, T. plantaginea (Hance) Drenth, is reported. T. leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze is recorded as Least Concern (LC) species. The most species of this genus are distributed in rainforest, dry evergreen forest, evergreen forest, swamp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dipterocarp forest and beach forest with altitudes 0-1,500 m. above mean sea level. In addition, utilization of genus Tacca in Thailand are recognized as food (3 species), medicine (5 species), ornamental and ritual plants (3 species). The ritual utilization is reported for the first time.
ริวรรณ ตี้ภู่* ณัฐติการณ์ เขียวขำ สุพัตรา มูฮำหมัดอารี และ เจ๊ะฮาซัน เจ๊ะอุบง
The objective of this project was to determine the capsaicin in local chili in Nakhon Ratchasima Province with colorimetric detection based on the reaction between capsaicin and phosphomolybdic acid under alkaline condition. The phosphomolybdic acid was reduced by capsaicin to molybdenum blue producing blue solution. The absorption was monitored at the wavelength of 650 nm. The conditions of analytical method were optimized including concentration of phosphomolybdic acid, concentration of sodium hydroxide and reaction time. Under optimum conditions, this method provided high precision (%RSD=1-3) and accuracy (%Recovery = 80-100). The linear range concentration was 2-40 mg/kg. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that every species of chili at ripen stage provided higher concentration of capsaicin than those of raw stage. In addition, the concentrations of capsaicin in chili were relied on chili species ranging between 22-4,517 mg/kg.
สมหวัง ฤทธิ์ทวงศ์ ประสงค์สม ปุณยอุปพัทธ์ และ ปราณี พัฒนพิพิธไพศาล*
This research studied the effectiveness of immobilized Bacillus megaterium PNKP-S2 in biofilm reactor connecting with filtration reactor was investigated for removal of sodium-arsenite [(As(III) (40 µg L-1)]; manganese chloride [Mn(II) (100 µg L-1)] and ammonium chloride [(NH4+-N) (1000 µg L-1)] in synthetic groundwater. The results showed that at 25th day of the operation, the biofilm reactor could removed 85.1 % of As(III) and 56.5 % of NH4+-N and a concentration of nitrate was maximum at 509.4 µg L-1. Moreover, As(III) and NH4+-N were removed 90.3 % and 65.6 %, respectively and concentration of nitrate was 485.5 µg L-1. The biofilm reactor could removed 86.6 % of As(III), 41.4 % of Mn(II) and 48.5 % of NH4+-N at 26th day of operation and the concentration of nitrate was 301.5 µg L-1. However, 90.5 % of As(III), 59.0 % of Mn(II) and 30.5 % of NH4+-N were removed when the filtration column was connected and the concentration of nitrate was 382.7 µg L-1. In the end of the experiment (42th day), the biofilm reactor effectively removed 5.2 % of As(III), 83.5 % of Mn(II) and 85.7 % of NH4+-N. The concentration of nitrate declined to 18.1 µg L-1. While the filtration reactor totally removed 54.5 % of As(III), 93.6 % of Mn(II) and 89.0 % of NH4+-N). The concentration of nitrate declined to 28.6 µg L-1. The results indicated that effective removal As(III), Mn(II) and NH4+-N in synthetic groundwater by biofilm reactor connecting with filtration reactor could be achieved and increased in scale for use in the fieldwork for treatment of wastewater in the environment.
สุวิทย์ แพงกันยา* อดิศักดิ์ นาถกรณกุล และสมชาติ โสภณรณฤทธิ์
The objective of this work is, therefore, to study the effect of drying methods of Mon Thong durian chips including combined microwave-hot air (MWHA) drying, combined microwave-hot air drying followed by hot air (HA) drying (MWHA+HA), combined microwave-grill (MWG) drying and combined microwave-grill drying followed by grill drying (MWG+G) on the qualities of dried durian chips in terms of color, textures and sensory evaluation compared with commercial fried durian chips. Microwave power was set between 250-600 W powers for grill heater was at 1,050 W and hot air temperature was set at 65 and 100 oC. The results showed that dried durian chips obtained by using MWHA provided higher lightness values but lower in greenness and yellowness values than those different drying methods and commercial fried durian chips. Increasing in microwave power of MWG drying will decreased lightness value but increased redness and yellowness values of dried durian chips. Dried products from all drying cases were not significantly different in the hardness as compared with commercial fried durian chips. Dried product from MWG and MWHA had crispiness than those from MWHA and commercial fried durian chips, while the hardness was not significantly different. Hardness and crispness of dried durian chips from MWHA and the commercial product were similar. The results of sensory evaluation showed that dried durian chips from MWHA had lower preference score in terms of color, shape (puffiness and wryness), hardness and overall preference than the commercial product but not significantly different in durian flavor, rancid and crispness.
รวินิภา ศรีมูล* และ สมยศ สันติมาลัย
The objective of this research was to investigate the extraction of anthocyanin from black plum (Syzygium cumini Skeels) using pulsed electric field which was supplied from parallel batch electrode chamber made from polyamide. Black plum samples were treated with 5, 10, 20 and 30 kV of pulsed electric field (0.7, 1.3, 2.7 and 4.0 kV/cm of electrical strength, respectively) with different frequencies 10, 20 and 30 kHz. Temperature, electrodes distance and power supply were controlled. Water was used as a solvent in the experiments because it was the solvent used in black plum juice production. The results showed that increasing in the electric field strength and frequencies increased the extraction yield of anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) and two-folds decreased time to attained the equilibrium significantly (p<0.05) compared with the traditional maceration method. The optimum conditions that yielded the highest anthocyanin concentration were 30 kV voltage, 4.0 kV/cm electric field strength, 30 kHz frequency and 60 minutes extraction time. In these conditions, anthocyanin concentration was 1.14±0.020 mg/g fresh weight and 32.56% higher than that of traditional maceration. It also gave the maximum electrical conductivity disintegration index (Z) value (0.84±0.021). In addition, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside, total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities in whole fruits were significantly higher than peels (p<0.05). In conclusion, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction of anthocyanin was possible suggested method for black plum juice processing in the future.
An application of asphaltic concrete pavement to reduce plastic waste problems in a local community was aimed at investigating asphaltic concrete pavement construction process using plastic wastes collected from Wat Mae Sa Luang Community and its neighborhood as an additive. A Job Mix Formula for a regular mixture was established and used as a basis for the design of modified asphaltic concrete samples in which different amounts of plastic wastes were added. The Marshall Method was used to determine strength and deformation properties of the samples. The specified requirements of Thailand’s Department of Highways were used as a benchmark. The obtained optimum plastic waste content was selected and implemented on a road construction at the road leading to Wat Mae Sa Luang Community, Mae Rim District, Chiang Mai Province. The study results have shown that adding an appropriate amount of plastic wastes to the mixture is capable of increasing the stability value of the pavement to 21.8 kN compared to those of 10.8 kN from the regular mixture and 8.0 kN from the standards of Thailand’s Department of Highways. An implementation to construct a 5-cm thick, 150-m long road (600 sq. m.) at the community has also indicated that adding plastic wastes to asphaltic concrete mixture was able to reduce plastic wastes in the community by as much as 540 kg.
เชฎฐา ชำนาญหล่อ* และ วริศรา ยนต์พงษ์
The objective of this paper is to develop the line balancing approaches of helmets production. Firstly, all work elements are studied and considered, the elements that can be improved productivity will be done with ECRS. Next, the production line is balanced by Ranked positional weight method (RPW) and developed heuristic methods such as Normal ranked task method (NRT), and Evolutionary algorithm method (EA). From production line balancing of 5 product types of helmet soft pad, it was found that RPW improves the line efficiency increased by 25.73 percent; NRT improves the line efficiency increased by 29.99 percent. Meanwhile, the heuristic method having search technique shows the better solutions as EA improve the line efficiency increased by 34.49 percent.
สุดาใจ โล่ห์วนิชชัย สายสุนีย์ จับโจร และวินัย เยาวเรศ
Simulating of epidemic risk areas of Golden Apple Snail in Mun River, Phimai District, Nakhon Ratchasima was conducted by secondary data collecting from various organizations and people involved in the study area. The land use/land cover classification was created from Thaichote satellite data. Ground truth validation revealed the overall accuracy at 94.92 % whereas the Kappa Coefficient was 92.95 %. The result of land cover classification showed that paddy field occupied the largest area at 83.90 % of the total area. Additionally, it was found that the difference between the high level of ASTER GDEM and DGPS was 0.58 meter at the highest and 0.35 meter at the lowest in which of the same direction. The simulating of epidemic risk area of Golden Apple Snail in Mun River with HEC-RAS package program indicated that flooded areas along the river bank, duration, and other factors that had affected the propagation of Golden Apple Snail, including water streaming, water pumping, and water gates opening. These caused the rapid spread of Golden Apple Snail into the paddy field which covered an area of 368.799 sq.m. along the Mun River.
รัฐพงษ์ ยอดสีมา และ จุฑาพร เนียมวงษ์*
The purpose of this study is to study water supply volume data and investigate the probability distribution that fit to the data in region of Eastern Thailand. The water supply volume are collected from Provincial Waterworks Authority Region 1 from October 2009 to September 2015 for 5 branches; Laem Chabang, Pattaya, Rayong, Chachoengsao and Prachin Buri. The probability distributions of interest are Normal, Log-normal, Weibull and Log-logistic distribution. Anderson Darling test is applied to test whether the interested distribution is fitted to the data. The results show that at Laem Chabang, Rayong and Chachoengsao, the probability distribution of water supply volume is Normal distribution and at Pattaya and Prachin Buri the probability distribution of water supply volume is Log-normal distribution.