ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 47 No.2 April-June 2019


























Glycals: preparation and application in organic synthesis

ไกลคาล: การเตรียมและการประยุกต์ใช้เชิงเคมีอินทรีย์สังเคราะห์

กัมปนาท ฉายจรัส

Glycals have been received considerable attention for their synthetic utility in carbohydrate chemistry. In general, there are two types of glycals, endo- and exo-glycals, depending on the double-bond position within the sugar ring. Their synthetic utilities have been envisaged by scientific reports. In the present review, synthetic methodology and application of glycal derivatives are described in the field of carbohydrate chemistry and natural products.



The Wang-Landau Algorithm and its Applications


วันหยก อติเศรษฐพงศ์

The Wang–Landau algorithm is one of the Monte Carlo techniques used in statistical physics. This algorithm is very efficient for approximating the density of states of discrete spin models, especially in a large system. Nowadays, the method has been widely accepted. There have been more than 1,000 research papers citing and using this method to solve various problems such as Potts models, Ising models, protein folding, homopolymers and multidimensional integrals. In this article, we focus on the main principle of the Wang-Landau algorithm, its advantages and limitations, improved algorithms and its applications.



Backbone Coloring Problems


Wannapol Pimpasalee

Let H be a subgraph of a graph G in a graph pair (G,H). A backbone coloring for a graph pair (G,H) is a vertex coloring of G such that adjacent vertices receive distinct colors, adding a condition that colors assigned to adjacent vertices in a subgraph H must differ by at least 2.

This article presents the brief history of backbone coloring problems and some related colorings. Then some researches of backbone coloring problems is proposed for example, L(2,1)-labeling, λ-backbone coloring and list backbone coloring. Moreover, topics of future researches are presented.



Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Activity of a Biflavone, Agathisflavone from Gluta Usitata Flowers

ฤทธิ์การยับยั้งเอนไซม์ฮิสโทนดีอะเซทิลเลสของไบฟลาโวน อะกาทิสฟลาโวนจากดอกรักใหญ่

Pakit Kumboonma*, Somprasong Saenglee, Thanaset Senawong and Chanokbhorn Phaosiri

A biflavone, agathisflavone (1) was extracted and purified as a major product from the flower of Gluta usitata. The structure was determined by IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The histone deacetylase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the compound were evaluated. Agathisflavone (1) acted as good HDAC inhibitor with IC50 values of 67 µM but weak antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 182 µM. Molecular docking experiments of the compound with representatives of class I (HDAC2 and HDAC8) and class II (HDAC4 and HDAC7) HDAC isoforms displayed potential isoform-selective HDAC inhibitor. Molecular docking data showed consistent results to the in vitro experiments with the high selectivity towards HDAC7. The occurrence of this compound in G. usitata is reported here for the first time.



Physico-chemical Property and Biological Activity of Dimethyl Glyoxime Metal Nanoparticles level.

สมบัติทางเคมีเชิงฟิสิกส์และทดสอบฤทธิ์ทางชีวภาพของสารประกอบโลหะ ไดเมทิลไกลออกซิมที่มีขนาดอนุภาคในระดับนาโน

ครุปกรณ์ ละเอียดอ่อน* สมหมาย ปะติตังโข และกิ่งแก้ว ปะติตังโข

The objectives of this research study were to synthesize nanoparticles by using chemical processes with mild condition and to study physico-chemical properties and biological activities in terms of antioxidant properties and antibacterial activities that cause disease in humans. It was found that nanoparticles could be synthesized by using warm solvent as copper (C1), iron (C2), and nickel (C3) nanoparticles with high percent yield 78.82, 81.11, and 55.01% respectively. The result of the study derived from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) showed that copper nanoparticles are in round shape while iron and nickel nanoparticles are in needle shape/monoclinic shape with regular dispersion. Regarding antioxidant properties of the nanoparticles after employing free radical scavenging DPPH technique, it was found that copper nanoparticles possessed the highest efficiency, followed by iron and nickel nanoparticles respectively. Regarding antioxidant properties of the nanoparticles after employing free radical scavenging FRAP technique, it was found that the best reduced substance changing from Fe3+ to Fe2+ was Dimethylglyoxime /ligand (DMG/L1); and copper possessed the lowest antioxidant properties. In terms of antibacterial activities that cause disease in humans, it was found that the C1 and C2 nanoparticles possessed the highest antibacterial efficiency against all of the four bacteria: B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and E. coli with mean values of clear zone between 25-30 mm. Therefore, the present research study has contributed in establishing copper, iron, and nickel nanoparticles with DMG reducing ligand obviously warrant further investigations for establishing their therapeutic utilities



Temperature effect and two-step cultivation on biomass production and carotenoid accumulation in green microalga Scenedesmus PY215

ผลของอุณหภูมิและการเพาะเลี้ยงแบบสองขั้นตอนต่อมวลชีวภาพและการสะสมแคโรทีนอยด์ในสาหร่ายสีเขียวขนาดเล็ก Scenedesmus PY215

กวินนาฏ เสืออบ และ ธัญนันท์ วรรณธง บรอคเคิลเฮอร์สท์*

Microalgae are considered the principal source for secondary carotenoids in both pigment biosynthesis and production. These carotenoids possess potent antioxidant activity hence they are more favorable to others. In this study, the green microalga PY215, from Pong Yoob soil (Ratchaburi), was isolated and identified. Algal identification by morphological characteristics and molecular trait, using a partial sequence of tufA gene, indicated that PY215 alga is Scenedesmus bijugus. The temperature effect on biomass production and carotenoid accumulation were also investigated. This alga is classified as a mesophilic alga due to its well propagation under mixotrophic condition (light/acetate in liquid TAP) at 25°C and 35°C with the obtained dry cell of 0.84, 0.82 gDW.l-1, respectively. After cultivation of S. bijugus PY215 (PY215) in nitrogen-reduced TAP (to 10%), the alga accumulated a greater number of carotenoid derivatives and content. The accumulation of secondary carotenoids such as ß-carotene, echinenone, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin was revealed by thin layer chromatography with a total carotenoid production of 448.74±18.70 µg.gDW-1 (1.19-fold in comparison to a control). In adequate, biomass reduction was prominently obtained (less than 4-fold). Thereafter, two-step cultivation was employed in order to maximize the total carotenoid production in PY215. Higher biomasses were mixotrophically achieved from the two-step cultivations (25°C in TAP then nitrogen reduction TAP) in both 50% and 0% nitrogen conditions compared to the control (continuously cultivated in TAP) subsequently potentially enhancing the total carotenoid production in PY215.



The Latent Fingerprint Development by using Spore of Asplenium nidus L. and Ophioglossum pendulum L. on Different Surfaces

การศึกษาการทำให้ปรากฏขึ้นของลายนิ้วมือแฝงโดยใช้ผงฝุ่นจากสปอร์ของ เฟิร์นข้าหลวงหลังลายและเฟิร์นริบบิ้นบนพื้นผิววัสดุที่แตกต่างกัน

วรธัช วิชชุวาณิชย์* และ สิตา ใช้เฮ็ง

This research aimed for studying the development of the latent fingerprints through the use of fern spores belonging to the Bird’s nest fern (Asplenium nidus L.) and the Ribbon fern (Ophioglossum pendulum L.) and subsequent comparing their latent fingerprint development qualities on three different surfaces namely aluminum, glass and plastic. The latent fingerprint development qualities were examined by the fingerprint experts through the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) in determining the average number of minutiae. The results revealed that the latent fingerprint development by using spores from both fern types could be applicable to those three surfaces. There’re no differences when comparing the average number of minutiae developed on the aluminum surface. The minutiae average numbers counting from the latent fingerprints developed by using spores from the Bird’s nest fern and the Ribbon fern were 63 and 76, respectively. The plastic surface also gave no differences in the minutiae average number; 42 for the Bird’s nest fern and 29 for the Ribbon fern. The quality of the latent fingerprints on the glass surfaces developed by the use of spores belonging to the Bird’s nest fern and the Ribbon fern was significantly different with the minutiae average number of 56 and 73 which is in the acceptable level of the Central Scientific Crime Detection Division.



Efficiency of Bioextract from Fruits Residues towards Green Oak leaf Lettuce Growth

ประสิทธิภาพของน้ำหมักชีวภาพจากเศษเหลือผลไม้ ที่มีผลต่อการเจริญเติบโตของผักสลัดกรีนโอ๊ค

ณัฏฐ์วรินท์ ธุวะคำ* วัชรี ฝั้นเฟือนหา

The aim of this research was to study the efficiency of bioextract from longan, banana and watermelon residues towards the growth of green oak leaf lettuce. The concentration level of bioextract at 1: 500 (bioextract : water, v/v) was applied every 4-day with triplicate experiments. The results demonstrated that using with bioextract from longan gave the highest leaves number, the leaf length and fresh weight (13.83 leave/plant, 11.38 cm and 82.67 g) respectively. The means of variance (ANOVA) analysis showed that the growth of green oak leaf lettuce was significantly affected by all bioextracts with p<0.05. From the chemical analysis, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable potassium (%) obtained from the bioextract of longan was higher than banana and watermelon residues, respectively. Moreover, the available phosphorus (mg/kg) at all bioextracts was lower than 10.00 mg/kg.



Ethnobotany of Lua in Numpae Village, Bo Klua District, Nan Province.

พฤกษศาสตร์พื้นบ้านของลัวะ ในบ้านน้ำแพะ อำเภอบ่อเกลือ จังหวัดน่าน

มะลิวัลย์ บริคุต และ อังคณา อินตา*

The Ethnobotanical study of Lua in Ban Numpae, Boklua District, Nan Province was done during August 2015 to August 2016 which purposed to investigate the traditional uses of plant in Lua daily life. Plants were surveyed and the five key informants including elderly, farmers and folk medicinal doctor were interviewed using semi-structure interview in the village, agricultural areas and the natural forests near by the village. The vernacular name, use categories, and preparation were recorded. The plant specimens were collected and identified to scientific names which deposited at CMUB herbarium, Department of Biology, Chiang Mai University. The results found that the total of 208 species belong to 168 genera and 76 families were used by the Lua in Ban Numpae. They were classified into 6 groups according to their uses including food (148 species), medicine (22 species), building and utensils (18 species), ceremony or ritual (13 species), economic plants (11 species) and miscellaneous plants (23 species). Some species were used in more than one category for example; Castanopsis acuminatissima (Blume) A. DC., Averrhoa carambola L., Piper betle L. Among these plants, several plants were interesting. Arenga westerhoutii Griff. had a high potential to be an economic. The Caryota obtusa Griff. edible plant which was a rare endemic species and its growth rate was very slow. It should be concern about their conservation and replanting.



Morphology of snail-eating turtles (Genus Malayemys) in Northeastern Thailand

สัณฐานวิทยาของเต่าสกุลเต่านา (Genus Malayemys) ในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือ ประเทศไทย

มนทกานต์ โมฆรัตน์ จุฑามาศ นาคำ ภูวเนศวร์ พยัพพานนท์ อติพร ผลเจริญ ทศพล ไชยอนันต์พร เขมิกา ลมไธสง และ ศรัณย์ เกียรติมาลีสถิตย์*

We investigated species, distribution and some morphological characteristics of snail-eating turtles captured from 19 provinces in Northeastern Thailand except Loei Province. Some morphological characteristics of snail-eating turtle were used to classify the specimens from Northeastern Thailand into 3 species including Malayemys khoratensis, M. subtrijuga and M. macrocephala. Field surveys presented that M. khoratensis is dominant in Northeastern Thailand. It was found above the Mun River (16 provinces), while M. subtrijuga was found only below the Mun River (4 provinces). Moreover, M. macrocephala was found in Nakhon Ratchasima province and Udon Thani province. Two species (M. khoratensis and M. subtrijuga) coexisted in Ubon Ratchathani province, and M. khoratensis and M. macrocephala coexisted in Nakhon Ratchasima and Udon Thani province.



Cytogenetics of Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy) using Giemsa’s Staining

พันธุศาสตร์ระดับเซลล์ของปลาแรด (Osphronemus goramy) จากการย้อมสีแบบจิมซ่า

อนันต์ เคนท้าว และ ประวีรณ์ สุพรรณอ่วม*

Cytogenetics of giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) collected from natural habitat in Ubon Ratchathani province was studied. Twenty individuals comprising of 10 male and 10 female fish were used as analyzed specimens. Chromosomes were prepared from kidney and gill tissues by direct method. Twenty percent Giemsa’s staining was applied to stain the mitotic chromosomes. The standardized karyotype and idiogram were the evaluated. The results showed that diploid chromosome of O. goramy was 2n=48. The autosomes consist of 32 large telocentric, 14 medium telocentric, 2 small telocentric chromosomes. Fundamental number (NF) was 48 both of male and female. There was no significant difference in sex chromosome. The karyotype formula is as follows: 2n = 48 = Lt32 + Mt14 + St2



Comparative Study of PHITS and FLUKA for Cosmic Radiation Shielding Evaluations of Low Density and Small Atomic Mass Number Materials

การศึกษาเปรียบเทียบโปรแกรมฟิทส์และฟลุก้าเพื่อประเมินประสิทธิภาพการกําบัง รังสีคอสมิกของวัสดุที่มีความหนาแน่นต่ำและเลขมวลน้อย

Dumrongsak Rodphothong* Tanin Nutaro and Alejandro Saiz Rivera

The two well-known Monte Carlo transport codes called FLUKA and PHITS have been used for comparing the cosmic radiation shielding properties of various low density and small mass number materials that are used for spacecraft constructing materials or components.  The work is focused on the evaluation of shielding efficiency of the materials exposed to a known Solar Particle Event sources. Then we compared their effectiveness with aluminum which is the main primary metal used in spacecraft by employing FLUKA and PHITS programs. The shielding materials are liquid hydrogen, water, polyethylene and aluminum. The shielding efficiency of materials is evaluated by comparing the amount of dose absorbed by the water. The absorption doses obtaining from each material are compared with the aluminum. The efficiency comparison is made by fixing the area density of a shielding material. We found that liquid hydrogen, polyethylene and water all outperform the aluminum for Solar Particle Event Shielding. We also found that FLUKA and PHITS are alternate codes that will be produced a very similar computational results for these circumstances.



Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering with metal, transition, and oxide modes

ฟิล์มบางซิงค์ออกไซด์เจืออะลูมินัมที่เตรียมด้วยเทคนิครีแอคทีฟดีซีแมกนีตรอนสปัตเตอริง โดยโหมดโลหะ โหมดทรานซิชัน และโหมดออกไซด์

อัญธิกา ละครไชย อาทิตย์ ฉิ่งสูงเนิน* และ พิษณุ พูลเจริญศิลป์

In this work, the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared using the reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The Zn/Al alloy with 2 wt% of aluminum and 2 inch of diameter was used as a target. The glass slide and p-type Si (100) wafer were used as a substrate. The deposition time of 5 min, power of 150 W, and argon flow rate of 10 sccm were used as the controlled parameter. While the discharge voltage and the oxygen flow rate were adjusted corresponding to the metal, transition, and oxide modes. The electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films were characterized by Hall effect measurement and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the AZO thin films prepared by the discharge voltage of 370-380 V and the oxygen flow rate of 4.32-4.42 sccm which is corresponding to oxide mode gives the highest value of figure of merit. This result shows that the film has the highest ratio of the optical transmission and sheet resistance. The structural property of the AZO thin films was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). It is observed that the AZO thin films are predominantly oriented at c-axis (002) and achieved high crystalline quality.



An Analysis of Influencing Factors for the Purchase Decision on E-commerce of Khon Kaen University Undergraduate Students

การวิเคราะห์ปัจจัยที่มีผลต่อการตัดสินใจซื้อสินค้าหรือบริการบนพาณิชย์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์ของนักศึกษาปริญญาตรี มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น

วิชุดา ไชยศิวามงคล* กุลยา พัฒนากูล ธนพงศ์ อินทระ พลากร สีน้อย ภัทราพร เม้ามีศรี และจริยา กองแก้ว

In the digital age, Electronic commerce (E-commerce) has unarguably become an important channel for exchanging goods and services. This phenomenal along with Thailand 4.0 has transformed how Thai people live especially for adolescents. This research looked at a population of 31,328 Khon Kaen University undergraduate students to analyze factors which influence the population to make a purchase on E-commerce platforms. This population was drawn from 3 groups: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Faculty of Health Science, and the Faculty of Pure Science and Technology. The quantitative research was conducted on a sample size of 395 students by having them answer a questionnaire. The data analysis is based on descriptive statistics. First, factor analysis is used to incorporate related variable into the same factor. Secondly, the factor score is used to analyze variance and compare the significance level of each factor across 3 groups. Lastly, ordered logistic regression analysis is applied to study important factors which affected purchase decisions. The study found that the 42 variables used in the study could be grouped into eight factors. The most important factor for purchase decision is online purchasing behavior of friends and family in the digital age. The second important factor is the quality of products or services as well as clarity of the product or service information, including after-sales service under reliable data security. Therefore, to develop and customize an E-commerce website to target student customers, entrepreneurs should take into account not only the quality of products and services but also shop reputation and customer feedbacks. Lastly, customer data privacy and reliability of the payment are other important aspects about which the entrepreneurs need to consider.



An Application of Generalized Sundman Transformations to Linearization of Systems of Third-order Ordinary Differential Equations

การประยุกต์ใช้การแปลงของซันด์แมนแบบวางนัยทั่วไปในการทำให้เป็นเชิงเส้น ของระบบสมการเชิงอนุพันธ์สามัญอันดับสาม

Sittichai Ronnui and Warisa Nakpim*



The Explicit Expression of Average Run Length for ARFIMAX (1, d, 1) Procedure

สูตรสำเร็จของความยาววิ่งเฉลี่ยสำหรับกระบวนการ ARFIMAX (1,d,1)

Piyaphon Paichit

The purpose of this research was to derive the Explicit Expression of ARL for Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are explained by ARFIMAX (1,d,1) process with exponential white noise. The results of the ARL obtained from the Explicit Expression and Integral Equation (IE) were in good accordance, with the Explicit Expression taking time to calculate ARL.