ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 47 No.3 July - September 2019



























All Solid-State Li-ion Batteries


ปุรุเมธ พิพิธวรกุล และ นงลักษณ์ มีทอง*

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used as energy storage due to their high energy density compared to lead-acid batteries and other heavy-metal batteries. However, current LIBs use flammable organic solvents and conductive salts as electrolytes resulting in safety concerns. Replacement of liquid electrolytes with inorganic solid electrolytes can address these safety issues. This technology is called an “all solid-state LIBs” and can be applied over a wide range of temperatures and voltage. Although these batteries are very safe, the performance of a particular battery depends on the type of solid inorganic electrolyte used. Each electrolyte has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of electrolytes for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries depends on the environment in which they will operate and the specific battery requirements.



Rheology of Generized Newtonian Fluids


ชาญยุทธ โกลิตะวงษ์

Polymer processing such as injection molding, extrusion or compression molding deals with a polymer melt flows between gaps or channels of a production mold. The flow characteristics of the melt in the channels are considered shear flows which express non-Newtonian behaviors. The non-Newtonian flow behavior is normally different from Newtonian one in that the non- Newtonian fluids are mostly a function of shear rate . In this article, we introduce some generalized Newtonian fluids (GNF) which are wildly used in polymer processing, for example, power-law, Carreau-Yasuda, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley fluids.



Diversity of Fish in Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province

ความหลากชนิดของปลาในแม่น้ำโขง จังหวัดนครพนม

นันทวัน เอื้อวงศ์กูล* ชนาพร รัตนมาลี และศักดา ดาดวง

The work aimed to survey of fish diversity in Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom province from 6 stations during March to December 2016. The results showed that 8,388 samples were classified into 11 orders 19 families 56 genera 82 species. The highest diversity was Cypriniformes consisted of 3 families 37 species. The second was Siluriformes consisted of 6 families 30 species. The third was Tetraodontiformes consisted of 1 families 4 species, followed by Anabantiformes, Clupeiformes and Synbranchiformes, respectively, with consisted of 1 families 2 species, each, the lowest diversity was Cichliformes, Gobiiformes, Osteoglossiformes, Pleuronectiformes and Spariformes, (1 species, each). Paralaubuca barroni had the highest Diversity Index as 10.464. Species Diversity Index and Richness Index was 3.342 and 8.855, respectively. In this study, endangered fish species of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) were found namely, Tenualosa thibaudeaui and Datnioides undecimradiatus. Moreover, vulnerable fish species of IUCN were found namely, Mekongina erythrospila and Pseudolais micronemus.



A Facile Synthesis of LiZnPO4 via thermal transformation of α -LiZnPO4 H2O - IR and Raman spectroscopic studies

การสังเคราะห์ LiZnPO4 อย่างง่ายโดยผ่านการเปลี่ยนแปลงเชิงความร้อนของ α-LiZnPO4·H2O –การศึกษาสเปกโทรสโกปีอินฟราเรดและรามาน

Nantawat Phonchan, Pittayagorn Noisong,*, Chanaiporn Danvirutai and Sujittra Youngme

The α-LiZnPO4·H2O was synthesized via a facile synthesis in an aqueous solution at ambient temperature. Its deuterated analogue was synthesized using the same manner and the calcined product LiZnPO4 was obtained at low heating temperature. The chemical formula and crystal structure of α-LiZnPO4·H2O and its calcined product were characterized by using TG, DSC, XRD, FTIR and FT Raman methods. The FTIR/FT Raman spectra of the deuterated analogue were reported in this work and the vibrational behaviors of all samples were studied. The relation between FTIR/FT Raman spectroscopic study and the correlation field splitting analysis are discussed. The correlation field splitting analysis of H2O and HOD molecules in α-LiZnPO4·H2O are symbolized as C2v–C1–C2v9 and Cs–C1–C2v9, respectively, which suggested the number of vibrational modes to be: ΓVib = 3A1 + 3A2 + 3B1 + 3B2 for both species. Thus, the 27 internal vibrational modes are infrared active and 36 are Raman active. In the case of PO43-, It exhibits 18 IR [6A1 + 6B1 + 6B2] and 36 Raman [9A1 + 9A2 + 9B1 + 9B2] active bands. The distance between oxygen atoms (RO×××O) and the enthalpy of hydrogen bonding (DHH) of the studied hydrate were estimated from the spectroscopic data.



The study of karyotype, meiotic cell and sex chromosome behavior in male religious mantis (Mantis religiosa siedleckii (Linnaeus, 1758))

การศึกษาแคริโอไทป์ เซลล์ไมโอซิส และพฤติกรรมโครโมโซมเพศของตั๊กแตนตำข้าวยุโรปเพศผู้ (Mantis religiosa siedleckii (Linnaeus, 1758))

อิสสระ ปะทะวัง* และ อลงกลด แทนออมทอง

Mitotic and meiotic studies of the male religious mantis, Mantis religiosa siedleckii (Linnaeus, 1758), from Chiang Mai Province in Thailand were investigated. The mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were prepared directly from male testis tissue by colchicine-hypotonic-fixation technique. Conventional Giemsa and silver-NOR staining techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of the male religious mantis, M. religiosa siedleckii, was 2n = 27 including 24 autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes. The types of sex chromosome observed were X1 chromosome, X2 chromosome and Y chromosome. We found that during prophase I the homologous chromosomes showed synapsis, which can be defined as the 12 bivalents and 1 trivalent. The trivalent was synapsis by end by end between X1, X2 and Y chromosomes. The metaphase II comprises 2 types that included 13 haploid chromosomes, one of which to be Y chromosome, and 14 haploid chromosomes with X1 and X2 chromosomes. We also observed distinctive nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) at the region adjacent to the long arms near the telomere of X1 chromosome and short arms near the telomere of Y chromosome.

The karyotype formula of the male religious mantis was deduced as: 2n (27) = 24 autosomes + sex chromosomes X1X2Y



Distribution and Abundance of Sea Cucumber in Phang-Nga Bay


ทนงศักดิ์ จันทร์เมธากุล

The study sites are located within two different ecosystems, the coral reef and seagrass bed within Phang-Nga Bay. For coral reef, there were 10 stations, which were divided into two zones, the reef flat and reef slope. For seagrass bed, there were also 10 stations, which were divided into two zones, the intertidal zone and the submerge zone. The distribution and abundance of sea cucumbers was recorded with 200 x6 m belt transects (of 1200 m2 area) with 3 replicated. There were six species of sea cucumbers recorded during the survey, i.e. Cercodemas anceps, Holothuria scabra, Holothuria leucospilota, Holothuria atra, Synapta maculata and unidentified species is Synaptid sp.1 The abundance of sea cucumber was highly varied on species and habitat. The number of sea cucumbers recorded in the coral reef were higher than in the seagrass bed. The density of sea cucumbers was highest at the Leam Panwa reef, where H. leucospilota was the most abundant species with 0.5017+0.0525 individual/m2.



Kinetic study and pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) and palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) for bio-oil production

การศึกษาจลนพลศาสตร์และกระบวนการไพโรไลซิสของกะลาปาล์ม และทะลายปาล์มเพื่อผลิตน้ำมันชีวภาพ

ญาณิศา ฉันทานุมัติ วรศักดิ์ เพชรวโรทัย และ นีรนุช ภู่สันติ*

This research investigated the chemical composition, thermal behavior and kinetics of the pyrolysis process of palm kernel shell (PKS) and palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), which are the wastes from the oil palm industries. The chemical composition of bio-oil produced by pyrolysis process with the fixed bed reactor was also studied. The result showed that PKS had higher content of volatile matter, carbon content and calorific value; while, it had lower oxygen content and ash content than those of EFB. The thermal behavior obtained from TGA at heating rate of 20 °C/min showed that there were three steps of thermal degradation of both PKS and EFB. The first step involved the moisture evaporation and thermal degradation of main decompositions (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) was in the second step. The last step was the slow decomposition of carbonaceous material. The activation energies of both sample were analyzed by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method presented in the same range (232-237 kJ/mol) without difference between two methods. Bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis process at 500 °C was analyzed by GC/MS. These bio-oil consisted of aromatic, aliphatic, fatty acid, oxygenated and nitrogenated compounds. The fatty acids were the main compound found in bio-oil from EFB; while, aromatic hydrocarbons were the major product in bio-oil from PKS. Therefore, PKS and EFB have potential for energy application and the pyrolysis oil is considered as a chemical source and can be upgraded to commercial fuels.



Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from Oroxylum indicum leaves


สุจิตรา ยาหอม* และ รุ่งฤดี ทิวทอง

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz is a traditional medicine used in Asia for the treatment and prevention of several diseases including respiratory diseases, diarrhea and dysentery. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of 4 crude extracts of O. indicum leaf, obtained using the solvents hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol. Solutions containing 10 mg / ml of the crude extracts were dissolved in 50% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and tested against 6 microorganisms by the agar well diffusion method. Methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of O. indicum leaf were found to inhibit Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococcus epidermidis DMST 15505 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, but were inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The methanol and ethanol extracts generated the largest zones of inhibition, their mean sizes being 6.33±1.53 and 5.67±1.15 mm, respectively. Upon subsequent quantitative testing, the methanol extract of O. indicum leaf was found to completely inhibit microbial growth, its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values identified as being between 25 and 50 mg / ml. In conclusion, O. indicum leaf extract contains antimicrobial compounds that could be useful as pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.



Color, Pigments and Antioxidant Quality of Red Yeast Rice (angkak) Fermented by Various Rice Varieties

ค่าสี รงควัตถุ และคุณภาพการต้านออกซิเดชันของข้าวแดง (อังคัก) ที่หมักจากข้าวต่างสายพันธุ์

เกตุการ ดาจันทา* อุทัยวรรณ ฉัตรธง และหทัยทิพย์ ร้องคำ

The present study was designed to investigate color, pigments and antioxidant quality of methanolic extract of Monascus fermented various Thai varieties of rice compared with their unfermented rice. The glutinous rice (RD6) and non-glutinous rices (Khao Gaw Diaw 35, Khao Dawk Mali 105, Khao Dawk Mali Surin and Pathumthani 1) were fermented by Monascus sp. PSRU03 for 10 days at 30°C and dryness. The results showed that the L* value (lightness color) of rice was 63-69% decreased after fermentation, while the a* value (redness color) was 1,044-1,239% increased. The pigments and total extractable phenolic compounds were only found in monascal rice with the contents of 108.70 (RD6) – 353.4 (Khao Dawk Mali 105) units/g DM and 7.94 (RD6) – 12.33 (Khao Dawk Mali 105) mg GAE/g DM, respectively. In addition, yellow pigment was found to be the major constituent with 48-56% proportion of total pigments. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of red yeast rice extracts evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition on lipid peroxidation methods was found to be better than the unfermented rice extracts and non-glutinous red yeast rice showed higher antioxidant activity than glutinous rice product.



Nutritional Value and Quality Change of Sea Grapes (Caulerpa lentillifera) After Harvesting

คุณค่าทางโภชนาการ และการเปลี่ยนแปลงคุณภาพ ของสาหร่ายพวงองุ่น (Caulerpa lentillifera) หลังการเก็บเกี่ยว

นพรัตน์ มะเห* มาโนช ขำเจริญ และ ดลฤดี พิชัยรัตน์

The objective of this study was to investigate nutritional value and quality change of sea grapes (Caulerpa lentillifera) after harvesting. For nutritional value evaluation of fresh sea grapes, the content of moisture, protein, fat ash, carbohydrate, crude fiber, amino acid vitamin and mineral were analyzed. The toxic heavy metals were also analyzed. For quality change of sea grapes, pigment, antioxidant and total variable count (TVC) were analyzed. The result showed that the content of moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate were 94.40%, 1.34%, 0.00%, 2.80% and 1.45% respectively, while crude fiber was 0.02%. The highest content of amino acid was arginine (251.94 mg/100 g) followed by methionine (128.06 mg/100 g) and lysine (104.28 mg/100 g). 9 types of mineral and vitamin (calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, sodium, riboflavin (B2), vitamin C and vitamin A) were analyzed, only vitamin C and vitamin A were not found. Toxic heavy metals that analyzed were under standards. After storage at room temperature for 10 days, pigment contents (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) of sea grape were decreased.  During storage, total variable counts were increased and out of standard after 10 days of storage. Phenolic compound was quite stable while trend of ferric reducing antioxidant power was decreased. Then sea grape should be storage not more than 1 week at room temperature for good nutritional value and microbiological safety.



Evaluation of Antioxidant Property and Total Phenolic Content of Instant Flower Tea Powder from Curcuma sessilis Gage., Clitoria ternatea Linn. and Bombax anceps Pierre.

การประเมินฤทธิ์ต้านอนุมูลอิสระและปริมาณสารประกอบฟีนอลิกทั้งหมด ของชาดอกไม้ชนิดผงปรุงสำเร็จจากกระเจียวแดง อัญชัน และงิ้วป่า

จตุพร ประทุมเทศ* กัลยารัตน์ ทัศน์จันดา จันทร์สวย เทวสรรเสริญ รณชัย ภูวันนา และจารุวรรณ ดรเถื่อน

Tea is one of functional drink offer numerous benefits such as the maintenance of good health due to its antioxidant property. Thus, instant tea powder from flower is an interesting alternative product for consumers. This work aims to develop 9 formulation of instant flower tea powder from Curcuma sessilis Gage., Clitoria ternatea Linn. and Bombax anceps Pierre. Also the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities were investigated by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity assay. The results demonstrated that each formulation showed statistically significant in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). The formulation No. 3 (Curcuma sessilis Gage at ratio between herbal solution and sugar of 2:1 by weight) exhibited the highest total phenolic content of 457.35 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g. Moreover, formulation No. 3 (Curcuma sessilis Gage. at ratio between herbal solution and sugar of 2:1 by weight) exhibited the greatest percent of DPPH radical scavenging activity of 96.69 ± 0.00 % and IC50 of 0.06 ± 0.00 g/ml. Conclusively, Curcuma sessilis Gage. shows effectively antioxidant property which is suitable to develop as instant flower tea powder product for health care and reducing the risk of diseases such as cancer, heart diseases and cardiovascular diseases.



Bioaugmentation of Lead Accumulation in Rice


ธนิกา น้อยถนอม จินตนาถ วงศ์ชวลิต และธนวรรณ พาณิชพัฒน์*

This research investigated bioaugmentation of lead accumulation in rice by comparing various treatments of bacteria (TK1, TK3, RV2, RV4) and evaluating lead accumulation in different parts of plant. The results showed that in term of growth performance (stem height, dry weight, fresh weight), there was no significant difference between rice plants grown in uncontaminated and lead contaminated soils (P>0.05). The highest lead accumulation was found in roots of TK3 (57.67 mg kg-1), followed by shoot of TK3 (19.50 mg kg-1), and grain of RV2 (0.55 mg kg-1). The experimental rice in this study was not suitable for phytoremediation because the values of BCF and TF values were less than 1. BCF is capable to accumulate metals from soils, while TF indicated as the ability to translocate metals from the roots to the shoots and Bacillus subtilis strain EB31 from TK1, isolated from rhizosphere of rice, had the highest potential for lead bioremediation. Bioaugmentation of this research is used for reduction lead accumulation in rice by adding natural bacteria.



The Effects of Soil Minerals in Submerged Soil affecting Arsenic Accumulation of Canna glauca (L.)


จอมจันทร์ นทีวัฒนา* ศิริเพ็ญ ตรัยไชยาพร มะลิวัลย์ แซ่อุ้ย ประศักดิ์ ถาวรยุติการณ์ และสมพร ชุนห์ลือชานนท์

This research aimed to study the effects of soil minerals in experimental condition submerged soil to arsenic accumulation in Canna glauca (L.) including available P, extractable Fe, exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg. As a result, the ranges of soil mineral mean were available P, extractable Fe, exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg between 13.25 – 13.92, 478.17 – 528.83, 0.01642 – 0.02633, 735.33 – 1066.08 and 24.83 – 27.25 mg kg-1, respectively. Means of total arsenic accumulation of C. glauca in arsenate higher than arsenite treated soils were 159.08 and 122.17 mg kg-1. The tendency of total arsenic accumulation increased with the cultivation period being the highest value on 60 days. The factors predicting total arsenic accumulation of C.glauca were arsenic speciation, planting periods, pH, Eh, extractable Fe, exchangeable Al and Ca predicted 96%. The prediction model was -451.66 + 60.41 (arsenic speciation) + 35.66 (Day) + 22.51 (pH) - 0.50 (Eh) + 0.29 (extractable Fe) - 0.05 (exchangeable Ca) + 777.39 (exchangeable Al)



Application of Acidic Electrolyte Water for Disinfection In Water Supply Treatment

การประยุกต์ใช้น้ำอิเล็กโทรไลต์แบบกรดเพื่อฆ่าเชื้อโรค ในกระบวนการปรับปรุงคุณภาพน้ำประปา

ศิริอุมา เจาะจิตต์* วาริท เจาะจิตต์ ปนัดดา พิบูลย์ ภาณุพงศ์ เลี่ยมสว่าง และอรุณลักษณ์ กาญจนพิทักษ์

The objectives of this study are to compare the disinfection efficiency of acidic electrolyte water and chlorine in form of calcium hypochlorite, and to determine optimal conditions including disinfectant concentration, contact time, and pH in water supply treatment process for community. The results indicated that, to achieve 100% of disinfection using acidic electrolyte water, the optimal concentration, contact time, and pH were 2.5 ppm, 10 minutes, and 7, respectively. In case of calcium hypochlorite, it was found that the optimal concentration, contact time, and pH of calcium hypochlorite were 5 ppm, 30 minutes, and 7, respectively. After the disinfection process, it was found that there is no residual free chlorine left in the acidic electrolyzed water. Therefore, trihalomethane was not formed in this case. In contrast, the residual free chlorine was found when using calcium hypochlorite as disinfectant. The residual free chlorine is vital for water supply distribution system. Application of acidic electrolyte as disinfectant therefore is more suitable for bottled drinking water or small scale of water quality improvement unit rather than for water supply system.



Evolution of Eclipsing Binaries System AK CMi and V714 Mon

การวิวัฒนาการของระบบดาวคู่อุปราคา AK CMi และ V714 Mon

สุพัตรา วงศ์ศรียา

This research aims to study two close binary star systems in different evolution stages from the Roche model which consists of the Near-Contact Binaries (NCBs) and the Deep-Contact Binaries. In this study, two binary systems named AK CMi and V714 Mon are selected and observed at Regional Observatory for the Public, Nakhon Ratchasima provided by National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (Public Organization). The observation used a 0.5-metre reflector telescope with Blue (B) and Yellow (V) filters from the UBV photometric system. The results show that AK CMi is an Algol-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.5658966 days (13.60 hours) while V714 Mon is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary that has a relatively high degree of contact (49 %) with an orbital period of 0.3445142 days, 8.27 hours. The orbital period of these systems is continuously decreasing at 2.83 sec/yr and 1.43 with inclination of 77.39±0.69  and 77.74±0.16 degree, respectively. These result leads to the conclusion that both of them are the partial eclipse systems. Simulation of each system shows that stars in AK CMi system are main sequence stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with the spectral types of A3 and K2, respectively. The stars in V714 Mon are also main sequence stars in the H-R diagram as well, but both of them have similar spectral type A2 due to the property of Deep-Contact Binaries with slightly increasing as predicted by the Angular momentum loss theory (AML). Besides, according to this study, it is also found that the mass ratio of this system is continuously decreasing which implies that these systems have a constant mass transfer.



The Comparison of Parameters Efficiency of M-GRM Model between Posterior Predictive Model Method and Likelihood ratio Method with Monte Carlo Simulation Method

การเปรียบเทียบประสิทธิภาพพารามิเตอร์ของโมเดล M-GRM ระหว่างวิธีการประมาณค่าโมเดลเชิงพยากรณ์แบบ Posterior กับวิธี Likelihood ratio โดยการจำลองสถานการณ์แบบวิธีมอนติคาร์โล

เกียรติขร โสภณาภรณ์* ปิยะทิพย์ ประดุจพรม และกนก พานทอง

This research aims to compare the performance of M-GRM models parameter with Monte Carlo simulation based on approximation method of Posterior predictive model (when b = -2.5,  -2, 0, 1, 2, 2.5: c = 0.1,0.2, 0.3: = 0.3, 1.0, 1.7, = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 and = 50, 100, 200, 400 with 1,764 situations). For determination the unidimentional property of M-GRM using R Program to replicate 10,000 recursions with 1,764 situations, the sample size of 50, 100, 200, 400 was used. The result shows that the b parameter from posterior predictive model has more performance than likelihood method where as c parameter, form likelihood method has more performance in vice versus.



Estimation of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Coefficients with Multicollinearity by Ridge Regression and Cuckoo Search

การประมาณค่าสัมประสิทธิ์การถดถอยสำหรับข้อมูลที่มีปัญหาสหสัมพันธ์เชิงเส้นพหุ ด้วยวิธีการถดถอยแบบริดจ์และวิธีการค้นหาแบบนกกาเหว่า

พรทิวา ธรรมชัยหลง* และกุลจิรา กิ่งไพร

The purpose of this study is to estimate the coefficients in multiple linear regression analysis that has multicollinearity problems by the method of Ridge Regression by Hoerl, Kennard and Baldwin compare with those method by the Cuckoo Search using Mean Squared Error (MSE) as the objective function. The efficiency criteria are MSE and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF). The comparison, using a simulation data composes of 3 independent variables with a sample size 30 and a real data set consists of 14 independent variables with 252 observations. In the Cuckoo Search Algorithms, 5, 10 and 15 iterations of searching r constant in ridge, 20 nests and 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 repeated times are proposed. The result revealed that, the Ridge Regression by the Cuckoo Search with 15 iterations of searching r constant and 10,000 times of repetition gives the most appropriate regression coefficients. Moreover, those method by the Cuckoo Search also provides regression coefficients with lower MSE and VIF values than those method by Hoerl, Kennard and Baldwin in both data sets.



Selection of the Appropriate Forecasting Models for the Meat Type Chickens Prices


วรางคณา เรียนสุทธิ์