วิสสุตา บุญทา และ ศิรินันท์ กุลชาติ*
In recent years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have rapidly emerged as a prominent class of novel nanomaterials. They exhibit some unique and advantageous properties such as small size, absorption in both the ultraviolet and visible regions, strong and tunable photoluminescence, high photostability, and low toxicity thus high biocompatibility. GQDs can be synthesized through either “top-down” or “bottom-up” approaches which affect to their size, shape, and properties. They show enormous potential for many applications, for instance in sensing, photocatalysis, photovoltaics, bioimaging, and drug delivery. This review summarizes recent progress in the field, covering the properties of GQDs, methods for their fabrication, and their applications in many fields.
กัมปนาท ฉายจรัส* และ กัลย์ชิญาภัท อริยะเชาว์กุล
Globo H is a tumor-associated antigen which is found overexpressed on the cell surface of most cancers. This antigen can be used as an important biomarker for the specific study of the immune response. In clinical trials demonstrated that globo H-conjugate vaccine was effective in inducing humoral antibody response. The significant biological property of globo H have prompted many synthetic efforts toward this hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid as a therapeutic target. This review describes recent progresses in chemical and enzymatic synthesis of globo H for further developments of cancer immunotherapy.
นรินทร์ ท้าวแก่นจันทร์* ภาวิณี อารีศรีสม กอบลาภ อารีศรีสม สุพรรษา กัณทวงค์ และ ศักดิ์ชัย เสถียรพีระกุล
This research investigated the effects of four stages of harvest maturity (30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting) on secondary metabolites, antioxidant activities and yield of Celery. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The results showed yield of celery was highest with harvest maturity at 75 days. In addition, the flavonoid content, vitamin C, phenolic compound content and antioxidation activity in terms of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity were highest (3.81 mg QE/g DW, 7.83 mg/100 g, 18.90 mg GAE/g DW, 53.82% and 48.57%, respectively) when the plants were harvested at 30 days after planting
ดวงกมล แสงธีรกิจ ปาริสุทธิ์ เฉลิมชัยวัฒน์* ณัฐิรา อ่อนน้อม และ สรวิศ แจ่มจำรูญ
The objectives of this research were to study the effects of blanching time and sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation on physical, chemical and sensory quality of dried green peppercorns (Piper nigrum Linn.). A completely randomized design (CRD) was used to study four levels of blanching time which were 3, 5, 7 and 9 min. Non-blanched peppercorns served as a control. Then, threes levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation which were 15, 20 and 25 cm3 and drying at 50ºC for 24 h were studied. The results showed that increase the blanching time enhanced the lightness (L*), greenness (a*), %shrinkage and piperine content, but a significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in %yields, bulk density and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. After SO2 fumigation caused an increase in L* value, but a decrease in a* value. Increasing the amount of SO2 had no significant difference (p>0.05) on the L*, a*, %yields, %shrinkage and piperine content. The residue of SO2 significantly increased (p≤0.05) while PPO activities decreased. The results of sensory evaluation from Pad-cha-pla revealed that the liking score of flavor, pungency, taste and overall liking of dried green peppercorns were not significantly different from fresh green peppercorns (p>0.05). Therefore, the results from this study demonstrated that 7 min of blanching and 15 cm3 of SO2 fumigation could maintain the quality of dried green peppercorns with consumer acceptability. Finally, dried green peppercorns were safe for consumption, according to the standards of Codex Alimentarius (CXS 326-2017)
วิชมณี ยืนยงพุทธกาล* ณัฐชยา บุตรรอด และ พิชชานันท์ วิจิตรประไพ
This research was to study the effect of minced White Sea Bass meat and kappa-carrageenan on the quality of gel food from mung beans. The amount of minced White Sea Bass meat in the range of 2.0-10.0% and kappa-carrageenan in the range of 0.5-1.5% were carried out using Central Composite Design experiments. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the equation in terms of L * a * b * hardness and adhesiveness were reliable according to R2 range 0.973 - 0.999 and model significance less than 0.05. The equations of cohesiveness and sensory liking scores were not satisfied for prediction. Gel food containing 50.0% mashed mung beans, 10.0% minced White Sea Bass meat, 1.0% kappa-carrageen, 2.0% sugar, 0.2% salt and 36.8% water received the highest scores in terms of taste, texture and overall liking (P <0.05).
อุทัย ผ่องรัศมี* และ เสนีย์ ศิริไชย
The purposes of this research were to development of the oil splashing machine-fried foods of household and examine effect to the time of fried food. The sample three kids for fried of pork, chicken and beef for testing the water activity, fat quantity and peroxide value at seven, fifteen and thirty days. The research finding development important ingredient the machine base is square round head with was area 0.029 m2, centrifuge container with volume 4.082x10-3 m3 and motor power 0.30 kW (5,500 rpm). With testing speed control system at 3,500, 4,000 and 4,500 rpm. And finding fried food effect on time to three type water activity value 0.86 the fried food of storage in the refrigerator temperature at 20 - 25 oC specified period. The fried pork, chicken and beef analysis at 4,500 rpm finding 0.49, 0.51 and 0.53, 0.46, 0.48 and 0.50, and 0.50, 0.52 and 0.54. meq activity oxygen/kg-sample of peroxide value. The compare all fried food 30 days follow peroxide value and in accordance with the standards of community product. The results analysis fried chicken lowest peroxide value with kept for most days.
พรรณธิวา กำลังวรรรณ พิศิษฐ์ คำหน่อแก้ว วิรัตน์ เจริญบุญ สมัคร์ พิมานแพง* และ วิทยา อมรกิจบำรุง
CH3NH3Pb(SCN)2I (MAPb(SCN)2I) perovskite thin films were fabricated by the Sequential Dip-Coating method on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. This process consists of two steps; first step, the thin Pb(SCN)2 films were coated on the TiO2 films using five different Pb(SCN)2 concentrations (0.5 M, 1.0 M, 1.5 M, 2.0 M, 2.5 M, and 3.0 M), and the second step, the Pb(SCN)2 films were dipped into the MAI solution for 2 mins. The surface morphology of MAPb(SCN)2I films composes of the large polygon shape, and the films become more continuous with the increasing Pb(SCN)2 concentration. The hole-transport-layer (HTL) free MAPb(SCN)2I perovskite solar cells were assembled and tested. The carbon-based HTL-free MAPb(SCN)2I perovskite solar cells prepared from the 1 M Pb(SCN)2 film give the highest solar cell efficiency of 4.22%. This is because the MAPb(SCN)2I film prepared from the 1 M Pb(SCN)2 concentration has a relatively completed perovskite formation and the perovskite film almost covers the TiO2 surface.
นงนภัส หนูโสด และ นพมาศ โลกคำลือ*
The optimization of solvents of spirulina extract (Spirulina maxima) for inducing somatic embryo of Coffea arabica cv. Catimor CIFC 7963 was studied. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 5 µM N6–benzyladenine (BA) and the spirulina extract using distilled water (SPE/distilled water 3%) or hexane solvents at 3% (SPE/hexane 3%) (V/V) concentration. The cultures were maintained in dark condition at 25±2 ºC. The results showed that leaves developed into friable callus within one month. Some of the obtained calli developed into somatic embryos within 3 months. The percentages for somatic embryo induction were 76.67% (4.35±3.33 somatic embryo per explant) and 73.33% (4.00±2.18 somatic embryo per explant) which were obtained from the friable calli cultured on ½MS medium, 1 µM 2,4-D, and 5 µM BA supplemented with SPE/distilled water 3% and SPE/hexane 3%, respectively. This experiment revealed that the spirulina distilled water extract with 2,4-D and BA had influenced on C. arabica cv. Catimor CIFC 7963 somatic embryo development
Phu Pra Du Community Forest, Khon Buri District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province is a pattern for forest conservation in local community. Several activities were conducted for conservation, i.e., plant survey, forest conservation camp, reforestation, dam construction, fire protection trail. Fifty-two of 20´20 meter sampling plots and natural trails survey were used. The study found 69 families 205 genera and 258 species. Density, frequency, dominance, importance value index, and species diversity index of Shannon-Weiner were analyzed. The tree species showing highest important value index were Shorea obtusa Wall. ex Blume, Shorea siamensis Miq., and Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. var. kerrii (Craib & Hutch.) I.C. Nielsen. The understory species showing highest important value index were Vietnamosasa pusilla (A. Chev. & A. Camus) T.Q. Nguyen, Cyanotis axillaris D. Don ex Sweet, and Shorea obtusa Wall. ex Blume, respectively. The species diversity indices of tree and understory were 2.9191 and 2.4537, the evenness values were 0.6108 and 0.4627, and the species diversity values were 18.5255 and 11.6309, respectively. The dominant families were Fabaceae, Malvaceae, and Rubiaceae, respectively. There are 1 species of rare plant in Thailand, 5 species of rare plants (R), 3 species of vulnerable (VU), and 1 species of near threatened (NT)
สุรางค์รัตน์ พันแสง* และพวงผกา แก้วกรม
The objectives of this research were to evaluate anti-free radical and investigate antibacterial activities of some Thai medicinal plants. Five Thai medicinal plants were investigated i.e. Crateva religiosa Ham., Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms., Polygonum odoratum Lour., Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. and Hiptage candicans Hook.f.. The highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the crude extract of Hiptage candicans Hook.f. The concentration of total phenolics and flavonoids in this plant were 11.47±0.22 mg GAE/100 mg and 8.05±0.02 mg CE/100 mg, respectively. Moreover, crude extract of Hiptage candicans Hook.f. had a high effective on free radical scavenging activities of DPPH (The IC50 value were 0.25±0.00 mg/ml). ABTS assays; the IC50 value were 0.12±0.03 mg/ml, which had not effected on antibacterial
สุพิชญา ลดาวัลย์ นาถธิดา วีระปรียากูร เพลินทิพย์ ภูทองกิ่ง และ แคทรียา สุทธานุช*
“Yang-Na” (Dipterocarpus alatus) is a tree with a wide range of beneficial utilization, in particularly alternative energy area. Beside this, the bark part is of interest as a major deposited source of secondary metabolites that potentially have beneficial biofunctions, yet the limit of related scientific evidence is encountered. Therefore, to establish the supporting evidence for rationale utilization thereof, this research investigated the phytochemical contents and biological effects including determination of total phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidative (using DPPH and TBARS assays) and anti-tyrosinase activity in methanolic crude extract of Yang-Na bark (YNBE) using in vitro models. The results showed that YNBE highly contained phenolics with contents of 179.94 ± 0.45 mg GAE/g extract, while, the flavonoid contents was low as 2.64 ± 0.86 mg QE/g extract. Significantly, the good antioxidative and anti-tyrosinase effects were detected with concentration-dependent manner and IC50 of 42.98 ± 0.62 µg/mL in DPPH assay and of 36.63 µg/mL for anti-tyrosinase activity, respectively. This data evidenced the potential in developing and utilizing of the YNBE as an alternative cosmeceutical agent.
พิชิต โนนตูม สมจินตนา ทั่วทิพย์ อำภา คนซื่อ*
This study was aimed to determined antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of leaf extracts from Phlogacanthus pulcherrimus T. Anderson. The extracts were prepared by using different solvents (50% ethanol (PPHE), 80% ethanol (PPE) and water extracts using water bath (PPWB) and sonicator bath (PPSO), to enhance solubility. The results revealed that PPHE had the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 16.36±0.45 mg gallic acid equivalence /gram Extract and 10.82±0.54 mg quercetin equivalence / gram Extract, respectively. PPHE also showed the highest antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay with IC50= 0.63±0.04 mg/mL. PPE had the highest antioxidant capacity by FRAP and DPPH assay with FRAP values of 23.61±0.54 mg Trolox equivalence /gram Extract and and IC50 = 4.60±0.20 mg/mL, respectively. However, its free radical scavenging activity was less than the standard controls, ascorbic acid and Trolox. According to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity study, the aqueous extracts; PPSO and PPWB exerted more potent activity to inhibit α-glucosidase emzyme with IC50 = 0.24±0.00 and 0.32±0.08 mg/mL, respectively compared to standard control, acarbose (1.05±0.11 mg/mL). These results indicate that the ethanolic extracts; 50% ethanol (PPHE) and 80% ethanol (PPE) possess the highest effect on antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract using sonicator bath provided the most potent inhibiotory activity to against α-glucosidase enzyme. For the effectiveness and safety application of the extracts, further investigation on their chemical constituents, active compounds, mechanisms of action on hypoglycemic activity, and toxiciological study should be carried out for further development to anti-diabetic drug
พิไลวรรณ พรประสิทธิ์ และฐิตินันท์ รัตนพรหม*
The main objective of this research is to study the mechanical and physical properties of the composites made from aggregates (such as clay, sand, laterite and crushed stone) and vetiver grass fiber. The compositions of aggregates and vetiver grass fiber were varied at 100:0, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and 0:100, respectively. Latex compound with 20% dry rubber content (DRC) was used as a binder. The properties of composites including the bending test before and after aging, density and water absorption were investigated. The results indicated that composites with the ratio of aggregates and vetiver grass at 30:70 of each formula gave highest flexural strength before aging. Due to the highest flexural strength before aging (1,182 kPa) and water absorption (98.65%), composite made from laterite and vetiver grass fiber were chosen to study degradation test and the toxicity of composite on soil quality. It was found that composites made from laterite and vetiver grass fiber degraded after buried in soil for 90 days. The content of cadmium and chromium in soil were lower than those of the standard of soil quality for household and agriculture. Moreover, the degradation of composites caused an increase in the content of soil organic matter but did not alter in pH value of soil.
Nuntaporn Getlekha* and Alongklod Tanomtong2
Karyotype and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in the pomacentrid fish Neoglyphidodon nigrolis were studied. The specimen collected from the Andaman Sea (Thailand). We conducted conventional cytogenetic and Ag-positive NORs analyses in N. nigrolis. The chromosome number was observed to be 2n=48, the fundamental number was 84, and the karyotype consisted of 8 metacentric, 26 submetacentric, 2 acrocentric and 12 telocentric chromosomes with a large number of bi-armed chromosomes, where multiple pericentric inversions played a significant role in the karyotype organization. The Ag-NOR banding exhibited that a single pair of NORs was presented on telomeric regions of the short arms in a large acrocentric chromosomes pair 18. Basic knowledge on cytogenetics of damselfish would be applied for support on breeding, conservation and chromosome evolution in this fish. The karyotype formula of N. nigrolis is as follows: Lm2 + Lsm10 + La2 + Lt4 + Mm6 + Msm16 + Mt8 or 8m+26sm+2a+12t
สุปรียา สระโสม และ ธิดาเดียว มยุรีสวรรค์*
This research is to develop missing data imputation methods in dependent variable for multiple linear regression with missing at random in dependent variable, namely the Mean Regression Imputation method (MRI), the Expectation Maximization with Multiple Imputation method (EMMI) and the Nearest Average Regression Imputation method (NARI). Comparison of the efficiency of the develop methods with 6 methods, namely the Regression Imputation method (RI), the Stochastic Regression Imputation method (SRI), the K Nearest Neighbour Imputation method (KNN), the Expectation Maximization Algorithm method (EM), the Multiple Imputation method (MI) and the Proportioned Residual Draw Imputation method (PRD). The simulation study with R program where the standard deviations of error ( ) were set to be 5, 10 and 15, and sample sizes (n) were 30, 50, 100 and 200, and missing percentages were 5, 10, 15 and 20. The criteria for compare the performance is an Average Mean Square Error (AMSE). The results found that, the EMMI method has the best performance for all level of sample sizes at is equal to 5 and missing percentage is equal to 5. The MRI method performs better than the others at all level of sample sizes when is equal to 10 and missing percentage is equal to 5, and the MRI method still performs the best when is equal to 15 in all missing percentages and almost of all sample size levels. The result for real data at n = 50, the MRI method has the most effective in all level of missing percentages.