ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 48 No.3 July - September 2020























Antioxidant Activity Related to Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds from Seeds of Melastoma saigonense

ฤทธิ์ต้านออกซิเดชันที่สัมพันธ์กับสารฟินอลิกและสารฟลาโวนอยด์ จากเมล็ดของโคลงเคลงยวน

นัทธมน ประจุดทะศรี สุจินต์ อังกุราวิรุทธ์ และ มงคล นนทกิตติเจริญ*

This research focuses on the assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity, as well as phenolics and flavonoids characterization of crude extracts from seeds of Melastoma saigonense (Kuntze) Merr.Fresh seeds of M. saigonense were extracted successively with methanol, followed by sequential fractionation based on solvent polarity to afford four crude extracts, including n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic (967.22 ± 38.13 mg GAE/g DE) and flavonoid (850.84 ± 14.42 mg GAE/g DE) contents. Moreover, it also showed the highest antioxidant activity when determined by the DPPH (IC50 = 35.91 ± 0.16 µg/mL), ABTS (IC50 = 21.14 ± 0.56 µg/mL) and FRAP (30.20 ± 0.52 mmol Fe(II)/g DE) methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. RP-HPLC analysis suggested that sinapic acid is the predominant phenolic acid found in the ethyl acetate extract, while the predominant flavonoid is myricetin. Thus, the seed extracts of M. saigonense might be considered as a good candidate to use as a dietary supplement and natural medicinal products.



Bioinformatics and Expression Analysis of Pyridoxal Kinase in Vitamin B-6-producing Thermophilic Bacterium, Geobacillus sp. H6a

การศึกษาชีวสารสนเทศและการแสดงออกของ Pyridoxal kinase ในแบคทีเรียชอบร้อน Geobacillus sp. H6a ที่ผลิตวิตามินบีหก

ชัยนรินท์ ไวทยวรรณฐิติ ชิดชนก อนุตระกูลชัย และ ยานี ตรองพาณิชย์*

Pyridoxal kinase (pdxK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of vitamin B-6 with ATP and divalent metal ions. The physical and chemical characteristics, biological structure and the function of pyridoxal kinase of Geobacillus sp. H6a (Gh) were studied using multiple bioinformatics tools. The full length of GhpdxK was 810 bp encoding a protein of 269 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 29.06 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.56. The function domain of GhpdxK showed a high confidence level with pyridoxal kinase domain, a member of ribokinase/pfkB-like superfamily domain. The predicted three-dimensional structure of GhpdxK was a homodimer and very similar to pdxK of Bacillus subtilis. The analysis of multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree supported that GhpdxK shared high similarity with pdxK from Geobacillus spp. The GhpdxK expression pattern in culture condition and H2O2-induced oxidative stress were examined using RT-PCR. In the growth of Geobacillus sp. H6a, GhpdxK expression showed the highest expression level during the exponential phase. Under oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide, GhpdxK expression significantly decreased but total extracellular vitamin B-6 was significantly increased compared to the control. This is the first time to study pyridoxal kinase in vitamin B-6 producing thermophilic bacterium.



Karyological Analysis of Lesser Bamboo Rat, Cannomys badius (Rodentia, Rhizomyinae) by Classical and Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques

การวิเคราะห์แคริโอไทป์ของอ้นเล็ก (Cannomys badius) ด้วยเทคนิคทางพันธุศาสตร์ระดับเซลล์แบบดั้งเดิมและระดับโมเลกุล

สุมาลี พิมพันธ์ุ* รัตนาภรณ์ โรจน์รุ่ง สุรเชษฐ เอี่ยมสำอาง กาญจน์ คุ้มทรัพย์ และ อลงกลด แทนออมทอง

The lesser bamboo rat (Cannomys badius) from Phetchabun Province, Thailand was cytogenetically studied by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Blood samples were taken from lesser bamboo rat and then subjected to standard whole blood T-Lymphocyte culture. The chromosomes were harvested by colchicine-hypotonic-fixation-air drying technique. Conventional, Ag-NOR banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used to apply on the metaphase chromosomes. The results showed that the karyotype of lesser bamboo rat had the diploid chromosome number of 2n=50 and the fundamental number (NF) of 94. The autosomes consisting of 12 large acrocentric, two medium submetacentric, 10 medium acrocentric, four small metacentric, six small submetacentric, eight small acrocentric and six small telocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome is the largest metacentric chromosome. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were observed in the short arms of chromosome pairs 7, 10 and 17 for the first time. In addition, the molecular probe, microsatellite d(CA)15 was revealed the hybridization signal detected at subcentromeric region in the long arms of chromosomes pair 13. The obtained results suggested that NORs and microsatellite d(CA)15 probe can be used as specific markers for this species. Our results are also fulfilled the basic cytogenetic knowledge for C. badius.



First Cytogenetic Report of Painted Bronzeback (Dendrelaphis pictus, Colubrinae) by Giemsa’s Staining

รายงานพันธุศาสตร์ระดับเซลล์ครั้งแรกของงูสายม่านพระอินทร์ (Dendrelaphis pictus, Colubrinae) ด้วยการย้อมสีโครโมโซมแบบจิมซ่า

ประวีรณ์ สุพรรณอ่วม* สราวุธ แก้วศรี อิสสระ ปะทะวัง สิทธิศักดิ์ จันทรัตน์ ศรัณย์ จำรัสธนสาร และ อลงกลด แทนออมทอง

This study is the first cytogenetic study of painted bronzeback (Dendrelaphis pictus). Ten male and ten female snakes from Maha Sarakham province were treated by 0.03% colchicine for 18 hours. The chromosomes prepared from spleen and intestine using squash technique. Then, Hypotonic-fixation-air-drying technique was applied. The chromosomes were stained with 20% Giemsa’s solution. The karyotype showed the 2n=36 comprises 16 macrochromosomes and 20 microchromosomes. The macrochromosomes comprises 2 metacentric, 10 submetacentric and 2 telocentric chromosomes. The sex chromosome system is ZZ/ZW. The Z-chromosome is submetacentric and W-chromosome is telocentric chromosome. The secondary constrictions were found on the long arm of submetacentric chromosome pair 2. The ten pairs of microchromosomes are dot-like chromosome which cannot classify the type of chromosomes. The painted bronzeback has karyotypic formular as follows:

2n = 36 = Lm2 + Lsm4 + Msm2 + Ssm4 + St2 + ZZ/ZW + 20 microchromosomes



Mollusc diversity in the plant genetic protection area of Srinagarind Dam, Sisawat District, Kanchanaburi Province

ความหลากหลายของมอลลัสค์ในพื้นที่ปกปักพันธุกรรมพืช เขื่อนศรีนครินทร์ อำเภอศรีสวัสดิ์ จังหวัดกาญจนบุรี

วีระชน สว่างเพราะ* ไพพรรณ แพเจริญ ยุทธนา พันธุ์กมลศิลป์ และ จตุรงค์ จันทร์สี่ทิศ

Kanchanaburi province harbours many kinds of molluscs due to its geographic location at the center of two zoogeographical zones and humid climate. In this study, land molluscs (i.e. live and dead specimens) were sampled monthly by a combination of quadrat sampling technique using PVC frame (1x1 m2) and leaf litter/topsoil sieving technique along five trails in every 100 meters, whereas, aquatic molluscs were collected by hands at three aquatic sites (20-minute search each). The sampling was conducted from November 2008 to October 2009 in the Plant Genetic Protection Area of Srinagarind dam, Sisawat district, Kanchanaburi province. In total, 861 individuals of molluscs representing 11 families, 13 genera, 14 species, and 4 subspecies were found. The three most abundant species were Cyclophorus siamensis Sowerby, 1850 (17.77 %), Cryptozona siamensis Pfeiffer, 1856 (16.72 %), and Anentome helena Philippi, 1847 (13.24 %), respectively. Our result revealed a high Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H' = 2.27) meaning molluscs were distributed more equitably among species. Low species richness probably resulted from the proximity of the study area to the nearby human community, where disturbance frequently occurs.



Effect of Temperature and Time on Beta Glucan Content and Characteristic of Dried Split Gill Mushroom

ผลของอุณหภูมิและระยะเวลาต่อปริมาณเบตากลูแคน และคุณลักษณะทางกายภาพ ของเห็ดแครงอบแห้ง

เอื้อพร จรัสเพิ่มสุข กานต์สุดา วันจันทึก* และ อำพร แจ่มผล

The objective of this research is to study the effect of temperature and time on beta glucan for maintains the beta glucan content and characteristic of dried split gill mushroom. The experiment was carried out based on 3x3 factorial experiments in CRD. The temperature and time of drying process were tasted at 50, 60 and 70 degree celsius and 6, 8 and 10 hours respectively. The drying process of split gill mushroom at 70 degree celsius for 6 hours resulted in the highest content of beta glucan, that was 54.12 ± 0.75 g (dry weight). The water activity (aw) was 0.27 ± 0.08. The moisture was percent 5.79 ± 2.16 g (dry weight). The color value L*, a* and b* of this condition were 63.26 ± 1.14, 5.76 ± 0.27 and 20.52 ± 0.79, respectively. However, the drying process at 50 degree celsius for 6 hours showed the lowest content of beta glucan. The present study suggests that the appropriated temperature and time for drying process would be better for preserving beta glucan content in food preservation using drying process.



Study on Knowledge of Medicinal Plant Formulas for Dermatitis Treatment Recorded in Palm Leaf Manuscripts of Isan

การศึกษาองค์ความรู้ของตำรับยาสมุนไพรรักษาโรคผิวหนังอักเสบ ที่บันทึกในเอกสารใบลานอีสาน

ชินพัฒน์ เฉลิมรัมย์* และ สุทธิรา เซดลัค

This study is a qualitative research done by collecting, examining and analyzing the data regarding use of medicinal plant formulas to treat skin disorders. Data were collected from the palm leaf manuscripts of Sakon Nakhon Province, which has been translated in 33 copies, together with the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion with key informants. The results showed that disease appearing in the palm leaf manuscripts has several names which are Tumkun, Kunkai, Òktum, Òkkai and Pradongkun. The symptoms can be comparable with that of Tachophikan in Thai traditional medicine and Dermatitis in modern medicine. Based on the study, 26 formulas were found which consisted of 61 plant species. The roots were the most frequently used parts in drug formulation (63.38%) and medicinal plants mostly have bitter flavor. The aqueous adjuvants are mostly rainwater. Most of the medications were prepared as rubbing on stone and most frequently used form of external administration of medicinal plants was unguent. Literature review found that the medicinal plants used in the formulation have the mechanism of action consistent with the drugs used to treat dermatitis of modern medicine, including anti-inflammatory, wound healing, analgesic and immunomodulating, which is relevant to treatment and help relieve inflammation of the skin.



Species Diversity of Understory Plant in Khok Nong Khwang Forest, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Province

ความหลากชนิดของไม้พื้นล่างในป่าโคกหนองขวาง อำเภอกันทรวิชัย จังหวัดมหาสารคาม

ศรายุทธ รักอาชา* สุรพล แสนสุข และปิยะพร แสนสุข

Study species diversity of understory plant in Khok Nong Khwang Forest, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Province was conducted between January to December 2016 by using line transect methods in 3.5 km covering the study area. Phenological data, scientific names and plant specimens were provided. A total of 40 family, 103 genera, and 121 species were enumerated. The Fabaceae are the most diverse species with 15 species. Moreover, Olax psittacorum (Lam.) Vahl have been evaluated as of critically endangered (CR) and twenty-three species were evaluated in least concern (LC) by the IUCN Red List.



Genera Composition and Status of Stony Coral at Koh Ngai, Lan-ta National Park, Krabi, Thailand

องค์ประกอบสกุลและสถานภาพของปะการังแข็ง บริเวณเกาะไหง อุทยานแห่งชาติหมู่เกาะลันตา จังหวัดกระบี่

ศักราช พัฒน์เอี่ยม ยุทธการ สวนแก้ว ฑิฆัมพร ว่องธวัชชัย และ เอกนรินทร์ รอดเจริญ*

Thai coral reefs have been affected and destroyed from various direct and indirect human activities; such as, coral colony broken by fisherman anchor, coral tissue wounded by tourist standing on, water pollution and herbivore behavior influence by the over fish-feeding. Therefore, coral reef inventory and monitoring is needed in many tourist sites in Thailand. This study examined the current coral status at two sites (the North-East, NE and the South Station, S) of Koh Ngai, which is located on the Lan-ta National Park at Trang Province. The coral percent coverage and genus identification were done using photo quadrat transect method. A 90 m transect was laid horizontally to the shoreline in each of the two study sites. In total, 180 coral pictures were taken from each site site. Coral percent coverages were analyzed using CPCe program. NE represented higher genera than S with 14 and 20 genera respectively. However, Porites was the dominant genus in the both stations. The similarity of coral genera composition between stations and within station were analysed by UPGMA cluster analysis. The similarity between the two stations was 42.24%. The similarity of coral genera composition within station NE and S station was 49.46% and 60.14% respectively. The ratio of healthy corals to dead corals in NE station was 1:1 with 41.97±5.09% and 58.02±4.70%, and in S station was 1:2 with 39.10±5.99% and 59.23±6.56% respectively. The evaluation of coral ratio at Koh Ngai can be concluded to fair condition for NE stations and declining for S stations. This result would be useful for future comparable status the tourist increasing.



Purification and Characterization of G-type Lysozyme from Ostrich Egg White

การแยกบริสุทธิ์และศึกษาคุณสมบัติบางประการของไลโซไซม์ชนิด G จากไข่ขาวของไข่นกกระจอกเทศ

มลฤดี กงชัยภูมิ ดาราพร เชื้ออ่อน ปรียานันท์ อันวิเศษ นิศาชล แจ้งพรมมา และ สมปอง คล้ายหนองสรวง*

In this research, a G-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white (OEWL) was purified by pH precipitation (pH 4.0 and 7.0) and CM-Toyopearl 650M cation-exchange column chromatography followed by Sephadex-G75 gel filtration. The SDS-PAGE technique was used to assure the protein purity and the molecular weight. The results indicated that purified OEWL had a molecular weight of 21 kDa, confirming that the purified enzyme is lysozyme, which can digest the bacterial cell wall as a substrate. An analysis by 2D-PAGE revealed that OEWL had an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.95. Then, the OEWL was further characterized in terms of optimum pH and temperature. The OEWL showed a broad range of optimum pH at 4 and 7, while the optimal temperature was 30 °C.  Based on preliminary results, it was found that the purified G-type lysozyme from ostrich egg white exhibited a maximum specific activity of 60.23 unit/mg and showed the enzyme activity value of 1680.30 unit. Regarding these results, these OEWL revealed the potential for application and development as alternative products in preventing bacterial infection. It also exhibited the compatibility to be utilized in cosmetic products such as anti-acne gel in the future.



Synthesis of Cu-Al Catalysts over Green SBA-15 from Corn Stack Ash for Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Methane

การสังเคราะห์ตัวเร่งปฏิกิริยาคอปเปอร์-อะลูมิเนียมบนตัวรองรับ SBA-15 ด้วยเถ้า จากลำต้นข้าวโพดเพื่อใช้ในปฏิกิริยาการรีดิวซ์ก๊าซไนตริกออกไซด์ด้วยก๊าซมีเทน

พรพรรณ น้ำค้าง* และ ไพศาล คงคาฉุยฉาย

The aim of this research are to synthesize a mesoporous SBA-15 and to be used as a catalytic support for a Cu-Al/SBA-15 catalyst for reduction of nitric oxide using methane as reducing agent. The SBA-15 was synthesized via a sol–gel process by using corn stack ash (CSA) as a main silica source. Cu-Al bimetal was loaded on the support by incipient wetness impregnation method. The mesoporous SBA-15 and the synthesized Cu-Al/25CSBA were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Surface Area and Pore Size Analyzer, Transmission Spectroscopy (TEM) and NH3- Temperature-Programmed Desorption (NH3-TPD). The results reveal that SBA-15 can be prepared directly from 25% CSA without changing CSA to sodium silicate before synthesis. Effects of various parameters of catalytic activities on reduction of nitric oxide a continuous packed bed reactor - bimetallic Cu-Al content, reaction temperature and time were studied. The results showed that the catalyst with bimetal loading of 20%wt. (20% Cu-Al/25CSBA) exhibited the highest catalytic activities with the average NO conversion of 93 %, and its activity was quite stable over 2 h period of reaction. The introduction of aluminium (Al) generatesd the acidic sites and enhanced the reduction of NO compared to that of Cu/SBA-15 and 25CSBA, respectively.



Catalytic conversion of ethanol to biojet over zeolite catalysts


สุวิมล ไทยน้อย พัสตราภรณ์ กิจศิริ และ อาทิตย์ อัศวสุขี*

Biojet can be produced from ethanol obtained by fermentation process via dehydration and other reactions as green alternative routes. HZSM-5 zeolite showed high activity in the conversion of ethanol to biojet, while other zeolites (HBeta, HMordenite, and HY) mainly formed ethylene. The HZSM-5 with a lower Si/Al ratio (high acid density) provided more biojet selectivity. Reaction temperature, W/F and ethanol concentration have a significant effect on the product distribution and catalytic activity. The optimum reaction conditions on the best catalyst (HZSM-5(11)) were found as follows; reaction temperature of 450 oC, W/F of 21.12 minutes and ethanol concentration of 99.5 % (v/v). Under such conditions, the selectivity of biojet was 43.77%. Generally, HZSM-5 zeolite can deactivate due to coke formation. After the catalyst regeneration, both the ethanol conversion and biojet selectivity were still maintained.



Quality of blended fuel prepared by mixing of diesel, bio-oil and emulsifier or ethanol using high speed and ultrasonic mixing

คุณภาพของเชื้อเพลิงผสมระหว่างน้ำมันดีเซลกับน้ำมันชีวภาพและอิมัลซิไฟเออร์หรือ เอทานอลโดยใช้วิธีปั่นผสมความเร็วรอบสูงและการใช้คลื่นอัลตร้าโซนิค

อาคม ปะหลามานิต* พรทิพย์ คงภักดี ปฏิภาณ สกุลกิจ และ ธรณิศวร์ ดีทายาท

The application of bio-oil obtained from biomass pyrolysis process with engine has limitations due to bio-oil has high viscosity and acidity, and high water content, while its heating value is low. Therefore, utilization of bio-oil in the form of blended fuel prepared by mixing with diesel is one of interesting way. However, producing of blended fuel with a good quality depends on many factors such as mixing methods, mixing conditions, type of emulsifiers and additives. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the quality of blended fuel prepared by mixing of diesel, bio-oil and emulsifiers or mixing of diesel, bio-oil and ethanol by using high speed and ultrasonic mixing methods. The bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis process of oil palm biomass was reduced the water content and then it was mixed with diesel at ratio of 5:90-94 % (wt.). The Span80, Tween80 or ethanol were used as emulsifiers and surfactant at the mixing ratio of 1-5 % (wt.). The prepared sample was mixed by high-speed blender and ultrasonic waves at frequency of 20 kHz. The quality of the blended fuel was determined in terms of phase separation both after mixing and during storage. The ultimate analysis, viscosity, pour point, cloud point, flash point, pH, ash content, density and higher heating value were also determined. The results showed that mixing methods, type of emulsifiers and mixing ratios had effects on the mixing quality both after mixing and during storage. Preparation of blended fuel by using ultrasonic waves provided the mixing quality better than using of high speed blender. The phase separation of blended fuel prepared by Span80 was slower than the use of Twee80 at all mixing ratios. The blended fuel that was mixed with ethanol had the mixing quality better than the use of emulsifiers. But, the blended fuel prepared with ethanol had the phase separation faster than using of emulsifiers. The determination of blended fuel properties revealed that the fuel property of blended fuel was similar to the diesel, except the color which was darker, following the color of bio-oil.



Ripe mango drying using solar-PV hybrid dryer


อดิศักดิ์ นาถกรณกุล นริส ประทินทอง กฤษณ์ อภิญญาวิศิษฐ์* และ สุวิทย์ แพงกันยา

This research proposed pv-hybrid solar dryer for small community enterprise that includes the principle of energy conservation using hot air recycle. The dryer was used to dry slices of mangos varieties “Nam Dok Mai” with initial moisture contents of 439.9-442.7% dry basis (d.b.). The proposed dryer was compared with traditional solar dryer. The final moisture content of both varieties of mango’s slides was set at 14 %d.b. The experimental results showed that recycling 80% hot air from the beginning of drying process delayed drying time, while recycling 80% hot air after the first day of drying shortened drying time. The pv-hybrid solar dryer dried “Nam Dok Mai” mango’s slides faster than the traditional dryer approximately 19 hours. The total color change (compared with fresh mango), hardness and adhesiveness of the mango dried by the pv-hybrid solar dryer were less than those dried by the traditional dryer. The water activity of dried mangoes from both dryers was less than 0.6 and safe for storage.



Heat transfer enhancement in a circular tube inserted with wavy twisted tape and alternate axes


อนุชา สายสร้อย* อุทัย ผ่องรัศมี ช่วงชัย ชุปวา และ จักรกฤษณ์ ขันทอง

This paper reports the experimental study on the heat transfer (Nusselt number, Nu), friction factor (f) and thermal enhancement factor (TEF) of a heat exchanger tube equipped with six types of tube inserts including 1) smooth surface twisted tape (STT), 2) wavy twisted tape (WTT), 3) smooth surface twisted tape and alternate axes (STTA), 4) wavy twisted tape and alternate axes (WTTA), 5) wavy/smooth/wavy twisted tape with alternate axes (WSW-TTA) and 6) smooth/wavy/smooth twisted tape with alternate axes, (SWS-TTA). The investigations were conducted using the twisted tapes with a constant twist ratio (y/W) = 3.0 for Reynolds number ranging from 4,000 to 8,000 under uniform heat flux condition. The experimental results demonstrated that the WTTA has a heat transfer performance of about 10 percent higher than that of the STT. At constant pumping power, the maximum thermal enhancement factor obtained is 1.12 by the use of WTTA inserts.