ISSN: 0125-2364, Online ISSN: 2586-9531

Volume 49 No.1 January-March 2021























Cloning of 1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Lactobacillus buchneri

การโคลนยีนที่ผลิตเอนไซม์ 1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase จาก Lactobacillus buchneri

พิทักษ์ ภูเนานิล โชติกา ฉัตรเกษม และ อัชฌา อรอินทร์*

Nowadays, Biofuel industry is growing rapidly, resulting in an increasing level of glycerol which is a byproduct from biofuel production. Glycerol can be converted to 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) which is a chemical precursor presenting in many industrial applications. In microbial metabolic pathway, dhaT encodes 1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-PDH), which leads to synthesis of 1,3-PD. In this study, dhaT gene from Lactobacillus buchneri was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then inserted into expression vector pET-28a(+) and subsequently introduced into Escherichia coli BL21. The correct transformants were screened by colony PCR and recombinant plasmid was isolated and sequenced. The result showed that the dhaT gene from L. buchneri was successfully cloned. The activity of 1,3-PDH was 154.228 mU/ml in recombinant E. coli while the activity of the same enzyme was 208.793 mU/ml in L. buchneri. The results suggest that the dhaT gene was successfully expressed in this work and might provide further knowledge to develop genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain for producing 1,3-PD from glycerol in the future.



Isolation and Selection of Copper Bioleaching Bacteria and Optimization using Response Surface Methodology on Copper Recovery from Discarded Printed Circuit Boards

การแยกและคัดเลือกแบคทีเรียที่มีความสามารถชะละลายทองแดง และสภาวะที่เหมาะสมด้วยวิธีพื้นผิวตอบสนองในการนำแร่โลหะทองแดง กลับมาใช้ใหม่จากผลิตภัณฑ์แผ่นวงจรพิมพ์ที่ถูกทิ้ง

ธัญลักษณ์ จุ่นหัวโทน ธีรศักดิ์ สมดี และชัชวาล อัยยาธิติ*

Discarded printed circuit board (PCB) is classified as an electronic waste containing high amounts of heavy metals. These elements pose a threat to human health and the environment. However, at the same time, such metals can generate high return income. This study uses biological leaching technology to leach the copper out of the printed circuit board. The bacteria with copper leachate ability were isolated and selected from soil and sediment samples. The bacterium isolate FM-3 was found to have this ability. Based on the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was found that the bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas stutzeri strain FM-3. The optimum conditions were determined using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Box-Behnken Design experiment set was used to investigate the effects of three factors, including the pulp density, bacterial cell density and temperature. It was found that these three factors influence the optimum conditions for leaching of copper from printed circuit boards. The data of the experimental set were appropriate for predicting the optimum conditions for copper leaching because it gives a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.988).



Development of Antigen Preparation for Detecting Chicken Antibodies Directed Against Salmonella Enteritidis by Using Rapid Slide Agglutination

การพัฒนาการเตรียมแอนติเจนสำหรับการตรวจไก่ที่มีแอนติบอดีต่อเชื้อ Salmonella Enteritidis ด้วยวิธี Rapid Slide Agglutination

รุ่งโรจน์ แจ่มอ้น ภัทรา มูลจิตร ปัณณ์ พนมวัลย์ Sysavath Syhalath ณภัทร ปัญญาวรรณ พงศกร ศรีจันทรา มณทิพย์ ยิ้มเจริญ สมภพ เพริศพรายวงศ์ นวลอนงค์ สินวัต อรวรรณ บุตรดี และ นรินทร์ อุประกรินทร์*

The aim of this study was to develop antigen preparation methods of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) for rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and to compare the methods between SE formalin inactivation and SE alcohol inactivation. Three groups of serum samples were prepared, including group 1 60 serum samples originated from healthy SE-negative chickens, group 2 20 serum samples originated from chickens injected with SE killed antigen, and group 3 20 serum samples originated from chickens infected with SE (106 CFU/bird). The result showed that all 60 serum samples from group 1 were tested and negative (100%) for RSA with either SE formalin inactivated antigen or SE alcohol inactivated antigen. In group 2, all serum samples were positive (100%) for RSA with SE formalin inactivated antigen and 19 samples were positive (95%) for RSA with SE alcohol inactivated antigen. In group 3 19 serum samples were positive (95%) for RSA with SE formalin inactivated antigens and 16 serum samples were positive (80%) for RSA with SE alcohol inactivated antigen. Furthermore, for testing a cross reactivity with S. Typhimurium (ST), the serum samples originated from either chickens injected with killed ST antigen or infected with ST (106 CFU/bird) were tested RSA with the antigen prepared and the result found that all serum samples were reacted to RSA with SE formalin inactivated antigen lower than to RSA with SE alcohol inactivated antigen (p<0.05). Finally, serum samples originated from 3 chicken flocks raised commercially with healthy and SE infected conditions were tested RSA with the antigen prepared and gave specific results for both healthy and infected flocks. In conclusion, RSA with SE formalin-inactivated antigens gave better results than the test with SE alcohol-inactivated antigens and both SE antigens prepared could be practically used with RSA for detecting the serum samples originated from the SE infected chicken flock.



Product Development of Rice Seasoning (Furikake) from Fish and Crispy Fried Seabass (Lates calcarifer) Skin

การพัฒนาผลิตภัณฑ์ผงโรยข้าว (ฟูริคาเกะ) จากปลาผสมหนังปลากะพงขาวทอดกรอบ

นพรัตน์ มะเห* ดลฤดี พิชัยรัตน์ และ นัฎฐา คเชนทร์ภักดี

The utilization of small piece of crispy fried fish skin, waste from crispy fried fish skin process, was the objective of this study. Moreover, it was for highest benefit of utilization and new product development. This product was developed for consumers who want products that was convenient to consume. The study on suitable content of seasoned dried fish meat for protein supplement, suitable content of dried carrot for dietary fiber supplement, suitable content of crispy fried fish skin and quality of product were investigated. For result, it was showed that suitable basic formula for protein supplement composed of 28 % seasoned dried fish meat, 7% dried vegetable, 13% white sesame, 13% black sesame 7% soy sauce, 3% sugar, 2% salt, 6% dried seasoned seaweed, 15% water and 6 % seasoned powder (no MSG). The suitable content of dried carrot and crispy fried fish skin were 8% and 11%, respectively. Proximate compositions of this product were 3.19% moisture, 11.43% ash, 35.55% protein, 7.81% fat, 1.03% crude fiber and 41.76% total carbohydrate. The Energy and water activity were 380.59 kcal/100g and 0.242, respectively. Overall liking score of developed product was 8.63 which showed the acceptation of the product. Then rice seasoning (Furikake) from fish and crispy fried fish skin was alternative product for consumer who want to consume nutritional added food. Moreover, this product was a guide for manufacturers to produce more diverse products.



Classification of Poisonous Mushroom Base on Morphological Characteristics and Indigenous Knowledge at Ubon Ratchathani Province

การจำแนกเห็ดพิษด้วยลักษณะทางสัณฐานวิทยาและภูมิปัญญาท้องถิ่น ในจังหวัดอุบลราชธานี

ขวัญุเรือน นาคสุวรรณ์กุล* อัจจิมา ทองบ่อ ชุลีพร จันทรเสนา โชติกา องอาจณรงค์ เสนีย์ พลราช สิทธิพร ปานเม่น ณัฐกานต์ หนูรุ่น สุจิตรา สิกพันธ์ และศิริวรรณ ลือดัง

Poisonous and edible mushrooms can be found annually in the dry dipterocarp and community forests during rainy season in the northeast and north of Thailand. The annual report obtained from the Department of Disease Control reported that local people eating poisonous mushrooms are sick and may result in death. Aims of this study were to investigate and collect morphological data for species identification of poisonous mushrooms in surveillance area. Mushroom samples were obtained from dry dipterocarp and community forests that the villagers collect for sale in the local market. The data were collected between June 2019 and July 2020 at Khemarat, Buntharik, Si Mueang Mai and Nachaluay districts of Ubon Ratchathani Province. Poisonous mushroom samples were identified in laboratory by using morphological and other important characters as well as the indigenous knowledge. The result revealed that twenty one taxa was identified into 10 genera and 10 families. Some species are morphologically similar to edible species such as Hed Muk Jeen (Inosperma cf. virosum) similar to Hed Puk Jik (Termitomyces clypeatus). Therefore, it is necessary to take precautions for harvesting the wild mushrooms for eat themself and sale, including for boosting community surveillance.



Diagame: A Fun Application for Improving Logical Thinking

ไดอะเกม: แอปพลิเคชันสำหรับส่งเสริมการคิดเชิงตรรกะ

พีระศักดิ์ เพียรประสิทธิ์* และ อังศุมาลี สุทธภักติ

Logical thinking is an important foundational skill of programming. The purposes of this research were to develop an application for improved systematic and logical thinking using gamification concepts and to evaluate the effectiveness of this application by using a questionnaire for assessing user satisfaction. The design of the application was based on a concept of mission-based game such as a timer, score, badge, and leaderboard to make it interesting. Furthermore, lessons were divided into stages, and each stage was progressively harder than its predecessor. This application was developed as a web application by using Node.js and Google Cloud Firestore. A questionnaire in five scales was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the applications. The sample group used for testing was a group of 131 freshmen students in software engineering program. The results showed that the average user satisfaction of the application version 2, in 2020, was 4.24 (S.D. = 0.93), higher than that of the application version 1, in 2019, 3.70 (S.D. = 1.02). Therefore, the evaluation results indicate that the current application quality was improved compared with the previous application quality. The application version 2 was improved in the backend and frontend parts. In the backend, the administrator can manage the questions and answers of lessons and adjust difficult levels of questions. There is a dashboard of usage statistics. In the frontend, the application displays a tutorial to users in the first game. During playing game, users can view the score values and send the feedbacks to the administrator.



Prediction of Factors Affecting Consumer's Decision to Buy Products Via an Online Application


เกรียง กิจบำรุงรัตน์

At present, the advancement of technology makes e-commerce business in Thailand is growing steadily. The consumers can quickly and easily access the Internet at their fingertips. The business operators in various businesses see E-Commerce as the significant sales channel to reach consumers, especially E-Commerce through applications as it is easy to use, there are various payment systems, including a product management system and delivery to the destination and payment collection, which facilitates consumers to get convenience and confidence in the ordering system via online applications. The research aimed to study the prediction of factors affecting consumer's decision to buy products via an online application with having a marketing mix factor 7Ps as independent variables, namely, product, price, distribution channel, marketing promotion, technology acceptance, safety and reliability, and personal service. The dependent variable is the decision to make buying decision via online application by using factor analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis. The research results for the prediction of factors affecting consumer's decision to buy products via an online application by using the factors obtained from the classification from Factor Score analysis can be used in Multiple Regression Analysis with statistical significance at 0.05 level. There are 4 factors as follows: 1) Product, Distribution Channel and Technology Acceptance, 2) Safety and Reliability, 3) Price, Quality and Product Variety in Applications, as well as punctuality in product delivery 4) Public relations, communication with consumers and the reputation of the applications. The multiple regression model will be obtained as follows: buying decisions through online applications are as follow product, distribution channels and technology adoption = 1.68 + 0.027, product, distribution channel and technology acceptance + 0.032 safety and reliability + 0.036 price, quality and product variety in applications, as well as punctuality in product delivery + 0.047 public relations, communication with consumers and the reputation of the applications.



Utilization of Coconut Fiber in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures


จันดี จิน และ ณัฐภรณ์ เจริญธรรม*

In this study, coconut fiber of 5-20 mm-long with various contents of 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% incorporated with AC60/70 and 12.5 mm NMAS were used to prepare mixtures for SMA. Properties of mixture including volumetric properties, Marshall Stability, draindown, and TSR were determined and investigated. The results revealed that mixture containing 0.3% of 5-20 mm-long coconut fiber yielded to the optimum requirements. With this coconut fiber content, there was a significant improvement of properties with higher Marshall Stability by 10.52% and lower draindown by 55.35% compared to mixture containing 0% coconut fiber. Moreover, 0.3% of coconut fiber provides the highest. The finding of this study may offer the alternative choices for local authority to have more materials to consider for pavements construction.



Preparation of Potassium Supported on Al-SBA-15 For Transesterification of Palm Oil

การเตรียมโพแทสเซียมบนตัวรองรับ Al-SBA-15 สำหรับปฏิกิริยาทรานส์เอสเทอริฟิเคชันของน้ำมันปาล์ม

นพวรรณ บุญเทียม ศิริพร โกษาวัฒนกุล และ จตุพร วิทยาคุณ*

There are several studies on transesterification using heterogeneous catalysts consisting of potassium on porous materials. However, the effect of the support pore size is still not cleared. This work focuses on the application of mesoporous material, Al-SBA-15 as support for potassium. From hydrothermal synthesis, the phase of Al-SBA-15 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mesoporous morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, the mesoporous structure of Al-SBA-15 collapsed after impregnation with potassium acetate buffer and calcination. In the transesterification of palm oil, K/Al-SBA-15 was an active catalyst, providing the biodiesel yield of about 40% according to the product separation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). With the collapse of Al-SBA-15, the role of the support pore size was not yet clearly identified.



Comparison of Solutions of One-and Two-Temperature 2D Gas Dynamics Models


ปิยะนุช ศิริวัฒน์* Yurii N. Grigoriev and Sergey V. Meleshko

The two- temperature gas 2D dynamics equations with the Landau-Teller equation are considered in the paper. The group analysis method is applied to the study these equations. An admitted Lie group is found and an optimal system of two-dimensional subalgebras is constructed. Using the optimal system all representations of nonequivalent solutions reducing to a system of ordinary differential equations can be obtained. A detailed analysis of two sets of invariant solutions is given. Comparison of these solutions with solutions of the classical gas dynamics equations is performed in the paper.



Effects of Varieties and Environments on Quality and Antioxidants of Tomato


นิรุจน์ คำจุมพล สุดชล วุ้นประเสริฐ และ ฐิติพร มะชิโกวา*

Tomato is an abundant source of bioactive compounds including vitamin A, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant content in tomato is dependent on several factors including genetic and environments (temperature, light intensity and humidity). The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in the antioxidants of tomato varieties under different greenhouse conditions. Nine tomato varieties comprised of three cherry tomatoes and six non–cherry tomatoes were investigated for yield quality and antioxidant content under two greenhouse conditions i.e. evaporation greenhouse (E1) and uncontrollable condition greenhouse (E2). In each greenhouse condition, the experimental design was a RCBD with three replications. Data collection included fruit color index, total soluble solids (TSS), lycopene and antioxidant activity. The results showed that both genotypes (9 varieties) and environments were significantly affected all traits. TSS, lycopene and antioxidant activities of tomatoes grown under E1 was higher than E2. For genetic effects, it revealed that TSS of cherry was higher than non–cherry tomatoes. The highest lycopene contents in E1 and E2 environments were found in Loog Too (12.22 and 5.83 mg/100 g FW, respectively) and Ranger (13.11 and 4.38 mg/100 g FW). In addition, Sweet Cherry 154 and Sweet Boy had the highest antioxidant activities in E1 (74.58 and 76.36 µM TE/100g FW, respectively). Lycopene content had a positive correlation with fruit redness (a*) but had no significant correlation with antioxidant activity.



Infusion Starter Culture-Based as a Model for Pilot Scale of Bradyrhizobial Inoculant Production


บิดู อภัยโส Siviengkhek Phommalath พรรณลดา ติตตะบุตร นันทกร บุญเกิด และ หนึ่ง เตียอำรุง*

Bradyrhizobium is bacteria that benefits to legume plant under symbiosis condition. This process is widely recognized as biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to develop a simple technique with a low number of starter cell culture preparation for producing various types of high-quality bradyrhizobial inoculant. In this study, the starter culture of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 was manually prepared to obtain the final cell concentrations starting from 10 to 106 CFU/unit. The lowest amount of cell that could be able to grow and increase the cell number in different types of inoculant was observed. It was found that the number of cells starting at the concentration of 10 CFU/unit could be able to grow and increase to more than 108 CFU/unit at 14, 21, and 14 days after inoculation (dai) in liquid-, peat-, and encapsulation-inoculants, respectively. Therefore, final cell suspension at the concentration of 10 CFU/unit was used in this study for inoculant production. The syringe- and peristaltic-pumps were incorporated with a model for pilot scale to create the micro-injection of starter culture at 10 cells/unit on different inoculant types. The results showed that all types of inoculants produced by this technique could maintain the shelf-life of inoculants for at least 3 months. This is the first demonstration of the diluent with a very low amount of starter culture. Thus, this process could be applied further for high-quality bradyrhizobial inoculant on large scale with low cost production.



Effects of Light-Emitting Diodes on Seed Germination and the Accumulation of Phenolic Content in Sprouts

ผลของไดโอดเปล่งแสงต่อความงอกของเมล็ด และการสะสมปริมาณฟีนอลิกในต้นอ่อนพืช

สุธิดา รอกกระโทก สุดชล วุ้นประเสริฐ แหวนพลอย จินากูล และ ฐิติพร มะชิโกวา*

Light–emitting diodes (LEDs) are a new type of energy-saving light source with the potential to revolutionize horticultural lighting technology for crop production. They can induce the germination and synthesis of bioactive compounds, which may improve the nutritional values and antioxidant properties of sprouts. This study aimed to investigate the combination of red (630 nm) and blue light (470 nm) from LEDs, with different light intensities on seed germination and accumulation of antioxidants in sprouts. Rice, mungbean, sunflower and sesame seeds were germinated under a combination of red and blue LED lights (7:3) at three light intensities (420, 200 and 145 µmol/m2/s) using dark condition as control. The results revealed that germinated rice and sunflower seeds cultivated under the combination of red and blue LEDs at a light intensity of 145 µmol/m2/s showed the highest α–amylase activity and total phenolic content. In addition, a high germination percentage of these crops was found at light intensities of 200 and 145 µmol/m2/s. Therefore, the combination of LED light at an intensity of 145–200 µmol/m2/s could be used to improve the α–amylase activity and germination of seeds and total phenolic content in sprouts.